Presentation on theme: "Rao Zhenhui (Professor PhD)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rao Zhenhui (Professor PhD) Reconciling Communicative Approaches to the Grammar-Translation MethodsRao Zhenhui (Professor PhD)
2 Speech outline Development of the Grammar-Translation Method (G-T) Characteristics of the G-TDevelopment of Communicative Approaches (C-A)Characteristics of the C-AComparison between the G-T Method and C-A Approaches
3 Speech outline Traditional Chinese Education Effect of Traditional Chinese Education on EFL TeachingReasons for Using C-A in the Chinese ContextSome Unsatisfactory Results and Obstacles in Using C-A in ChinaHow to Reconcile C-A to the G-TA Sample Unit Integrating C-A with G-T in Reading Classes
4 Development of the Grammar-Translation Method The 16th century — the 1840sThe 1840s — the 1940sThe 1940s —
5 Characteristics of the Grammar-Translation Method Classes are taught in the mother tongue.Vocabulary is taught through bilingual word list.Sentences are the basic units of teaching.Reading and writing are the focus, with little attention to speaking or listening.Grammar is taught deductively.Accuracy is emphasized
6 Development of Communicative Approaches BackgroundChomsky’s generative-transformational grammar theoryBritish applied linguistics’ (Wilkins, Halliday, Widdowson, Candlin, Christopher Brumfit, Keith Johnson) emphasis on function of languageRapid application of these ideas by textbook writers
7 Development of Communicative Approaches Rapid acceptance of these new ideas by British language teaching specialists, curriculum development centers, and even governmentChanging educational realities in Europe
8 Characteristics of the Communicative Approaches Student-centeredEmphasis on meaning and function rather than on language formsEmphasis on communicative competenceUsing English to learn it (strong version.) / Learning to use English (weak version).Avoiding using the mother tongue
9 Comparison between the G-T Method and C-A Approaches G-T: Attention to form and structureC-A: Attention to Meaning and communicationG-T: Emphasis on memorizationC-A: Emphasis on usingG-T: Teaching without contextualizationC-A: Teaching within contextualization
10 Comparison between the G-T Method and C-A Approaches G-T: Excessive emphasis on grammatical rulesC-A: Avoiding providing explicit grammar rulesG-T: Excessive emphasis on translationC-A: Avoiding using translationG-T: Emphasis on reading and writingC-A: Emphasis on listening and speaking
11 Comparison between the G-T Method and C-A Approaches G-T: Focus on linguistic competenceC-A: Focus on communicative competenceG-T: Emphasis on accuracyC-A: Emphasis on fluencyG-T: Extensive use of pattern drillsC-A: Peripheral use of drilling
12 Comparison between the G-T Method and C-A Approaches G-T: Extensive use of mother tongueC-A: Avoiding using mother tongueG-T: Teacher-centeredC-A: Student-centered
13 Traditional Chinese Education What does learning mean?It is always useful to open a book(开卷有益）.When the time comes to use you knowledge, you will regret how little you have read（书到用时方恨少）.
14 Traditional Chinese Education What is correct way of learning?Learning without thought brings ensnarement. Though without learning totters.(学而不思则罔，思而不学则殆。）Say yes, when you know; say no when you don’t.(知之为知之，不知为不知，是知也。）
15 Traditional Chinese Education What are the requirements of a teacher?Being a model for people to follow.(为人师表）Passing on knowledge.Showing students through the door.
16 Traditional Chinese Education Why is review so important?By reviewing the old, one learns the new.(温故而知新。）When one can memorize 300 Tang poems, he is sure to be able to compose poems of his own even though he is not a poet.
17 Effect of Traditional Chinese Education on EFL Teaching Concentration on intensive reading.Use of memorization and rote learning.Meticulous emphasis on linguistic details and lack of attention to communicative skills.Use of translation as a teaching and learning strategy.Teacher’s authority and students’ passive role.
18 Reasons for Using C-A in the Chinese Context? The goal of EFL teaching is to develop communicative competence (Hymes, 1972).Activities involving authentic communication promotes learning (Allright, 1984).The process of communication is a learning process (Allright, 1984).
19 Reasons for Using C-A in the Chinese Context? Involving students to learn is effective (Stevick, 1976).Meaningful interaction is of crucial importance for language learning (Pica, 1987).
20 Some Unsatisfactory Results from Using C-A Regarding C-A as ridiculous and inappropriate;Refusing to sit in a circle and speak English;Regarding playing games as entertainment;Preferring to attend lectures on intensive reading and grammar and take conventional exams.
21 Obstacles in Applying C-A in China Higher demand placed on teachers.Opposite to traditional Chinese education pattern.Evaluation systemFinancial resources
22 How to Reconcile C-A to the G-T Linguistic competence — Communicative competence;Pattern drills — Meaning and function;Accuracy — Fluency;Student-centered — Teacher as facilitator;Use of target language — Use of the mother tongue
23 A Sample Unit Integrating C-A with G-T in Reading Classes Class Composition: The class consists of 30 first-year university students;Teaching objectives:Challenge students to use the language skills by engaging them in meaningful activities;Move students away from a focus on language forms to independent use of the language skills.
24 Methods and Materials Methods: Incorporate aspects of C-A and the G-T. Materials: Reading passages are selected from various sources: Leisure, Health, Marriage, Religion, the Environment, Tourism, Agriculture, etc..
25 Sessions 1 and 2 Aims of these two sessions: Help students understand the passages by explaining linguistic details and its background;Enable students to practice the language skills they have acquired.
26 Sessions 1 and 2: Teaching Vocabulary Three steps in the teaching of vocabulary:Unlock (e.g., using “activating semantic memory”, Statman, 1981);Recycle (e.g., using “word trees”, Underhill, 1980);Extend students vocabulary (e.g., using “cloze dictogloss”, Rinvolucri, 1984)
27 Sessions 1 and 2: Teaching Grammar 1. Teaching grammar as meaninga. Xiaodan put the book in the box.b. Xiaodan put the book on the box.2. Teaching grammar as social functiona. (Will/would) you open the door?b. (Can/could) I talk to you for a minute?
28 Sessions 3 : A sample Series of Activities Stage 1. Information transfer posterReading (I) Poster production (SG)Stage 2. Information exchange and writingDiscussion (G) Writing (I) Peer editing (P)Stage 3. Information synthesisReading (P) Discussion (G) Cloze (I)
29 Notes for Sessions 3 Note: I = individual; P = in pair; SG = sub-group;G = group