Presentation on theme: "Latin LATIN LATIN LATIN. All the grammatical terms so far discussed apply to Latin as well as they do to English. The present tense of porto meaning I."— Presentation transcript:
Latin LATIN LATIN LATIN
All the grammatical terms so far discussed apply to Latin as well as they do to English. The present tense of porto meaning I carry - Number Singular Plural 1 st porto – I carry portamus – we carry 2 nd portas – you carry portatis – you carry 3 rd portat – he, she it carries portant – they carry Note that the English pronouns – I, you, he etc do not appear in the Latin as separate words. Instead they are contained in the ending of the verb. So the ending o means I; as – you (singular); at – he, she, it etc. The port part of the verb (the stem) is the bit that means carry.
CONJUGATIONS Latin verbs are arranged into different groups according to the endings they use. These groups are called conjugations, and there are five conjugations. Porto is a first conjugation verb. All first conjugation verbs use the same endings as each other – so they all use the endings – o (I), as (you s), at (he, she or it), amus (we), atis (you pl) and ant (they) – when forming the present tense. Other 1 st conjugation verbs include - Neco – I kill Paro – I prepare Servo – I save Oppugno – I attack Ambulo – I walk Amo – I love
Analysis of Verbs Portant =3 rd person plural =They carry Necas =2 nd person singular =You (s) kill Ambulamus =We walk Parat =3 rd person singular =He, she or it prepares Servatis =2 nd person plural =You (pl) save Oppugno =1 st person singular =I attack Amant =3 rd person plural =They love, like 1 st person plural =
Nouns Like verbs, Latin nouns also have endings. These endings indicate the number (singular / plural) of the noun, and also the role that the noun plays in the sentence – i.e. whether the noun is the subject or the object of the sentence. Again like the verbs, Latin nouns belong to different groups. These groups are called declensions. A noun will use particular endings according to the declension it belongs to. There are five declensions. However, for the sake of simplicity only the first two declensions will be looked at here.
The First Declension First declension nouns such as puella, meaning girl, use the following endings – puellaThe a ending is used when the noun is singular and the subject of the sentence puellamThe ending am is used when the noun is singular and the object of the sentence. puellaeThe ending ae is used when the noun is plural and the subject of the sentence. puellasThe ending as is used when the noun is plural and the object of the sentence.
The Second Declension Second declension nouns such as servus, meaning slave, use the following endings. servusThe ending us is used when the noun is singular and the subject of the sentence. servumThe ending um is used when the noun is singular and the object of the sentence. servi servos The ending i is used when the noun is plural and the subject of the sentence. The ending os is used when the noun is plural and the object of the sentence.
Cases When a noun is carrying out a particular function in a sentence, such as being the subject or the object, it will be in one of a number of cases. When a noun is the subject it will in what is called the nominative case. When the noun is the object it will be in the accusative case. Therefore a, us, ae and i are nominative case endings. And am, um, as and os are accusative case endings.