Presentation on theme: "Notes for Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3. Latin is an inflected language… … which means we have to look at the ends of words to know what role a word will."— Presentation transcript:
Notes for Stage 1, Stage 2, and Stage 3
Latin is an inflected language… … which means we have to look at the ends of words to know what role a word will play in a sentence. This means that the endings of words will change as the role the word has in a sentence changes.
Noun: Definition: a person, place, thing or idea. There are 5 groups of nouns in Latin, with a specific set of endings for each group. We will learn 3 of them in Latin 1. A group of nouns is called a declension.
Nominative Case The person, place, thing or idea that is performing the verb in a sentence is called a subject. Subjects in Latin end in –us, -a, or have an irregular ending which we will indicate with a *. When a noun is wearing the subject ending, it is said to be in the nominative case, which is just a way of saying that it is in the form that makes it the subject of a verb.
Examples: 1 st declension subjects wear an –a: Metella, culina, via 2 nd declension subjects wear a –us. Caecilius, Quintus, servus, amicus 3 rd declension subjects do not have a standard ending and varies a great deal. (Remember, we will indicate these with a *) Grumio, canis, mercator, Clemens, pater
Accusative Case The person, place, thing or idea that the verb is happening to is called a direct object. Direct objects in Latin end in -am, -um, or -em. When a noun is wearing the direct object ending, it is said to be in the accusative case, which is just a way of saying that it is in the form that makes it the direct object of a verb.
Examples: 1 st declension direct objects wear an –am: Metellam, culinam, viam 2 nd declension direct objects wear a –um. Caecilium, Quintum, servum, amicum 3 rd declension direct objects wear an –em, and sometimes change their spelling. Grumionem, canem, mercatorem, Clementem, patrem
Practice Identify the subject and the direct object in each sentence: 1. Caecilius pecuniam numerat. 2. ancilla hortum intrat. 3. mercator canem audit. 4. dominus ancillam laudat. 5. Clemens vinum portat. 6. Metella mercatorem salutat.