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CH 1 COLONIES IN THE WILDERNESS. CANADA THE LAND.

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Presentation on theme: "CH 1 COLONIES IN THE WILDERNESS. CANADA THE LAND."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH 1 COLONIES IN THE WILDERNESS

2 CANADA THE LAND

3 LAND OF YESTERDAY Why Europeans came to N. America.

4 UPPER AND LOWER CANADA AMERICAN REVOLUTION AMERICAN REVOLUTION HOMESTEADS LOYALISTS

5 IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CLASS UPPER CLASS/FAMILY COMPACT –Snobbish - Wanted life to be like Britain. –Made up the Executive Council (budgets & appointments) Problem - people needed their neighbors. –Servants hard to come by. –Resentment of the wealthy. – Barter economy. UPPER CLASS/FAMILY COMPACT –Snobbish - Wanted life to be like Britain. –Made up the Executive Council (budgets & appointments) Problem - people needed their neighbors. –Servants hard to come by. –Resentment of the wealthy. – Barter economy.

6 The Problem Of Land Good land already taken. –False advertisement. Land Speculators –Blocked development. Clergy & Crown Reserves –Also blocked development. Good land already taken. –False advertisement. Land Speculators –Blocked development. Clergy & Crown Reserves –Also blocked development. Advertised Reality

7 THE IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCE First Nations land issues. Coffin Ships –Deadly Journeys. –Ships Made for cargo. – Steerage = poor immigrants. –Over a month per voyage. Illness - In 1832 half immigrants arrived ill. Multiculturalism in pioneer Canada - racism Black Canadians - Loyalists brought slavery. –Banned by land for loyalty. – Underground Railway. First Nations land issues. Coffin Ships –Deadly Journeys. –Ships Made for cargo. – Steerage = poor immigrants. –Over a month per voyage. Illness - In 1832 half immigrants arrived ill. Multiculturalism in pioneer Canada - racism Black Canadians - Loyalists brought slavery. –Banned by land for loyalty. – Underground Railway.

8 THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD HARRIET TUBMAN THOMAS GARRETT

9 US SLAVERY

10 WOMEN IN UPPER CANADA Expectations, lifestyle, prejudices, and beliefs depended on class. Did not own property. Worked at home. Marriage = status. –Spinsters. –Love????? Hard workers - Home and Garden. Hazardous childbirth. Expectations, lifestyle, prejudices, and beliefs depended on class. Did not own property. Worked at home. Marriage = status. –Spinsters. –Love????? Hard workers - Home and Garden. Hazardous childbirth.

11 COLONIAL GOVERNMENT AND THE NEED FOR REFORM KEY TERMS Representative Government - representatives are elected by the people to make laws on their behalf. Responsible Government - if representatives don’t deliver they can be voted out. Democratic Government - For the people by the people. Both representative and responsible. Oligarchy - power is put in the hands of a small group of rich people. ie Colonial Government of 1791.

12 1791 CONSTITUTION ACT Divided Upper and Lower Can. Councils are appointed Assemblies are elected Councils were wealthy Councils could veto any laws proposed by the assemblies. Divided Upper and Lower Can. Councils are appointed Assemblies are elected Councils were wealthy Councils could veto any laws proposed by the assemblies. KEY ISSUES

13 LIST OF GRIEVANCES The assembly wanted $ spent on ordinary people. (ie.schools, roads,) –Council spent $ on wealthy issues (ie canals and ignored land use issues) Land Speculators / Clergy Reserves. The assembly wanted $ spent on ordinary people. (ie.schools, roads,) –Council spent $ on wealthy issues (ie canals and ignored land use issues) Land Speculators / Clergy Reserves. UPPER CANADALOWER CANADA -Still upset with English domination. -Language and cultural issues. -Wanted democracy like the U.S.A. -Power structure still based on old seigneurial system. -Eng = Fr. = English immigration hurt French culture. -French farming taxes increased

14 THE ROAD TO REBELLION UPPER CANADA LOWER CANADA Robert Gourlay - made a list of grievances and was arrested and sent out of country. RADICAL William Lyon Mackenzie took on fight against the Family Compact. Fierce competitor. Leader of reform movement. MODERATES Ryerson & Baldwin wanted to fight also but encouraged debate and negotiations. Joseph Papineau - leader of the radical French reformers. James Craig - anti-French governor. Tried to unite Upper and Lower Canada so French would become a minority. -quashed by French. By 1832, Papineau’s reformers submitted “92 Resolutions”. Its was refused and Patriotes would rebel.

15 IN THE U.S.A. THIS WOULD LEAD TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION –Democracy –Republic –Boston Tea Party –Quartering Act –“Shot heard around the world” –Patriotes vs. Loyalists –George Washington –Declaration of Independence –Democracy –Republic –Boston Tea Party –Quartering Act –“Shot heard around the world” –Patriotes vs. Loyalists –George Washington –Declaration of Independence IN CANADA ……

16 PLANET OF THE APES Approved by:

17 THE REBELLIONS OF 1837 Upper and Lower reformers joined forces. - strength in numbers. Attempts from within failed and revolts were planned. LOWER CANADA The Fils de la Liberte (Sons of Liberty) attacked first in Lower Can. - the Catholic Church backed Britain and attack fizzled. - Papineau escaped to the U.S.A. UPPER CANADA Mackenzie armed & trained men but lacked experience. He attacked when soldiers went to defend Lower Canada but again the rebellion failed. Mackenzie escaped to the U.S.A, dressed as a woman. Upper and Lower reformers joined forces. - strength in numbers. Attempts from within failed and revolts were planned. LOWER CANADA The Fils de la Liberte (Sons of Liberty) attacked first in Lower Can. - the Catholic Church backed Britain and attack fizzled. - Papineau escaped to the U.S.A. UPPER CANADA Mackenzie armed & trained men but lacked experience. He attacked when soldiers went to defend Lower Canada but again the rebellion failed. Mackenzie escaped to the U.S.A, dressed as a woman. REBELLIONS = FAILURE Papineau Mackenzie

18 PUNISHING THE REBELS 7 YEARS IN BERMUDA/TASMANIA - Convict Ships (conditions) - Slave Labour in plantations - Starvation rations. Floggings Hangings

19 LORD DURHAM’S REPORT TWO MAIN ISSUES: – Join colonies together. – Responsible government. TWO MAIN ISSUES: – Join colonies together. – Responsible government. Wanted to pardon rebels but was denied. Disliked by French as his goal was for the English to overrun the French culture. In 1840, the Act of Union united Upper and Lower Canada. FYI

20 Hierarchy of Power 1840 Act of Union UPPER & LOWER CANADA NOW = ONE ASSEMBLY The French felt this was an attack on their culture Constitution Act In 1840 no Upper & Lower Canada as seen here

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