3 LAND OF YESTERDAY Why Europeans came to N. America.
4 UPPER AND LOWER CANADAAMERICANREVOLUTIONLOYALISTSHOMESTEADS
5 IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL CLASS UPPER CLASS/FAMILY COMPACTSnobbish - Wanted life to be like Britain.Made up the Executive Council (budgets & appointments)Problem - people needed their neighbors.Servants hard to come by.Resentment of the wealthy.Barter economy.
6 The Problem Of Land Good land already taken. Land Speculators False advertisement.Land SpeculatorsBlocked development.Clergy & Crown ReservesAlso blocked development.AdvertisedReality
7 THE IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCE First Nations land issues.Coffin ShipsDeadly Journeys.Ships Made for cargo.Steerage = poor immigrants.Over a month per voyage.Illness - In 1832 half immigrants arrived ill.Multiculturalism in pioneer Canada - racismBlack Canadians - Loyalists brought slavery.Banned by land for loyalty.Underground Railway.
8 THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD HARRIETTUBMANTHOMASGARRETT
10 WOMEN IN UPPER CANADAExpectations, lifestyle, prejudices, and beliefs depended on class.Did not own property.Worked at home.Marriage = status.Spinsters.Love?????Hard workers - Home and Garden.Hazardous childbirth.
11 COLONIAL GOVERNMENT AND THE NEED FOR REFORM KEY TERMSRepresentative Government - representatives are elected by the people to make laws on their behalf.Responsible Government - if representatives don’t deliver they can be voted out.Democratic Government - For the people by the people. Both representative and responsible.Oligarchy - power is put in the hands of a small group of rich people. ie Colonial Government of 1791.
12 1791 CONSTITUTION ACT KEY ISSUES Divided Upper and Lower Can. Councils are appointedAssemblies are electedCouncils were wealthyCouncils could veto any laws proposed by the assemblies.
13 LIST OF GRIEVANCESUPPER CANADALOWER CANADAThe assembly wanted $ spent on ordinary people. (ie.schools, roads,)Council spent $ on wealthy issues (ie canals and ignored land use issues)Land Speculators / Clergy Reserves.Still upset with English domination.Language and cultural issues.Wanted democracy like the U.S.A.Power structure still based on old seigneurial system.Eng = Fr. =English immigration hurt French culture.French farming taxes increased
14 THE ROAD TO REBELLION LOWER CANADA UPPER CANADA Joseph Papineau - leaderof the radical Frenchreformers.James Craig - anti-French governor. Tried to uniteUpper and Lower Canada soFrench would become a minority.-quashed by French.By 1832, Papineau’s reformers submitted “92 Resolutions”. Its was refused and Patriotes would rebel.Robert Gourlay - made alist of grievances and was arrested and sent out of country.RADICALWilliam Lyon Mackenzie took on fight against the Family Compact. Fierce competitor.Leader of reform movement.MODERATESRyerson & Baldwin wanted to fight also but encourageddebate and negotiations.
15 IN THE U.S.A. THIS WOULD LEAD TO THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION DemocracyRepublicBoston Tea PartyQuartering Act“Shot heard around the world”Patriotes vs. LoyalistsGeorge WashingtonDeclaration of IndependenceIN CANADA ……
17 THE REBELLIONS OF 1837 REBELLIONS = FAILURE Papineau Mackenzie Upper and Lower reformers joined forces.- strength in numbers.Attempts from within failed and revolts were planned.LOWER CANADAThe Fils de la Liberte (Sons of Liberty) attacked first in Lower Can.- the Catholic Church backed Britain and attack fizzled.- Papineau escaped to the U.S.A.UPPER CANADAMackenzie armed & trained men but lacked experience. He attacked when soldiers went to defend Lower Canada but again the rebellion failed.Mackenzie escaped to the U.S.A, dressed as a woman.PapineauREBELLIONS = FAILUREMackenzie
18 PUNISHING THE REBELS Floggings Hangings 7 YEARS IN BERMUDA/TASMANIA - Convict Ships (conditions)- Slave Labour in plantations- Starvation rations.
19 FYI LORD DURHAM’S REPORT TWO MAIN ISSUES: Join colonies together. Responsible government.FYIWanted to pardon rebels but was denied.Disliked by French as his goal was for theEnglish to overrun the French culture.In 1840, the Act of Union united Upper andLower Canada.
20 Hierarchy of Power 1840 Act of Union 1791 Constitution ActIn 1840 no Upper & Lower Canadaas seen hereUPPER & LOWER CANADA NOW = ONE ASSEMBLYThe French felt this was an attack on their culture.
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