Presentation on theme: "Working in the New Environment"— Presentation transcript:
1Working in the New Environment Patrick AyreUniversity of Bedfordshire
2OriginsStructural and organisational changes are being delivered in the wake of Bichard and LamingEvery Child Matters: Change for Children (ECM: CfC) establishes a framework for building services around children in which previously separate services must now work together in an integrated wayHowever, organisational change cannot of itself bring about shifts in entrenched attitudes, beliefs, customs and vocabulary.
3Government’s prospectus ECM: CfC is a new approach to the well-being of children and young people from birth to age 19.The Government's aim is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need to:Be healthyStay safeEnjoy and achieveMake a positive contributionAchieve economic well-beingThis means that the organisations involved with providing services to children - from hospitals and schools, to police and voluntary groups - will be teaming up in new ways, sharing information and working together, to protect children and young people from harm and help them achieve what they want in life.
4Government’s prospectus Changes includethe improvement and integration of universal servicesmore specialised help to promote opportunity, prevent problems and act early and effectively if and when problems arise;the reconfiguration of services in one place, for example, children’s centres, extended schools and the bringing together of professionals in multi-disciplinary teams;the development of a shared sense of responsibility across agencieslistening to children, young people and their families
5Outcomes for children and young people The big pictureInter-Agency GovernanceIntegrated StrategyIntegrated ProcessesIntegrated Front-Line DeliveryOutcomes for children and young peopleFamilies CommunityParentsIntegrated WorkingSilosImplementing Integrated Working means implementing Integrated Processes and Integrated Front-Line Delivery
6The vision for Integrated Working SilosInfo SharingCAFLPIS IndexImproved Outcomes
7Key elements Basic: Integrated working Common Assessment Framework Information sharing and ContactPointLead professionalComplex:Workforce reform and professional developmentCommon Core of Skills and KnowledgeSetting up multi-agency services
8Key elements Setting up multi-agency services Common Assessment FrameworkCommon Core of Skills and KnowledgeInformation sharingLead professionalWorkforce reform and professional developmentIntegrated workingCommon assessment from this pointInformation sharing between practitioners - supported by the Information Sharing IndexLead professional from this pointLead role already required by statute or best practice, e.g. key workerStatutory or specialist assessments
14Panel characteristics Managed by a coordinator or chairThere is a good mix of agenciesPanel members remain based in and identify with their home agencies.Regular meetingsMay have a core team of key workers and administrative support (YISP)Practitioners are likely to focus on individual supportUsually joint assessment and information sharing
15Benefits and opportunities No recruitment or HR issuesPractitioners fully involved in home agency, including training and developmentWork together regularly and experience of different working styles and remits.Can allocate the lead professional role, give authority needed, and share informationNo need for a permanent base or IT infrastructure.
16ChallengesFocused on outcomes for the child or the contribution of individual agencies?Identify with home agency not panel.Members not be given enough time to carry out their casework and lead professional responsibilitiesPlanning meetings can take up a significant amount of time.
17Multi-agency team characteristics Dedicated team leaderGood mix of agenciesMembers think of themselves as team members. (Recruited or seconded into the team, either full or part time)Work with universal services and at a range of levels – individual, small-group, family and whole schoolLikely to share a baseRegular team meetings: case working and admin issues
18Benefits and opportunities Good sense of team identity.Co-working is at the heart of the team's approach, allowing sharing of skills and knowledge.Communication is straightforward.Joint training is easy to facilitate.Opportunities for preventive and early intervention work in whole school and early years settings, as well as small group and individual casework.
19Challenges Recruitment and HR. Time and resource for team building and development.If not based together, challenges for team working and communication.Good relationships with schools and other universal providers are vital.Need to set aside sufficient time for meetings and other team contact time.
20Integrated service characteristics Range of services which share a common location and a common philosophy, vision and agreed principlesVisible 'service hub' for the community, with a perception by users of cohesive and comprehensive servicesManagement structure which facilitates integrated workingCommitment by partner providers to fund and facilitate integrated services
21Integrated service characteristics Usually delivered from a school or early years settingStaff work in a coordinated way, likely to include joint training and joint working, perhaps in smaller multi-agency teamsService level agreements set out the relationship between home agencies and the multi-agency serviceThe manager may be a member of the school or early years setting (for example a headteacher) or they may be recruited externally.
22Integrated service characteristics Services may include:high-quality, all-year-round, inclusive education, care and personal development opportunities for children and young peoplemulti-agency teams to provide specialist advice and guidance on aspects of health, social welfare and employmentoutreach services to support local families with additional needsa family support programme to involve and engage parentsa framework of training for adults providing a range of informal and accredited coursesa framework of training strategies for practitioners.
23Benefits and opportunities Opportunity to address full range of issues in a non-stigmatising universal setting.Knock-on benefits for educational standards.Greater co-working and cross-fertilisation of skills between agencies.Opportunities for joint training.Shared base enhances communicationMembers are still linked in to what is going on in their home agency.Members likely to have access to training and personal development in their home agency.
24ChallengesRequires fresh thinking around the concept and purpose of the school or early years settingEngaging partners and the whole school community in 'collaborative leadership'.Sense of joint purpose so members identify with new service not home agency.Pay and conditions for staff doing joint work at different levels of pay
25Challenges to effective inter-agency working Relationship problemsResource problems
26Relationship problems Closed professional systems and closed mindsPower struggles and polarisationExaggeration of hierarchyStatus insecuritySectors inadequately integrated
27Relationship problems Acclimatisation and collusionStereotyping, lack of trust, lack of knowledgeRole confusionLost in translationDifferent professional cultures, values and vocabulary (Who is the client? What are we trying to achieve? What constitutes ‘good practice’?)Different priorities and thresholds
28Resource and practical problems Challenges structural as well as case- basedAt best, rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic, at worst, developing an unsustainable system?
32Resource problems Few new resources? Lack of motivation and practical commitment at individual and service levelGeographical location and accessibility
33Resource problems High staff turnover paralysis (Beckett) Stress and overload firefighting style, reactive practice (Beckett)Climate of blame, mistrust & fear distort resource allocation (Ayre, 2001)
34Overcoming the problems: Strategic Common assessmentsCollocation of staff,Multi-disciplinary teamsIntegrated training, pre- an post- qualification
35Overcoming the problems: Personal Ask the ‘naïve’ questionUnderstand and value other perspectivesShare knowledge about your own agency, its priorities and valuesPractice in an inclusive, interagency manner (Not “me and them”, but “us”)
38What works: Heavy endSuccessful programmes draw on ecological model of causes of neglect and abuseAbuse results fromStresses caused by poverty and disadvantagePoor social resources to manage those stressesPersonal difficulties with parenting
39What works: Heavy end Programmes combine Educational elementsSocial and emotional supportHelp to cope with stressSuccess depend crucially on ability to identify those factors which place people at increased risk
40What works: Secondary prevention Outcomes more dependent on organisational climate than methodology:Low conflictCo-operationRole clarityPersonalisation of programmes(Glisson and Hemmelgarn, 1998)
41What works: Secondary prevention “Effective children’s services require non-routinised, individualised service decisions that are tailored to each child”.They require:flexibility and discretion,the ability to internalise and apply, not just to follow, guidance.They cannot flourish without a positive work climate.
42What works: Secondary prevention Home visiting is effective when:The visitors are qualified or well-trainedThe visiting is multi-dimensional, intensive and long-termVisits start before the child is born
43What works: Secondary prevention Effective parenting programmes:Are conducted on a group rather than individual basisAre primarily behavioural rather than based on relationship buildingUse modelling as a way of teaching new skillsAre seldom sufficient in themselves