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Module One, Lecture Nine: A Case of Leadership and Governance Professor Kerry E. Howell.

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1 Module One, Lecture Nine: A Case of Leadership and Governance Professor Kerry E. Howell

2  Did cultural perspectives emanate from leaders and of what did these consist?  Was/is the WA transforming itself into a ‘cultural producer’?  Does the Welsh Assembly provide leadership for Wales?

3  Path-dependency is where ideas incorporated in the formation of an institution are endogenous to present and future decisions.  Institutions only change in relation to past decisions  ‘Path-dependent in that initial choices determine later developments and once a particular pathway is selected, alternatives tend to be ruled out thereafter’ (Bulmer and Burch 2001; p 81).

4  Culture incorporated the accepted meaning for a group at a particular historical moment  Culture involves values and beliefs that are both created by and revealed to members of organisations.  Human beings are ‘suspended in webs of significance that they themselves have spun I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning’ (Geertz, 1993; p 5).

5  Must not confuse ‘individual assumptions’ of the leader with the shared assumptions that define the concept of culture.  Culture emerges when ‘individual assumptions’ lead to ‘shared experiences’ that solve the group’s problems of ‘external survival’ and ‘internal integration’.  Culture is created by ‘shared experience’, but it is leaders who initiate the process by imposing beliefs, values and assumptions at the outset (see Schein, 1997; p 225).

6  Achieve desired outcomes  Ensure democratic behaviour  Encourage involvement  Collective Responsibilities

7  Pre-devolution Wales  Leadership as Cultural Producer  Civic Constitution and Welsh Assembly  Richard Commission  Ron Davies

8  Worldviews and path-dependency may be identified in cross- party or general cultural perspective outlined in the Democracy Declaration (1994)  The declaration was approved by a Constitutional Conference of 250 people who represented local authorities, political parties, trade unions and churches in Wales.  Called for elected parliament, cultural diversity, gender balance, responsibility and greater democracy in terms of electoral procedures and representation, (see Osmond, 1995; pp 187-88).  Further outlined in evidence and conclusions of Richard Commission (path-dependency).

9  Interviews discovered concepts such as transparency, accountability, autonomy, inclusiveness, democratic deficit.  Cross-party ideals identified in secondary data e.g Democratic Declaration (1994).  Party line or external cultural perspective taken into the Assembly?  Leadership part of brief and based around the above ideals.  Leaders individual assumptions become ‘shared basic assumptions’ and ‘emerging stable relations’ became culture (Shein, 1997).

10  Early leadership defines culture through shared experience  Intensity diluted through on-going shared experience of government and policy-making  Deals with internal integration and survival

11  Bulmer, S. and Burch, M. (2001). The Europeanisation of Central Government: the UK and Germany: Historical Institutionalist Perspective in G. Schneider and M. Aspinwall (Eds.) The Rules of Integration: Institutionalist Approaches to the Study of Europe. European. Policy Research Unit Series, Manchester, Manchester University Press, pp 73-96.  Bulmer, S. Burch, M. Carter, C. Hogwood, P. and Scott, A. (2001) European Policy-Making Under Devolution: Britain’s New Multi-Level Governance. European Policy Research Unit (EPRU) Book No 1/01 Department of Government Manchester University.  Howell, K. E. (2003) Developing Self and Other Recognition: Political Identity in the National Assembly for Wales. Public Policy and Administration. Vol 18 (2) Summer pp 89-105.  Howell, K. E. (2007) Cultural Perspectives in the National Assembly for Wales: Identifying Path-Dependency, Critical Moments and Critical Junctures. Contemporary Wales, Vol 19, pp 38-56. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.  Howell, K. E. (2009) Devolution and Institutional Culture: Path-Dependency and the Welsh Assembly. Policy Studies. Vol 30, Issue 2, 2009 pp 221-235. UK: Taylor & Francis Publishers. See Notes for Further Reading

12  Chaney, P. and Fevre, R. (2001). Ron Davies and the cult of inclusiveness: Devolution and participation in Wales. Contemporary Wales, 14, 21-49. Cardiff: University of Wales Press  Chaney, P. Hall, T. and Pithouse, A. (Eds) (2001) New Governance-New Democracy? Cardiff: University of Wales Press.  Davies, J. (1990) A History of Wales. London: Penguin.  Government White Paper (1997) A Voice for Wales. London: HMSO.  Government of Wales Act (1998). London: HMSO.  Griffith, W. (1950) The Welsh. UK: Penguin.  Hall, P. A. and Taylor, R. C. R. (1996) Political Science and Three New Instituionalisms. Comparative Political Studies Vol. XLIV 936-957.  Morgan, K. O. (1999) Welsh Devolution: the Past and the future in Taylor, B. and Thompson, K. Scotland and Wales: Nations Again? pp 199-219 University of Wales Press.  Nagel, J. H. (1987) Participation. Englewood Cliffs New York: Prentice Hall.  Osmond, J (1995). Welsh Europeans. Seren, Bridgend.

13 This resource was created by the University of Plymouth, Learning from WOeRk project. This project is funded by HEFCE as part of the HEA/JISC OER release programme.Learning from WOeRk This resource is licensed under the terms of the Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales license ( The resource, where specified below, contains other 3 rd party materials under their own licenses. The licenses and attributions are outlined below: 1.The name of the University of Plymouth and its logos are unregistered trade marks of the University. The University reserves all rights to these items beyond their inclusion in these CC resources. 2.The JISC logo, the and the logo of the Higher Education Academy are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution -non-commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK England & Wales license. All reproductions must comply with the terms of that license. Author Kerry Howell Research Assistant InstituteUniversity of Plymouth Title A Case of Leadership and Governance Description Strategic Leadership and Governance Date Created August 2011 Educational Level 7 Keywords UKOER, LFWOER, UOPCPDLM, Kerry Howell, CPD, Continuing Professional Development, Leadership Creative Commons License Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Back page originally developed by the OER phase 1 C-Change project ©University of Plymouth, 2010, some rights reserved

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