Presentation on theme: "Errors and Feedback por: Aubrey Divino Y Laura Playa."— Presentation transcript:
Errors and Feedback por: Aubrey Divino Y Laura Playa
Cindy is 7 years old and has been learning English for about 1 year. Her first language is Korean. (This is real.) In summer day the gooses baby geese are hatched. but goose gave to Templeton one of the not hatch egg. But everybody dont think Templeton can take care of those egg. And Fern coming and visit Wilbur almost every day and setting on the stool and watched How would you correct this as a teacher?
As a teacher: How do you feel about correcting students? As a student: How do you feel about being corrected by a teacher? Is there a proper way to correct students? In the long run, is error correction helpful or detrimental to students learning? Before we start…
A teachers attitude/opinion on how to correct mistakes can depend on: Whether theyre teaching their native language vs. second language Their approach or method they were taught and/or use - Direct Method: no use of students native language as a tool for comparing or explaining new words - Audiolingualism: behavioral approach. Focus: *Static drills *positive vs. negative reinforcement* *Grammar*Memorization* - Natural Approach: influenced by SLA theory. Focus: language acquisition vs. language learning - Suggestopaedia: Focus: relaxation of the student to take away anxiety that may hinder learning - Total Physical Response (TPR): coordination of speech and action Focus: Listening before speaking More often or intense the memory= more likely to remember it Because everyone has an opinion…
What are some reasons for errors that language learners make? Pre-Systematic = They guess Systematic = Made while the student was testing out a hypothesis Post-Systematic= Slip of the tongue, a careless mistake (How can we categorize these errors?) Types of Errors
How can we categorize these errors? oLexical Vocabulary: He likes to eat soupa. oPhonological Pronunciation: I saw a wabbit. oSyntactic Grammar: He bought a house purple. oInterpretive Misunderstanding: The intention of the speaker is not well understood. P1: I like to eat popcorn. P2: Hears: I like to eat corn. oPragmatic oConversational: Dont apply conversational rules. Interrupt when youre not supposed to. Identifying Errors
*Writing is often times more criticized than spoken language in the real world* Sample model: 1. Comprehensibility Is it understandable? (What are they trying to say?) Are there areas of incoherence? (If you have no idea what theyre saying…) If so, do they affect the overall message? (Can you still see the big picture?) Does communication break down? (Not comprehensive=no communication) 2. Task Has the student fulfilled the task required of them? (Assignment details, etc.) 3. Syntax and Lexis Are they appropriate to the task? Are they accurate? Note: What are the advantages and disadvantages of this particular model? *Only One Shot* Written Language in the Classroom
Friend: Mind maps How many paragraphs will you need? Outlines Write out the vocab and grammar structures you are going to use What information to I need What type of paper is this? Compare and Contrast, biography, etc. Planning: Friend or Foe?
Foe: Dont provide students with a layout. Dont provide them structure. Ex: It can be however long you want it to be. Students use the wrong style. No flow to the paper. No connection words. As a teacher, you need to provide the correct information to the student! Planning: Friend or Foe?
Techniques for correcting papers: Example from field teach/consistency What would you have done in that situation? Students Job: Edit, edit, edit! Grammar auction/mistake maze activities Teachers Job (Thats YOU!) Be careful… How much is too much? How much is not enough? Planning Ahead
Helpful tips: In a different color pen, underline correct examples. Write the correct form in their place. (depending on the level) Use codes VOC=Vocabulary, WO= Word Order Put the number of errors in each line, then let the students look for them. Peer-editing Meet with the student and let them know their main errors What would you do?
In summer day the gooses baby geese are hatched. but goose gave to Templeton one of the not hatch egg. But everybody dont think Templeton can take care of those egg. And Fern coming and visit Wilbur almost every day and setting on the stool and watched. Do you change your mind?
Some students focus more on fluency rather than accuracy, and some care more about accuracy than fluency. Examples: Accuracy: I…bought it….for…those kids...over there. *The perfectionist Fluency: I go shopping today and I buyed new clothes. *The speedy paper writer As a language learner, do you fall into one of these categories? (What do you focus on?) Accuracy vs. Fluency
*Written proficiency more common than oral proficiency* Many MSU graduates have this problem! Why? This can happen because: Students don't experiment with new language they hear. At lower levels, students' output is mostly lexical. The slower, accuracy-focused students may test the patience of their listeners. The speech of some very fluent students contain so many errors that it may negatively affect the listener and overall conversation. Oral vs. Written Language
Questions to think about.. 1. Does the mistake affect communication? 2. Are we concentrating on accuracy at the moment? 3. Is it really wrong? Or is it my imagination? 4. Why did the student make the mistake? 5. Is it the first time the student has spoken for a long time? 6. Could the student react badly to my correction? 7. Have they met this language point in the current lesson? 8. Is it something the students have already met? 9. Is this a mistake that several students are making? 10. Would the mistake irritate someone? 11. What time is it? 12. What day is it? 13. What's the weather like? Let it go or no?
These are used for dealing with errors as they occur. oUsing fingers For example, to highlight an incorrect form or to indicate a word order mistake. oGestures For example, using hand gestures to indicate the use of the wrong tense. oMouthing This is useful with pronunciation errors. The teacher mouths the correct pronunciation without making a sound. For example, when an individual sound is mispronounced or when the word stress is wrong. Of course it can also be used to correct other spoken errors. oReformulation For example: Student: I went in Scotland Teacher: Oh really, you went to Scotland, did you? Field place examples? On-the-Spot!
Have you seen these types of errors in your field placements? Which ones? Fingers Gestures Mouthing Reformulation Have you seen your teachers use anything different than these types of correction? On-the-spot!
Noting down common errors Individual or as a whole class. Give each student a note card and have them write one thing the want to work on. (ex. Rolling my rs). Watch the student throughout the semester. As a class: Use the preterite form more often. Recording Have students record themselves, then listen to the errors they have made. Redo it several times. Students see improvement + pay more attention Delayed Correction Techniques
Know the level you are teaching crawling vs. running Different stages of SLA Stages of SLA
Systematicity- idea that learning is highly systematic L2 learners follow a fairly rigid developmental route, in the same way as children learning their L1 do, and not dissimilar in many respects from the L1 route. Ex. Hernández Chávez (1972) showed that although the plural structure is almost the same for Spanish and English, Spanish children learning English still went through a phase of omitting plural marking just like English children do. - Before this, it was thought that second language learners' productions were a mixture of both L1 and L2, with the L1 either helping or hindering the process (depending on whether structures are similar or different in the two languages). This was clearly shown not to be the case, even if the L1 of learners does of course play some role In a nutshell : Idea that theres a similar systematic process for learning any language, and many L2 learners follow it no matter what their L1 is. Systema-what?
Generally and surprisingly… Whether the L2 learner is learning in class or immersed in the country of the language, no matter what their L1, AND no matter what was taught… Learners develop in similar ways no matter what age they are!!! Variability
Learners still follow the same stages, but at different speeds, depending on their L1 Example: English learners of French: Produce: la souris mange le (the mouse eats it) Dont Produce: la souris le mange (the mouse it eats) French learners of English Never produce: the mouse it eats Why? Their interlanguage which one would expect if transfer was taking place. Interlanguage places the linguistic level of the L2 learner. Their interlanguage is learning the placing of prepositions. * We dont know why learners learn at different rates. Young or old L2L, they learn language in the same route.* Variability
Why is there variability??? Motivation Attitude Intelligence Sociolinguistic Variables Social Setting Aptitude Fossilization Variability
1. Groups of four 2. Come up with: -1 DO -1 DONT for your assigned topic 3. Write the do on your purple paper and dont on your green paper separately on the two sheets of paper given to you. Options: 4. Briefly explain the do and dont of your group -or- Spice it up and briefly act it out as if it was a classroom! Dos and Donts Activity