17 Cleaner Production Assessment Is Divided In Five Phases. (USEPA, 2004)
18 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION Characteristics - CP aims to prevent the generation of waste and emission at the outset- It is opposed to EOP/command and control approach which treats the waste after it has been generated
19 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION Definition of Cleaner Production “the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes and products to reduce risks to humans and the environment”
21 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION For production processes CP includes: conserving raw materials and energyeliminating toxic processing materialsreducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes
22 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION For products CP approach focuses on: the reduction of environmental impacts along the entire life cycle of a product,from raw material extraction to the ultimate disposal of the product,by appropriate product design
24 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION Benefits of CP Cost-saving through reduced wastage of raw materials and energyImproved operating efficiency of the plantBetter product quality and consistency because the plant operation is more predictableRecovery of some waste materials
25 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION Tools and techniques of CP Good Housekeeping Material SubstitutionTechnology / Process ModificationRecyclingDesign for Environment (DFE)
29 4. WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY What is whole effluent toxicity?testing a wastewater discharge with aquatic organisms to assess the discharge's toxicityWET is a standardized protocol (ex the Standard Methods
30 4. WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY Understanding WET- An effluent may be complying with all the individual parameter limits but does it guarantee that it will not cause any detrimental effects of the aquatic organisms?WET attempts to answer this question and quantify the effectsWET is an aquatic toxicity/bioassay test
31 WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY Understanding WETAcute test (24 to 96 hrs)Chronic test (~ 7 days)
32 WET Freshwater Chronic Test Species Invertebrates:Ceriodaphnia dubiaFishPimephales promelas - Fathead MinnowAlgaeSelenastrum capricornutumThough algae are contained in the program, they are not used.
33 Test DataTypical dose response where mortality increases as the concentration of effluent in the mixture increases.LC50 would be somewhere between 25% effluent and 50% effluent.calculated point estimate or aPass fail test where a concentration, usually that which is considered a critical concentration of effluent in the recieving water orambient toxicity test measured against a controlExamples of Pass/Fail Acute testInstream waste concentration equals 75%statistical evaluation using a student-t test compares mortality rates of ambient or IWC sample against a controlIs there a “significant statistical difference between the two results”6.25 % Effluent12.5 % Effluent25.0% Effluent50.0% Effluent100.0% EffluentControl0% Mortality0% mortality20 % Mortality40% Mortality80% Mortality100% MortalityNew Jersey Saline Acute Test Species
34 Test ResultCalculated point estimate or a Pass fail test where a concentration, usually that which is considered a critical concentration of effluent in the recieving water orambient toxicity test measured against a controlExamples of Pass/Fail Acute testInstream waste concentration equals 75% statistical evaluation using a student-t test compares mortality rates of ambient or IWC sample against a control.Is there a “significant statistical difference between the two results”calculated point estimate or aPass fail test where a concentration, usually that which is considered a critical concentration of effluent in the recieving water orambient toxicity test measured against a controlExamples of Pass/Fail Acute testInstream waste concentration equals 75%statistical evaluation using a student-t test compares mortality rates of ambient or IWC sample against a controlIs there a “significant statistical difference between the two results”New Jersey Saline Acute Test Species
35 Grab vs. Composite Grab samples offer “snap shot” of effluent Composite samples offer “average view” of effluentNJDEP requires sampling based on discharge typeContinuous discharge – 24 hour composite sampleIntermittent discharge – grab or composite each day that is representative of dischargeType of sample and frequency of collection is dependent upon the use of the data and the discharge the test is intended to represent.Samples are not to be used after they have been held for 72 hours.Samples are to be chilled during or immediately upon collection to 4oC.
36 Grab vs. CompositeType of sample and frequency of collection is dependent upon the use of the data and the discharge the test is intended to represent.Samples are not to be used after they have been held for 72 hours.Samples are to be chilled during or immediately upon collection to 4oC.Type of sample and frequency of collection is dependent upon the use of the data and the discharge the test is intended to represent.Samples are not to be used after they have been held for 72 hours.Samples are to be chilled during or immediately upon collection to 4oC.
37 WET Monitoring a fathead minnow test Opossum ShrimpPimephales promelas
39 Pimephales promelasAdults are small fish typically 43 mm to 102 mm, and aceraging about 50 mm, in total length.Widely distributed in North America. In muddy brooks, streams creeks, ponds and small lakes, is uncommon or absent in streams of moderate and high gradients and in most of the larger and deeper impoundments, and is tolerant of high temperature and turbidity, and low oxygen concentrations.bait fishbreeding males develop a conspicuous, narrow, elongated, gray, fleshy pad of spongy tubercles on the back, anterior to the dorsal fin, and two or three rows of strong nuptial tubercles across the snout.Adults are small fish typically 43 mm to 102 mm, and averaging about 50 mm, in total length.Photo by Karen McCabe from Animal Soup
43 5.a) Understanding bubble concept draw an imaginary bubble around the whole plantfind the most efficient way of controlling the plant's emissionsas a whole.
44 BUBBLE CONCEPT AND EMISSION TRADING Example of the bubble conceptIn a automobile paint shop,two sources of VOCs are:painting operations anddegreasing processIf it is more cost-effective to control VOC release from degreasing process, then concentrate efforts on this activity and less control on the painting operations as long as the total VOC load is maintained or reduced
45 BUBBLE CONCEPT AND EMISSION TRADING Characteristics of the bubble conceptPlant managers can propose their own emission standards:tightening where it is least costly, andrelaxing where pollution control costs are highThe bubble policy leads to less pollution control?NO!!! but less expensive pollution control.
47 EMISSION TRADING Emission trading Options available to reduce emissions:pollution control technologyswitching to cleaner fuelsimproving energy efficiencyincreasing renewable energy useEmission reduction credits (ERCs)
48 EMISSION TRADING Emission trading Emission reduction credits (ERCs) provide an incentive to find the most cost-effective way to reduce emissionsERCs can be sold, traded, or banked for future use
49 How does Emission trading reduce pollution? By purchasing and retiring ERCsOnce ERC is retired, it can no longer be bought, sold, or used to offset pollutionIndividuals and businesses can reduce pollution by buying and retiring emission reduction credits/emission allowances/offsets
50 EMISSION TRADING Emission offsets Industries to reduce or sequestrate emissions outside its operations (at different location)emission trading between a new or modified source of air pollution and an existing sourceConsumers & businesses can "offset" their pollution by buying and retiring the emission reduction credits created by someone else
51 Pollution trading in watershed EMISSION TRADINGPollution trading in watershedmanagementSame concept of bubble appliesBubble represents the watershedPoint and nonpoint sources are applicable.
53 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTSEconomic instruments have an important place in the policy-makers toolbox.Economic instruments must be considered in the context of the other main type of policy instrument, the command and control approach, which remains the most popular approach to environmental policy
54 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS- Environmental policy and management, as originated in developed countries, is divorced from economic policy and sustainable developmentStandards-driven environmental policyIn developing countries environmental policy cannot be divorced from economic and development policy
55 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS Command-and-controls require the generous use of resources such as:Capitalgovernment revenuemanagement skillsadministrative and enforcement capabilitiesThe challenge for developing countries is to identify and adopt instruments that integrate environmental and economic policies
56 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTSExamples of economic instruments in use (TABLE 1: ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT)
59 7. ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY Physical limits imposed by ecological system on economic activityThe economies must expand within ecosystems that have regenerative capacitiesThere is a limit to the capability of ecological systems in accepting the residuals without discernable changes in the quality of recipient bodies.
60 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY-water bodies Assimilative capacity of water bodies is defined as the maximum amount of pollutant load that can be discharged without impairing water quality for their designated best usageThe basic phenomenon governing the assimilative capacity of water sources is the self-purification capacity
62 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY-water bodies Estimation of assimilative capacity of waterEnvironment involves:Delineation of watersheds based on topography of the areaIdentification of perennial sources of water and their designated usagesIdentification of receiving bodies of waterIdentification of present and designated usages for various stretches of water body
63 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY-water bodies Estimation of assimilative capacity of waterEnvironment involves:Preparation of inventory of point and non-point sources of water pollutionCollection of hydrological data in critical seasonsEstimation of assimilative capacity in critical season vis-à-vis the designated best usage of identified stretchesEstablishment of upper limits of pollution load in critical stretches
64 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment Assimilative capacity of air environment is the maximum amount of pollution load that can be discharged without violating the best-designated use of the air resource in the planning region
65 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment The phenomena governing the assimilative capacity of air environment includedilution,dispersion,transformation,deposition andabsorption.
66 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment Estimation of assimilative capacityof air environment involves:Delineation of air-shed based on topographyPreparation of inventory of point, area and line sources, and quantification of pollution loads.Establishment of temporal and spatial variations of micro-meteorological parameters.
67 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment Estimation of assimilative capacity of airenvironment involves:Prediction of temporal and spatial variations in air pollutants concentration for existing sourcesEstimation of available assimilative capacity in critical micro-climatic zones for various pollutantsEstablishment of the upper limits of pollution load in critical pockets
68 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Noise environment The assimilative capacity of the acoustic environment is the maximum amount of noise load that can be discharged into the environment without causing private or public nuisance for the designated use of land units
69 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Noise environment The phenomena governing assimilative capacity for noise includepropagation of source through ambient air, andits absorption,scattering anddivergence.
70 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Land environment Assimilative capacity of the land environment is expressed as the upper limit of extraneous constituents, which can be accommodated in the soil matrix without impairing its productivity for best-designated use.
71 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Land environment Land quality dimensions which play important role in the determination of,the assimilative capacity are cation exchange capacity of soil,presence of carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides;organic matter content,hydraulic conductivity of soil; andphysiological nature of plant species
72 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Land environment Estimation of assimilative capacity of landenvironment involves:Compounds that degrade or require plant uptake for assimilation in the plant-soil system (ex heavy metals and certain organics may be non mobile and has the potential to accumulate)Mobile and nondegradative compounds which must be assimilated over land areas
73 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Biological environment Assimilative capacity of biological environment is the capacity of plants to adsorb or absorb pollutants without plant damageIt is dependent on plant-specific and pollution-specific parametersProtocols available for assessment
75 8.0 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGYIndustrial ecology is a new approach to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies
76 8.0 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY Industrial ecology seeks to optimize: the total materials cycle from virgin material to finished material,to component,to product,to waste product, andto ultimate disposal.
77 8.0 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGYIndustrial Ecology has been called the "science of sustainability", in that it provideslife cycle environmental impact andcost informationto decision makers.This information can used to balance theenvironmental,economic, andsocial implications of actions
78 Generally there are six principal elements of industrial ecology Industrial EcosystemsBalancing industrial input and output to the constraints of natural systemsDematerialization of industrial outputImproving the efficiency of industrial processesDevelopment of renewable energy supplies for industrial productionAdoption of new national and international economic development policies
79 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGYIn practice Industrial ecology may take many forms but the most obvious form is:Eco-industrial parks/estates where there exists symbiosis between industries located in the estate.Eco-industrial parks are settings where industries are grouped such that they can exchange raw materials, waste materials, and energy among each other, thereby reducing the net inputs and outputs of the park.In essence, the eco-industrial park is an artificial "ecosystem".
81 MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EIA AND SEA 9. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) AND STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (SEA)MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EIA AND SEAEIA: PRIVATE SECTOR DRIVEN (CONDUCTED BYTHE INDUSTRY IMPOSED BY REGULATIONS)APPLICABLE TO PROJECT LEVELREACTIVECONSIDER FEW ALTERNATIVESFOCUS ON STANDARDS AGENDANARROW PERSPECTIVES