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ENVIRONMENTAL AND POLLUTION MANAGEMENT by K Subramaniam, PJK [Master Envt; B.Sc.(Hons)(Envt & Occ.Health); Dip.RSH]

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Presentation on theme: "ENVIRONMENTAL AND POLLUTION MANAGEMENT by K Subramaniam, PJK [Master Envt; B.Sc.(Hons)(Envt & Occ.Health); Dip.RSH]"— Presentation transcript:

1 ENVIRONMENTAL AND POLLUTION MANAGEMENT by K Subramaniam, PJK [Master Envt; B.Sc.(Hons)(Envt & Occ.Health); Dip.RSH]

2 INTRODUCTION The objective of this module is to The objective of this module is to introduce : a) various concepts in environmental management b) various approaches to pollution management

3 A. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

4 1. WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERACHY

5 1. WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERACHY (Preferred philosophy) Prevention 4R (Reduce,Reuse, Recover,Recycle) Treatment Disposal

6 A New Waste Management Model http://www.fermanagh.gov.uk/WasteManagementHierarchy

7 A Preferred Model http://www.aggregatepros.com/DefinitionsWasteManagement.html

8 A move from a policy and regulatory enforcement towards the hierarchy of control i.e to move from: A move from a policy and regulatory enforcement towards the hierarchy of control i.e to move from: i.Regulation to voluntary approach ii.Preventing / avoiding disposal 1. WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERACHY

9 Legal provisions: (i) the provisions in the EQA 1974, (ii) the regulations that promote the move from the approach of Disposal Prevention; and, (iii) voluntary initiatives. 1. WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERACHY

10 2. COMMAND AND CONTROL / END OF PIPE APPROACH

11 Its ABUSE …

12 2. COMMAND AND CONTROL / END OF PIPE APPROACH Characteristics Prescribing: a)emission standards and b)technology standards

13 General process Flow Diagram for End-of-pipe Treatment System www.eeaa.gov.eg

14 COMMAND AND CONTROL Advantages Advantages i. Easy to enforce ii. Seemingly fair to all sources

15 COMMAND AND CONTROL Disadvantages i. No incentives to go beyond the standards ii. No drive for technological innovation iii. May be costly to achieve a certain desired output

16 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

17 (USEPA, 2004) Cleaner Production Assessment Is Divided In Five Phases.

18 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION Characteristics Characteristics - CP aims to prevent the generation of waste and emission at the outset - It is opposed to EOP/command and control approach which treats the waste after it has been generated

19 Definition of Cleaner Production the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes and products to reduce risks to humans and the environmentthe continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes and products to reduce risks to humans and the environment 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

20 http://www.ecoefficiency.com.au/

21 For production processes CP includes: i. conserving raw materials and energy ii. eliminating toxic processing materials iii. reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

22 For products CP approach focuses on: CP approach focuses on: a) the reduction of environmental impacts along the entire life cycle of a product, b) from raw material extraction to the ultimate disposal of the product, c) by appropriate product design 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

23 Option Generating Process (USEPA, 2004)

24 Benefits of CP Benefits of CP i. Cost-saving through reduced wastage of raw materials and energy ii. Improved operating efficiency of the plant iii. Better product quality and consistency because the plant operation is more predictable iv. Recovery of some waste materials 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

25 Tools and techniques of CP Tools and techniques of CP i. Good Housekeeping ii. Material Substitution iii. Technology / Process Modification iv. Recycling v. Design for Environment (DFE) 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

26 CP terms CP terms a) Eco-Efficiency b) Waste Minimization c) Pollution Prevention d) Green Productivity 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

27 CP in action in Malaysia by DOE CP in action in Malaysia by DOE i. CP unit in EiMAS ii. CP introduced in revised AS9 form iii. CP introduced in WWCS report iv. Smarter ideas for RMK9. 3. CLEANER PRODUCTION

28 4. WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY

29 What is whole effluent toxicity? What is whole effluent toxicity? - testing a wastewater discharge with aquatic organisms to assess the discharge's toxicity - WET is a standardized protocol (ex the Standard Methods

30 Understanding WET Understanding WET - An effluent may be complying with all the individual parameter limits but does it guarantee that it will not cause any detrimental effects of the aquatic organisms? - WET attempts to answer this question and quantify the effects - WET is an aquatic toxicity/bioassay test 4. WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY

31 WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY Understanding WET Understanding WET - Acute test (24 to 96 hrs) - Chronic test (~ 7 days) 4. WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY

32 WET Freshwater Chronic Test Species Invertebrates: –Ceriodaphnia dubia Fish –Pimephales promelas - Fathead Minnow Algae –Selenastrum capricornutum

33 Test Data i. Typical dose response where mortality increases as the concentration of effluent in the mixture increases. ii. LC 50 would be somewhere between 25% effluent and 50% effluent. 0% Mortality0% mortality20 % Mortality40% Mortality 80% Mortality100% Mortality 6.25 % Effluent Control 12.5 % Effluent 25.0% Effluent 50.0% Effluent 100.0% Effluent New Jersey Saline Acute Test Species

34 Test Result New Jersey Saline Acute Test Species Calculated point estimate or a Pass fail test where a concentration, usually that which is considered a critical concentration of effluent in the recieving water or ambient toxicity test measured against a control Examples of Pass/Fail Acute test Instream waste concentration equals 75% statistical evaluation using a student-t test compares mortality rates of ambient or IWC sample against a control. Is there a significant statistical difference between the two results

35 Grab vs. Composite Grab samples offer snap shot of effluent Grab samples offer snap shot of effluent Composite samples offer average view of effluent Composite samples offer average view of effluent NJDEP requires sampling based on discharge type NJDEP requires sampling based on discharge type i.Continuous discharge – 24 hour composite sample ii.Intermittent discharge – grab or composite each day that is representative of discharge

36 Grab vs. Composite Type of sample and frequency of collection is dependent upon the use of the data and the discharge the test is intended to represent. Type of sample and frequency of collection is dependent upon the use of the data and the discharge the test is intended to represent. Samples are not to be used after they have been held for 72 hours. Samples are not to be used after they have been held for 72 hours. Samples are to be chilled during or immediately upon collection to 4 o C. Samples are to be chilled during or immediately upon collection to 4 o C.

37 WET Monitoring a fathead minnow test Opossum Shrimp Pimephales promelas

38 WET Procedures

39 Pimephales promelas Photo by Karen McCabe from Animal Soup Adults are small fish typically 43 mm to 102 mm, and averaging about 50 mm, in total length.

40 Tests Results in Canada http://www.ec.gc.ca/

41

42 5. BUBBLE CONCEPT AND EMISSION TRADING

43 5.a) Understanding bubble concept - - draw an imaginary bubble around the whole plant - - find the most efficient way of controlling the plant's emissions as a whole.

44 BUBBLE CONCEPT AND EMISSION TRADING Example of the bubble concept Example of the bubble concept - In a automobile paint shop, -two sources of VOCs are: painting operations and painting operations and degreasing process degreasing process - If it is more cost-effective to control VOC release from degreasing process, then concentrate efforts on this activity and less control on the painting operations as long as the total VOC load is maintained or reduced

45 Characteristics of the bubble concept Characteristics of the bubble concept - P lant managers can propose their own emission standards: -tightening where it is least costly, and -relaxing where pollution control costs are high - The bubble policy leads to less pollution control? - NO!!! but less expensive pollution control. BUBBLE CONCEPT AND EMISSION TRADING

46 5. b). EMISSION TRADING

47 EMISSION TRADING Emission trading Emission trading Options available to reduce emissions: Options available to reduce emissions: a)pollution control technology b)switching to cleaner fuels c)improving energy efficiency d)increasing renewable energy use Emission reduction credits (ERCs) Emission reduction credits (ERCs)

48 Emission trading Emission trading - Emission reduction credits (ERCs) provide an incentive to find the most cost- effective way to reduce emissions - ERCs can be sold, traded, or banked for future use EMISSION TRADING

49 How does Emission trading reduce pollution ? How does Emission trading reduce pollution ? i. By purchasing and retiring ERCs ii. Once ERC is retired, it can no longer be bought, sold, or used to offset pollution iii. Individuals and businesses can reduce pollution by buying and retiring emission reduction credits/emission allowances/offsets EMISSION TRADING

50 Emission offsets Emission offsets a) Industries to reduce or sequestrate emissions outside its operations (at different location) b) emission trading between a new or modified source of air pollution and an existing source c) Consumers & businesses can "offset" their pollution by buying and retiring the emission reduction credits created by someone else EMISSION TRADING

51 Pollution trading in watershed management i. Same concept of bubble applies ii. Bubble represents the watershed iii. Point and nonpoint sources are applicable. EMISSION TRADING

52 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS

53 Economic instruments have an important place in the policy-makers toolbox. Economic instruments have an important place in the policy-makers toolbox. Economic instruments must be considered in the context of the other main type of policy instrument, the command and control approach, which remains the most popular approach to environmental policy Economic instruments must be considered in the context of the other main type of policy instrument, the command and control approach, which remains the most popular approach to environmental policy www.ene.gov.on.ca

54 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS - Environmental policy and management, as originated in developed countries, is divorced from economic policy and sustainable development - Environmental policy and management, as originated in developed countries, is divorced from economic policy and sustainable development - Standards-driven environmental policy - In developing countries environmental policy cannot be divorced from economic and development policy

55 Command-and-controls require the generous use of resources such as: use of resources such as: i. Capital ii. government revenue iii. management skills iv. administrative and enforcement capabilities - The challenge for developing countries is to identify and adopt instruments that integrate environmental and economic policies 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS

56 Examples of economic instruments in use ( TABLE 1: ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT) Examples of economic instruments in use ( TABLE 1: ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS FOR MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT) 6. ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS

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58 7. ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY

59 Physical limits imposed by ecological system on economic activity Physical limits imposed by ecological system on economic activity The economies must expand within ecosystems that have regenerative capacities The economies must expand within ecosystems that have regenerative capacities There is a limit to the capability of ecological systems in accepting the residuals without discernable changes in the quality of recipient bodies. There is a limit to the capability of ecological systems in accepting the residuals without discernable changes in the quality of recipient bodies.

60 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY-water bodies Assimilative capacity of water bodies is defined as the maximum amount of pollutant load that can be discharged without impairing water quality for their designated best usage Assimilative capacity of water bodies is defined as the maximum amount of pollutant load that can be discharged without impairing water quality for their designated best usage The basic phenomenon governing the assimilative capacity of water sources is the self- purification capacity The basic phenomenon governing the assimilative capacity of water sources is the self- purification capacity

61 http://www.lifesciences.napier.ac.uk/research/Envbiofiles/PIgraph.gif Assimilative Capacity Modeling

62 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY-water bodies Estimation of assimilative capacity of water Environment involves : i. Delineation of watersheds based on topography of the area ii. Identification of perennial sources of water and their designated usages iii. Identification of receiving bodies of water iv. Identification of present and designated usages for various stretches of water body

63 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY-water bodies Estimation of assimilative capacity of water Environment involves : v. Preparation of inventory of point and non-point sources of water pollution vi. Collection of hydrological data in critical seasons vii. Estimation of assimilative capacity in critical season vis-à-vis the designated best usage of identified stretches viii. Establishment of upper limits of pollution load in critical stretches

64 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment Assimilative capacity of air environment is the maximum amount of pollution load that can be discharged without violating the best- designated use of the air resource in the planning region

65 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment The phenomena governing the assimilative capacity of air environment include i. i.dilution, ii. ii.dispersion, iii. iii.transformation, iv. iv.deposition and v. v.absorption.

66 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment Estimation of assimilative capacity of air environment involves : i. i. Delineation of air-shed based on topography ii. ii. Preparation of inventory of point, area and line sources, and quantification of pollution loads. iii. iii. Establishment of temporal and spatial variations of micro-meteorological parameters.

67 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Air environment Estimation of assimilative capacity of air environment involves : iv. iv. Prediction of temporal and spatial variations in air pollutants concentration for existing sources v. v. Estimation of available assimilative capacity in critical micro-climatic zones for various pollutants vi. vi. Establishment of the upper limits of pollution load in critical pockets

68 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Noise environment The assimilative capacity of the acoustic environment is the maximum amount of noise load that can be discharged into the environment without causing private or public nuisance for the designated use of land units The assimilative capacity of the acoustic environment is the maximum amount of noise load that can be discharged into the environment without causing private or public nuisance for the designated use of land units

69 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Noise environment The phenomena governing assimilative capacity for noise include The phenomena governing assimilative capacity for noise include propagation of source through ambient air, and propagation of source through ambient air, and its absorption, its absorption, scattering and scattering and divergence. divergence.

70 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Land environment Assimilative capacity of the land environment is expressed as the upper limit of extraneous constituents, which can be accommodated in the soil matrix without impairing its productivity for best- designated use. Assimilative capacity of the land environment is expressed as the upper limit of extraneous constituents, which can be accommodated in the soil matrix without impairing its productivity for best- designated use.

71 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Land environment Land quality dimensions which play important role in the determination of, Land quality dimensions which play important role in the determination of, i.the assimilative capacity are cation exchange capacity of soil, ii.presence of carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides; iii.organic matter content, iv.hydraulic conductivity of soil; and v.physiological nature of plant species

72 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Land environment Estimation of assimilative capacity of land environment involves: a) Compounds that degrade or require plant uptake for assimilation in the plant-soil system (ex heavy metals and certain organics may be non mobile and has the potential to accumulate) b) Mobile and nondegradative compounds which must be assimilated over land areas

73 ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY- Biological environment Assimilative capacity of biological environment is the capacity of plants to adsorb or absorb pollutants without plant damage Assimilative capacity of biological environment is the capacity of plants to adsorb or absorb pollutants without plant damage It is dependent on plant-specific and pollution-specific parameters It is dependent on plant-specific and pollution-specific parameters Protocols available for assessment Protocols available for assessment

74 8.0 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

75 Industrial ecology is a new approach to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies Industrial ecology is a new approach to the industrial design of products and processes and the implementation of sustainable manufacturing strategies

76 8.0 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY Industrial ecology seeks to optimize: Industrial ecology seeks to optimize: i.the total materials cycle from virgin material to finished material, ii.to component, iii.to product, iv.to waste product, and v.to ultimate disposal.

77 8.0 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY Industrial Ecology has been called the "science of sustainability", in that it provides Industrial Ecology has been called the "science of sustainability", in that it provides a) life cycle environmental impact and b) cost information –to decision makers. This information can used to balance the This information can used to balance the i.environmental, ii.economic, and iii.social implications of actions

78 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY Generally there are six principal elements of industrial ecology i. Industrial Ecosystems ii. Balancing industrial input and output to the constraints of natural systems iii. Dematerialization of industrial output iv. Improving the efficiency of industrial processes v. Development of renewable energy supplies for industrial production vi. Adoption of new national and international economic development policies

79 INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY In practice Industrial ecology may take many forms but the most obvious form is: In practice Industrial ecology may take many forms but the most obvious form is: Eco-industrial parks/estates where there exists symbiosis between industries located in the estate. Eco-industrial parks/estates where there exists symbiosis between industries located in the estate. Eco-industrial parks are settings where industries are grouped such that they can exchange raw materials, waste materials, and energy among each other, thereby reducing the net inputs and outputs of the park. Eco-industrial parks are settings where industries are grouped such that they can exchange raw materials, waste materials, and energy among each other, thereby reducing the net inputs and outputs of the park. In essence, the eco-industrial park is an artificial "ecosystem". In essence, the eco-industrial park is an artificial "ecosystem".

80 9. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) AND STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (SEA)

81 MAIN DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EIA AND SEA EIA: PRIVATE SECTOR DRIVEN (CONDUCTED BY THE INDUSTRY IMPOSED BY REGULATIONS) THE INDUSTRY IMPOSED BY REGULATIONS) a) APPLICABLE TO PROJECT LEVEL b) REACTIVE c) CONSIDER FEW ALTERNATIVES d) FOCUS ON STANDARDS AGENDA e) NARROW PERSPECTIVES

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83 T h a n k y o u…


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