Presentation on theme: "GENERAL IDEAS IN AIR POLLUTION CONTROL"— Presentation transcript:
1 GENERAL IDEAS IN AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Dr. Wesam Al Madhoun
2 If we have an air pollution problem there are three control options available: Improve dispersion*Tall stacks*Intermittent control scheme*Relocate the plantReduce Emissions by Process Change, Pollution PreventionUse a Downstream Pollution Control Device
3 “Dilution is the solution to pollution” 1.1.Tall Stack50 years ago:Tall stacks to dilute the pollutants before they came to ground“Dilution is the solution to pollution”
4 1.1.Tall StackToday, it is still a measure, but not the only oneThere are limitations for the minimum stack heights allowedA high stack will also affect the effect area of a certain facilityA tall stack will decrease ground concentrations only close enough to the emission source
5 1.2. Intermittent control schemes Intermittent control schemes are*predictive,*observational*combined predictive-observationalTo reduce emissions then, allowing emissions to return to normal rates at other, less critical timesShort-term emission reduction is brought about by*a plant shutdown,*fuel switching,*production curtailment during the period of control.
6 1.3. Relocate the plantsIt is hard to remove an existing plant, but a new plant can be located where it is emissions will have their greatest impact in non populated areas.
7 2.Reduce Emissions by Process Change, Pollution Prevention Water base paints for some of their oil based paints and greatly reduce their emissions.Copper smelters have replaced furnaces, which produce low concentration SO2
8 Pollution Prevention Strategies Pollution prevention [vs. control] offers important economic benefits and at the same time allows continued protection of the environment.While most pollution control strategies cost money, pollution prevention has saved many firms thousands of dollars in treatment and disposal costs.More importantly, pollution prevention should be viewed as a means to increase company productivity.By reducing the amount of raw materials that are wasted and disposed of; manufacturing processes become more efficient, resulting in cost savings to the company.
9 Pollution prevention should be the first consideration in planning for processes that emit air contaminants.Undertaking pollution prevention practices may reduce air emissions enough to allow a business or industry to avoid classification as a major air emission source.
10 What is Pollution Prevention? Pollution prevention is the elimination or prevention of wastes (air emissions, water discharges, or solid/hazardous waste) at the source.In other words, pollution prevention is eliminating wastes before they are generated.Pollution prevention approaches can be applied to all pollution generating activity: hazardous and nonhazardous, regulated and unregulated.Pollution prevention does not include practices that create new risks of concern.
11 SOURCE REDUCTION Product Changes Designing and producing a product that has less environmental impactChanging the composition of a product so that less hazardous chemicals are used in, and result from, productionUsing recycled materials in the product
12 Reusing the generated scrap and excess raw materials back in the process. Minimizing product filler and packaging.Producing goods and packaging reusable by the consumer.Producing more durable products
13 Input Material Changes Material substitution Using a less hazardous or toxic solvent for cleaning or as coatingPurchasing raw materials that are free of trace quantities of hazardous or toxic impurities
14 Equipment and Process Modifications Changing the production process or flow of materials through the process.Replacing or modifying the process equipment, piping or layout.Using automation.Changing process operating conditions such as flow rates, temperatures, pressures and residence times.Implementing new technologies
15 Good Operating Practices Instituting management and personnel programs such as employee training or employee incentive programs that encourage employees to reduce waste.Performing good material handling and inventory control practices that reduce loss of materials due to mishandling, expired shelf life, or improper storage.Preventing loss of materials from equipment leaks and spills.Segregating hazardous waste from non-hazardous waste to reduce the volume of hazardous waste disposed.
16 Using standard operating procedures for process operation and maintenance tasks Performing preventative maintenance checks to avoid unexpected problems with equipment.Turning off equipment when not in use.Improving or increasing insulation on heating or cooling lines.Environmentally Sound Reuse and Recycling
17 3.Use Downstream Pollution Control Devices (Tailpipe Control Devices) Treat the contaminated gas stream,to remove or destroy the contaminant to make the stream acceptable for discharge into the ambient air.
18 In this course We will focus more on two of these headlines 2.Reduce Emissions by Process Change, Pollution Prevention3.Use Downstream Pollution Control Devices (Tailpipe Control Devices)
19 Resource RecoveryIf the pollutant is a valuable material or a fuel, it may be more economical to collect and use it than to discard it.
20 Air Pollution Control Strategies Pollution formation prevention (before)Pollutant formation control by the process (during the process)Pollutant reduction after the formation (after)
21 The Ultimate Fate of Pollutants If possible, we prevent the formation of pollutants.If we can not do that, we hope to capture them and put to some good use
22 CHALLENGES IN AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (technical) Heterogenous chemistry needed frequently.Area sources.Tailpipe devices applicable only to industrial applications.Sampling and measurement difficulties
23 CHALLENGES IN AIR POLLUTION CONTROL (administrative) Transboundary pollution more difficult to handleLack of adequate staffDefined future targets and how to accomplish.