Presentation on theme: "Cleaner Production Assessment (Chapter 4)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cleaner Production Assessment (Chapter 4) Siarhei Darozhka,Belarusan National Technical University, MinskBorki-Molo, BUP EM Course Teachers Conference,
2 Cleaner Production Definition Cleaner Production means the continuous application of an integratedpreventative environmental strategy to processes, products and services toenhance efficiency.This leads to improved environmental performance, cost savings, and thereduction of risks to humans and the environment.For production processes: cleaner production includes conserving raw materials and energy, eliminating toxic raw materials, and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and waste before they leave the processFor products: the strategy focuses on reducing impacts along the entire life cycle of the product, from raw material extraction to the ultimate disposal of the productFor services: using a preventative approach involves design issues, housekeeping improvements and the better selection of material inputs (in the form of products). The selection of what kind of service is to be provided and in what way it leads to varying kinds of environmental impacts
3 Main Reasons to Implement Cleaner Production Programmes Economical benefit and top-management commitmentLegislative pressureEMS Programmes
5 Planning and Organizing Cleaner Production Phase Obtain management commitmentEstablish a project teamDevelop environmental policy objectives and targetsPlan the Cleaner Production assessment
6 Pre - Assessment Phase Company description and flow chart - What does the company produce?- What is the history of the company?- How is the company organized?- What are the main processes?- What are the most important inputs and outputs?Walk - through inspectionEstablish a focusPay attention to processes that- Generate a large quantity of waste and emissions- Use or produce hazardous chemicals and materials- Entail a high financial loss- Have numerous obvious Cleaner Production benefits- Are considered to be a problem by everyone involved
7 Walk - through Inspection Questions to be answered during a walk-through inspection:
8 Assessment Phase Collection of quantitative data Material balance Total material in = material out (product)+ material out (wastes)+ material out (emissions)+ material accumulatedSources of material balance information- Samples, analyses, and flow measurements of feedstocks, products, and waste streams- Raw material purchase records- Material inventories- Emission inventories- Equipment cleaning and validation procedures- Batch make-up records- Product specifications- Design material balance- Production records- Operating logs- Standard operating procedures and operating manuals- Waste manifests
10 Example: Tips for Reducing Cooling Water Avoid the need of cooling, use in-process available cool and hot sources, or prevent overheating so that cooling requirements are reduced or eliminatedEliminate water use in cooling. If ambient temperatures are low enough, possibilities for cooling with air may be beneficial. In some cases, it may require a forced draft (blowing air with fan) for coolingReuse cooling water. In most cases the once through water-cooling can be converted to a closed loop system by installing a cooling tower. In the cooling tower, the water is sprayed against a forced draft of air. This cools the water- but, in turn, a portion of water is vaporised. A constant bleed (purge) is needed to keep the contaminants in the loop within acceptable levels. Cooling towers (closed loop system) can result in up to 95 % water conservation as compared to the once-through process, but will of course require investments and energy for operationRecycle cooling water. Reuse of cooling water for cleaning, washing, boiler make-up (softened), and other in plant uses does not only saves water but also provides (at least marginally) heated water and increases thereby its usabilityDo not use higher quality than necessary. Quality requirements are generally lower than for other uses of water
11 Identifying Cleaner Production Opportunities Identification of Cleaner Production options:- Literature- Personal knowledge- Discussions with suppliers- Examples in other companies- Specialized databases- Further research and developmentGenerating options:- Input materials- Technology- Execution of the process- Product- Waste and emissionsImproving the environmental performance of processes:- Input material changes or input substitution- Technology changes or technology modifications- Good housekeeping or good operating practices- Product changes or product modifications- Recycling
12 Record and Sort Options Example of information recorded for identified options
13 Evaluation and Feasibility Study Phase Preliminary evaluationIs the Cleaner Production option available?Can a supplier be found to provide the necessary equipment or input material?Are consultants available to help develop an alternative?Has this Cleaner Production opportunity been applied elsewhere? If so, what have been the results and experience?Does the option fit in with the way the company is run?
14 Evaluation and Feasibility Study Technical evaluationWill the option compromise the company’s product?What are the consequences for internal logistics, processing time and production planning?Will adjustments need to be made in other parts of the company?Does the change require additional training of staff and employees?
15 Example of Technical Evaluation Insulation manufacture
16 Evaluation and Feasibility Study Economical evaluationWhat are the expected costs and benefits?Can an estimate of required capital investment be made?Can an estimate of the financial savings be made, such as reductions in environmental costs, waste treatment costs, material costs or improvements to the quality of the product?
17 Economical Evaluation Payback periodNet present value (NPV)Internal rate of return (IRR).
18 Evaluation and Feasibility Study Environmental evaluationWhat is the expected environmental effect of the option?How significant is the estimated reduction in wastes or emissions?Will the option affect public or operator health (positive or negative)? If so, what is the magnitude of these effects in terms of toxicity and exposure?
19 Environmental Evaluation For a good environmental evaluation, the following information is needed:Changes in amount and toxicity of wastes or emissionsChanges in energy consumptionChanges in material consumptionChanges in degradability of the wastes or emissionsChanges in the extent to which renewable raw materials are usedChanges in the reusability of waste streams and emissionsChanges in the environmental impacts of the product
20 Implementation and Continuation Phase Preparing an implementation plan (finance, responsibility, documentation, training, etc.)Implementation selected options (technology, good housekeeping measures, product, services)Monitoring of performance (monitoring, records, internal audits, management review)Making Cleaner Production activities sustain (commitment, internal policy, voluntary agreements, regular reports to the interested parties, etc.)