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Cleaner Production- A Move Towards Sustainability Abhilash Vijayan Charanya Varadarajan University of Toledo.

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Presentation on theme: "Cleaner Production- A Move Towards Sustainability Abhilash Vijayan Charanya Varadarajan University of Toledo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cleaner Production- A Move Towards Sustainability Abhilash Vijayan Charanya Varadarajan University of Toledo

2 Cleaner Production - Timeline Late 1980’s Environmental managers in the U.S. and Europe realized the importance of pollution prevention at the source Stress on reducing waste and pollution at source rather than treating waste produced Combined effort of production, administration and environmental specialist teams to reduce waste generation and improve efficiency 1990’s EPA decided on Pollution Prevention (P2) National Pollution Prevention Act passed by Congress P2 – the top priority for protecting the environment from pollution Established that recycling is not P2 but finding use for something that’s already waste New P2 programs established in many states The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Paris made similar observations about the need for Pollution Prevention

3 Cleaner Production In Developing Countries Weak or no regulations regarding treatment of pollution UNEP - major resource for Environmental Policy Decided on cost effective prevention through improved efficiency and business management as the means to reduce industrial pollution UNEP called this “CLEANER PRODUCTION” Cleaner Production (CP) is the international term for reducing environmental impacts from processes, products and services by using better management strategies, methods and tools A global movement for improving business performance and a profitable, cleaner, sustainable future CP called Pollution Prevention (P2) in North America

4 Cleaner Production is a Preventive Integrated Environmental Policy applied to the entire Production and Service cycle Products: Reduction of waste through better design Use of waste for new products Processes: Conservation of raw materials, energy, water Reduction of emission at source Evaluation of technology option Reduction of costs and risks Services: Efficient environmental management in design and delivery Impacts: Improved efficiency Better environmental performance Increased competitive advantage

5 Critical CP Factors Management Systems Ensures right tools are used properly Environmental Management Systems (EMS) most common tool for CP and P2 Other Management systems such as Balanced Scorecard and Balridge Quality Award are also in use Assessments To identify CP and P2 opportunities Assessments get integrated with the management system as a continual improvement process over time Measurements To obtain data on what’s happening in an organization before applying CP and P2 Performance indicators linked with the mission and strategy developed Accounting tools used for developing the right data CP and P2 projects evaluated financially and by risk and impact assessments

6 Critical CP Factors (Contd.) Design Product design - ultimate driver for CP and P2 process improvements Process improvement follow proper Product Design Purchasing Critical for CP and P2 Green Purchasing or Environmentally Preferred Procurement creates demand for better products that in turn creates better supply Reporting Public reporting of CP and P2 and social performances

7 CP Assessments in Industries Cleaner Production assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the CP opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries Assessment methodology is useful in organizing the CP program in a company and bringing together persons to be involved with the development, evaluation, and implementation of Cleaner Production measures

8 Phase 1: Planning & Organization Elements important for the successful start of a Cleaner Production program: Management commitment Employee involvement Cost awareness Organize a project team Identify barriers and solutions Set plant-wide goals Effective CP Planning Process ensures Selection & implementation of the most cost effective CP options Broader business planning investment analysis and decision- making (such as capital budgeting and purchasing) Cleaner Production objectives and activities are consistent with those identified in the organization’s broader planning process

9 Phase 2: Assessment Procedure Source Identification – material flow diagram with associated costs made to identify sources of waste and waste generation Cause Diagnosis – investigation of factors that influence the volume and composition of waste and emissions generated Option Generation – create a vision on how to eliminate or control each of the causes of waste and emission generation Option generation in turn considers the following elements

10 PROCESS Technological Change Good Operating Practices Product Changes Change in Raw Materials Onsite Reuse & Recycling

11 Phase 3: Feasibility Studies Evaluates the technical and economic feasibility of options Preliminary Evaluation Options are sorted to identify additional evaluation needs for complex processes Technical Evaluation Availability and reliability of equipment Effects on product quality and productivity Expected maintenance and utility requirements Operating and supervising skills Economic Evaluation  Collection (regarding investments and operational costs, and benefits)  Evaluation criteria (pay back period, Net Present Value (NPV) or Internal Rate of Return) and feasibility options Environmental Evaluation Determine the positive and negative impacts of the option for the environment Selection of Feasible options Elimination of technically non-feasible and environmentally insignificant options Selection of the right option in case of competing options or limited funds

12 Phase 4 : Implementation and Continuation Evaluates the feasible prevention measures which are implemented and provisions taken to ensure the ongoing application of CP Results of this phase include: Implementation of feasible CP measures Monitoring and Evaluation of the progress achieved by the implementation of the feasible options Initiation of the ongoing CP activities

13 Case Study Company A is a Drycleaner which cleans over 2500 garments everyday Garments are loaded into an Ilsa dry-cleaning machine, in which they are immersed in perchlorethylene (solvent) Perchlorethylene and soaps dissolve grease and oil Solvent is removed and recycled in a still, where most of it is recovered Process produces liquid waste residue which has to be legally disposed off

14 Cleaner Production Initiatives CP: Preventive Practices First Tier: Source Reduction Product Modification Input Substitution Technology Modification Good Housekeeping Second Tier: Recycling On Site Recovery While a small business cannot apply product modification or input substitution, Company A introduced the other three CP practices: Purchase of an advanced Dry-cleaning machine to replace two old machines Installation of a Carbon Filter Variety of Good Housekeeping measures

15 Benefits of Cleaner Production Technology Modification – single dry cleaning machine replace two machines 40% reduction in operating costs Electricity to clean each garment reduced by 17% Negative pressure within the cage prevents perc fumes from entering the work area 80% decrease in perc consumption Better equipment = Improved Safety Improved Worker Productivity due to decrease in perc emission in work area

16 Benefits of CP(contd.) On Site Recycling ElementBefore(ppm)After(ppm) Perc BOD Total Grease5021 TSS20015

17 Financial and Environmental Benefits OldNew%$ Perc Cons. (lt/yr) Perc Waste (lt/yr) Per Contact Water Electricity unit/day Gas (units/day) Maintenance Increased Productivity Total IssuePerformanceAnnual Savings

18 Payback Period ItemPurchase Price Savings(per year) Payback period Dry-cleaning Machine years Carbon Filter months


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