Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Sustainable Approaches: Industrial Ecology and Pollution Prevention Chapter 21 © 2004 Thomson Learning/South-Western.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Approaches: Industrial Ecology and Pollution Prevention Chapter 21 © 2004 Thomson Learning/South-Western."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Approaches: Industrial Ecology and Pollution Prevention Chapter 21 © 2004 Thomson Learning/South-Western

2 2 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development What Is Industrial Ecology?  Industrial Ecology – a multidisciplinary systems approach to the flow of materials and energy between industrial processes and the environment

3 3 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Revisiting the Materials Balance Model  Materials balance model – positions the circular flow within a larger schematic to show the connections between economic decision making and the natural environment  Residual – the amount of a pollutant remaining in the environment after a natural or technological process has occurred

4 4 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Linear or Open Materials Flow: Cradle to Grave  Linear flow of materials – assumes that materials run in one direction, entering an economic system as inputs and leaving as wastes or residuals

5 5 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Figure 21.1 Revisiting the Materials Balance Model: Implications for Sustainable Development

6 6 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Figure 21.2 Conventional Linear Perspective of Materials Flow

7 7 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Cyclical or Closed Materials Flow: Cradle to Cradle  Cyclical flow of materials – assumes that materials run in a circular pattern in a closed system, allowing residuals to be returned to the production process

8 8 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) – Examines the environmental impact of a product or process by evaluating all its stages from raw materials extraction to disposal  Four Key components Goal Definition and Scoping Inventory Analysis Impact Analysis Interpretation  ISO standards – voluntary international standards for environmental management

9 9 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Figure 21.3 Moving Toward a Closed System of Materials Flow

10 10 Industrial Ecology: A Systems Approach to Sustainable Development Industrial Ecosystems –a closed system of manufacturing whereby the wastes of one process are reused as inputs in another

11 11 Pollution Prevention What is Pollution Prevention?  Pollution prevention (P2) – a long-term strategy aimed at reducing the amount or toxicity of residuals released to nature

12 12 Pollution Prevention Comparing Pollution Prevention to Industrial Ecology  P2 promotes risk reduction through minimizing or eliminating wastes while Industrial ecology argues in favor of using wastes as inputs in other production processes  P2 solutions are aimed at the single firm while industrial ecology is aimed at a network of businesses  P2 proposals considers efficiency a tool while industrial ecology views efficiency as an end itself

13 13 Pollution Prevention Objectives and Techniques in Pollution Prevention  Source reduction – preventive strategies to reduce the quantity of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant released to the environment at the point of generation  Toxic chemical use substitution – the use of less harmful chemicals in place of more hazardous substances  Raw materials substitution – the use of productive inputs that generate little or no hazardous waste

14 14 Pollution Prevention  Changes in manufacturing processes – the use of alternative production methods to generate less hazardous by-products  Product substitution – the selection of environmentally safe commodities in place of potentially polluting products

15 15 Pollution Prevention Figure 21.4 Pollution Prevention Hierarchy Under the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990

16 16 Pollution Prevention National Legislation Promoting Pollution Prevention  United States P2 Legislation National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 integrated pollution prevention into U.S. environmental legislation Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 formalized pollution prevention as part of U.S. policy

17 17 Pollution Prevention P2 Legislation in Other Nations  Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPCC) Directive of 1996  Canadian Environmental Protection ACT (CEPA) of 1999  Australia’s National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) Cleaner production – a preventive environmental strategy applied to products and processes to improve efficiency and reduce risk

18 18 Pollution Prevention Corporate Experience with Pollution Prevention  3M Corporation launched Pollution Prevention Pays Program in 1975  McDonald’s and Environmental Defense collaboration – developed Waste Reduction Action Plan (WRAP) completed in 1991

19 19 Pollution Prevention Using Economic Analysis To Implement Pollution Prevention  Cost-Effectiveness Criterion  Efficiency Criterion

20 20 Strategic Initiatives and Programs Extended Product Responsibility (EPR) – a commitment by all participants in the product cycle to reduce any life-cycle environmental impacts of products  More extensive approach than extended producer responsibility  All players in a product cycle are expected to participate

21 21 Strategic Initiatives and Programs Design for the Environment (DfE) – an initiative that promotes the use of environmental considerations along with cost and performance in product design and development

22 22 Strategic Initiatives and Programs Green Chemistry Program – an initiative that promotes the development and application of innovative chemical technologies to achieve pollution prevention

23 23 Strategic Initiatives and Programs Disseminating Information and Technology on a Global Scale  Technology Transfer – the advancement and application of technologies and strategies on a global scale  Environmental Literacy – awareness of the risks of pollution and natural resource depletion


Download ppt "Sustainable Approaches: Industrial Ecology and Pollution Prevention Chapter 21 © 2004 Thomson Learning/South-Western."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google