Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Viewpoint Cognition- the activity of knowing and the mental processes by which human."— Presentation transcript:
1Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory and Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Viewpoint Cognition- the activity of knowing and the mental processes by which human beings acquire and use knowledge to solve problems.Cognitive development- the changes that occur in children’s mental abilities over the course of their lives
2PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Genetic epistemology is the experimental study of the development of knowledge, developed by PiagetWhat is Intelligence?According to Piaget, it is a basic life function that enables an organism to adapt to its environment.All intellectual activity is undertaken with one goal in mind-cognitive equilibriumPiaget described children as constructivist*An example of intelligence, as Piaget sees it, could be a toddler trying to figure out how to turn on the T.V.Cognitive Equilibrium is Piaget’s term for the state of affairs in which there is a balanced, or harmonious, relationship between one’s thought processes and the environment.Constructivist one who gains knowledge by acting or otherwise operating on objects and events to discover their properties.Piaget asserts that if children are to know something they must construct that knowledge themselves.
3Cognitive Schemes: the structure of intelligence Scheme is a term used by Piaget to describe the models, or mental structures, that we create to represent ,organize, and interpret our experiences.There are 3 kinds of intellectual structures:1.Behavioral schemesFirst intellectual structures to emerge2.Symbolic schemesAppears ~2 year of life3.Operational schemes7 years+Behavioral (or Sensorimotor) Scheme is an organized pattern of behavior that the child uses to represent and respond to an object or experience.Symbolic Schemes are internal mental symbols (such as images or verbal codes) that one uses to represent aspects of experience.Operational Schemes: Cognitive operation is an internal mental activity that one performs on objects of thought.
4How we gain knowledge: Piaget’s Cognitive Processes Organization is the process by which children combine existing schemes into new and more complex intellectual structures.Adaptation is an inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the environment.The goal of adaptation is to adjust to the environment; this occurs through assimilation and accommodation.Assimilation is the process of interpreting new experiences by incorporating them into existing schemes.Accommodation is the process of modifying existing schemes in order to incorporate or adapt to new experiences.How do children construct and modify their cognitive schemes? Piaget believed that all schemes, all forms of understanding, are created through the workings of two inborn intellectual processes: organization and adaptation.
5Piagetian Concept Example Equilibrium Assimilation Start Accommodation Toddler who has never seen anything fly but birds thinks that all flying objects are birdsAssimilationStartSeeing an airplane flying prompts the child to call it a birdieAccommodationChild experiences conflict upon realizing that the new birdie has no feathers. Concludes it is not a bird and asks for the proper term or invents a name. Equilibrium restoredOrganizationFinishForms hierarchal scheme consisting of a superordinate class (flying objects) and two subordinate classes (birdies and airplanes).As shown, Piaget asserts that the two inborn processes, adaptation and organization, make it possible for children to construct progressively greater understandings of the world in which they live.
6Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development According to Piaget, a child’s development progresses through 4 qualitative stages and an invariant developmental sequence or universal pattern of development, which are:The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 Years)The Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years)The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years)The Formal-Operational Stage (11-12 Years and Beyond)Invariant developmental sequence is a series of developments that occur in one particular order because each development in the sequence is a prerequisite for those appearing later.
7The sensorimotor stage (Birth-2 years) The 6 Developmental stages of Problem- Solving abilities:1. Reflex activity (0-1mon.) exercising and accommodation of inborn reflexes2. Primary circular reactions (1-4 mon.) repeating acts centered on ones own body3. Secondary circular reactions (4-8 mon.) repeating acts toward external objects1. Reflex Activity is a period when an infant’s actions are pretty much confined to exercising innate reflexes, assimilating new objects into these reflexive schemes (i.e., sucking on blankets and toys as well as on nipples), and accommodating their reflexes to these novel objects.2. The first nonreflexive schemes emerge at 1 to 4 months of age as infants discover by chance that various responses that they can emit and control (i.e., sucking their thumbs, making cooing sounds) are satisfying and thus, worthy of repetition. These simple repetitive acts, called primary circular reaction, are always centered on the infant’s own body.3. Secondary circular reactions have a pleasurable response, centered on an external object, that is discovered by chance and performed over and over.
8Sensorimotor stage cont’d 4. Coordination of secondary schemes (8-12 mon.) combining acts to solve simple problems. 5. Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 mon.) experimenting to find new ways of to solve problems 6. Symbolic problem solving (18-24 mon.) inner experimentation without relaying on trial-and-error experimentation4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions is when infants begin to coordinate tow or more actions to achieve simple objectives.5. Tertiary circular reactions are an exploratory scheme in which the infant devises a new method of acting on objects to reproduce interesting results.6. Inner experimentation is the ability to solve simple problems on a mental, or symbolic, level without having to rely on trial-and-error experimentation.
9Development of imitation Deferred imitation (18-24 mo.) is the ability to reproduce the behavior of an absent model.Development of Object Permanence (8-12 mo) is the idea that objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible or detectable through the other senses.A-not-B error: tendency of month olds to search for a hidden object where they previously found it even after they have seen it moved to a different location.Deferred imitation could be a child witnessing another child’s temper tantrum and then repeating that behavior long after the witnessed tantrum.
10Challenges to Piaget’s account of sensorimotor development: Neo-nativism: idea that cognitive knowledge is innate and subject to biological constraints“theory” theories: theories of cognitive development that combine neo-nativism and constructivism
11Preoperational stage (2-7 yrs) There is an increase in their use of mental symbols to represent objects and events they encounterThe Preconceptual Period is the early substage of preoperations, from age 2 to age 4, characterized by the appearance of primitive ideas, concepts, and methods of reasoning. Marked by the appearance of symbolic function and play.The Intuitive Period is the later substage of preoperations, from age 4 to age 7, when the child’s thinking about objects and events is dominated by salient perceptual features.
12The Preconceptual Period: Emergence of Symbolic thoughtSymbolic functionAbility to use symbols to represent objects or experiencesSymbolic playPlay where one object, action, or actor symbolizes another
13Deficits in preconceptual reasoning: Animism- attributing lifelike qualities to inanimate objectsEgocentrism- viewing the world from only one’s perspectiveAppearance/Reality distinction- inability to distinguish deceptive appearances from reality
14The intuitive period: Here cognition is described as: Centered a tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and not on others due to their inability to understand:Conservation- recognition that the properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superficial way.Reversibility- ability to reverse or negate an action by mentally performing the opposite actionControversies of the preoperational stage:Perspective-taking abilities tend to develop slowly and gradually instead of qualitativelyPreschoolers have exhibited the ability reason logicallyPiaget’s preoperational problems were to complex for preschoolers
15The Concrete-Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years) Here children are said to think more logically about real objects and experiencesSome examples of operational thoughtConservationReversibilityLogicClassificationability to create relationships between things.Relational LogicMental seriationTransitivityThe sequencing of concrete operationsHorizontal decalage- different levels of understanding conservation tasks that seem to require the same mental operationsIn this stage children are acquiring cognitive operations and thinking more logically about real objects and experiences.Conservation-the recognition that the properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superficial way.Decentration-the ability to consider multiple aspects of a stimulus or situation; contrast with centration.Reversability-the ability to reverse or negate an action by mentally performing the opposite action (negation).Mental seriation- mentally ordering a set of stimuli along a quantifiable dimension such as height or weight.Transivity- the ability to recognize relations among elements in a serial order (for example, if A is more than B, and B is more than C, then A is more than C).Horizontal decalage-developmental inconsistencies
16The Formal-Operational Stage (11-12 Years and Beyond) Ability to reason logically about hypothetical process and events that may have no basis in realityHypothetico-Deductive Reasoninga formal operational ability to think hypothetically.Thinking Like a ScientistInductive reasoning- type of thinking where hypotheses are generated and then systematically tested in experiments.Personal and Social ImplicationsThe formal operation stage paves the way for:Identity formationRicher understanding of other peoples psychological perspectivesThe ability to way options in decision makingIn addition to the development of deductive reasoning abilities, formal-operational children are hypothesized to be able to think inductively, going from specific observations to broad generalizations
17An Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory Convinced us that children are curious, active explorers who play an important role in their own development.His theory was one of the first to explain, and not just describe, the process of development.His description of broad sequences of intellectual development provides a reasonably accurate overview of how children of different ages think.Piaget’s ideas have had a major influence on thinking about social and emotional development as well as many practical implications for educators.Piaget asked important questions and drew literally thousands of researchers to the study of cognitive development.
18Challenges to Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory: Underestimated developing mindsFailed to distinguish competence from performanceIt is believed by some that Cognitive development does not evolve in a qualitative and stage like manner- it tends to develop graduallyProvides a vague explanation on cognitive maturationDevoted little attention to social and cultural influencesHe claimed that concrete-operators are incapable of reasoning abstractly, when training studies suggest otherwise.He tended to assume that a child who failed one of his problems simply lacked the underlying concepts, or thought structures, he was testing.
20Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective Sociocultural theory states that:Cognitive development occurs in a sociocultural context that influences the form it takesMost of a child’s cognitive skills evolve from social interactions with parents, teachers, and other more competent associatesVygotsky was a Russian developmentalists in the 1920’s and 30’s when Piaget was formulating his theory. Vygotsky dies at 38 never completing his work. He stated that 1) cognitive growth occurs in a sociocultural context that influences the form that it takes, and 2) many of a child’s most noteworthy skills evolve from social interactions with parents, teachers, and other skilled elders.
21The role of culture in intellectual development: Vygotsky proposed that we should evaluate human development from four interrelated perspectives:Microgenetic-changes that occur over brief periods of time-minutes and secondsOntogenetic-development over a lifetimePhylogenetic-development over evolutionary timeSociohistorical- changes that have occurred in one's culture and the values, norms and technologies such a history has generated
22Tools of intellectual adaptation Vygotsky ( /1978) proposed that infants are born with a few elementary mental functions – attention, sensation, perception and memory – that are eventually transformed by the culture into new and more sophisticated mental processes he called higher mental functions.Example:Young children’s early memory capabilities are limited by biological constraints to the images and impressions they can produce. However, each culture provides its children with tools of intellectual adaptation, which is Vygotsky’s term for methods of thinking and problem-solving strategies that children internalize from their interactions with more competent members of society.
23The Social Origins of Early Cognitive Competencies: Zone of Proximal Development range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partnerScaffolding- the expert participant carefully tailors their support to the novice learner to assure their understandingVygotsky agreed with Piaget that young children are curious explorers who are actively involved in learning and discovering new principles. However, unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that many of the truly important discoveries that children make are the result of dialogues that occur between a skillful tutor who models the activity and transmits verbal instruction and a novice learner who seeks to understand the tutors instruction.
24Apprenticeship in Thinking and Guided Participation: guided participation, adult-child interactions in which children’s cognitions and modes of thinking are shaped as they participate with or observe adults engaged in culturally relevant activities.Our culture is one that uses what Vygotsky termed context-independent learningIn many cultures, children do not learn by going to school with other children, nor do their parents formally teach such lessons as weaving and hunting, instead they learn through guided participation. This is a kind of “apprenticeship in thinking.”Context-independent learning is asking children question that adults already know the answers to, learning and discussing things that have no immediate relevance-knowledge for knowledge’s sake.The idea of an apprenticeship or guided participation may seem reasonable in cultures where children are integrated early into the daily activities of adult life, such as the agrarian Mayans of Guatemala and Mexico, or the !Kung of Africa whose hunting-and-gathering lifestyle has remained virtually unchanged for thousands of years.
25Implications for Education: Children are seen as active participants in their educationteachers in Vygotsky’s classroom would favor guided participation in which they:structure the learning activityprovide helpful hints or instructions that arecarefully tailored to the child’s current abilitiesmonitor the learner’s progressgradually turning over more of the mental activity totheir pupilsPromote cooperative learning exercises
26The role of language in cognitive development: According to Piaget:Children partake in egocentric speech, utterances neither directed to others nor expressed in ways that the listeners might understandEgocentric speech played a little role in cognitive developmentSpeech tended to become more social as the child matures-less egocentricPiaget was very interested in children’s language, and he discovered that infants’ first words were typically centered on objects and activities that they already understood through nonverbal sensorimotor processes. He then concluded that language clearly illustrates the child’s existing schemes but plays no meaningful role in shaping thought or helping the child to construct new knowledge.
27The role of language in cognitive development cont’d According to Vygotsky:Thought and language eventually emergeA child’s nonsocial utterances, which he termed private speech, illustrate the transition from paralinguistic to verbal reasoningPrivate speech plays a major role in cognitive development by serving as a cognitive self-guidance system, allowing children to become more organized and good problem solversAs individuals develop, private speech becomes inner speechVygotsky agreed with Piaget that the child’s earliest thinking is prelinguistic and that early language often reflects what the child already knows.However, he argued that thought and language eventually merge and that many of the nonsocial utterances that Piaget called “egocentric” actually illustrate the transition from prelinguistic to verbal reasoning. He termed it private speech.
28To consider… According to contemporary research: Children rely heavily on private speech when facing difficult problemsThere is a correlation between “self-talk” and competencePrivate speech does eventually become inner speech and facilitates cognitive development
29Theories of Cognitive Development: Vygotsky vs. Piaget Vygotsky’s sociocultural theoryPiaget’s cognitive developmental theoryCognitive development varies across culturesCognitive development is mostly universal across culturesStems from social interactionsStems from independent explorationsSocial processes become individual-physiological processesIndividual (egocentric) processes become social processesAdults are important as change agentsPeers are important as change agents