2Nature-Nurture Revisited: Biology and Culture How much does one’s biology or environment impact development?Nature – heredity, genetic transmissionNurture – all external environmental eventsFamily, friends, school, media, cultureFactors interact in a complex manner« Discussion TipTo illustrate the interaction of nature and nurture, write several developmental events on the board or on an overhead transparency such as the development of teeth, understanding math, or athletic ability. Have students generate all the environmental factors and biological factors that may interact to produce optimal and not-so-optimal development.
3Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth Sperm and ova each contribute 23 single chromosomesZygote – fertilized egg containing 23 pairs of chromosomesHalf of all fertilized eggs die and are miscarried3 stages of prenatal developmentGerminal or ZygoticEmbryonicFetal« Teaching TipIn a short research paper, have students project the cost of caring for a child from conception through college age.
4First 14 days after conception Cell division The Germinal StageFirst 14 days after conceptionCell divisionFifth day: zygote is 100-cell organism called a blastocystNinth day: blastocyst implants to uterine wall lining« Technology TipBaby Bag provides numerous links to developmental information, including pregnancy and childbirth, parenting, health and safety, feeding and nutrition, and child care.
5Cells begin to specialize The Embryonic StageSecond through eighth weekDevelopment and formation of all major organs and systemsCells begin to specializeMost critical in development; most miscarriages and genetic defects occur during this time
6Growth and maturation continues The Fetal StageNinth week until birthGrowth and maturation continues14 weeks: kicking, swallowing, turn head24 weeks: viability outside wombResponsive to sound, light, and touch during last 3 months« Teaching TipContact your local hospital to arrange a visit for students to the labor and delivery rooms and the neonatal floor.
7The Importance of a Positive Prenatal Environment Internal/external forces interfere with prenatal developmentChromosomal abnormalities are genetic defects; effects arise during embryonic stageDown syndrome – extra 21st chromosomeTeratogens: are external environmental agents that can harm embryoGreatest impact during sensitive periodsFetal alcohol syndromeOther drugs« Discussion TipAsk your students to indicate by raising their hands how many of them have recently engaged in the following behaviors: smoked a cigarette, drank alcohol, taken aspirin or any other over-the-counter medication, been exposed to cleaning products or paint, or eaten raw oysters, sushi, or other uncooked meat or fish. Discuss with students how many everyday behaviors may be potential teratogens and influence prenatal development. What other behaviors do they routinely engage in that may contribute to a less-than-positive prenatal environment?
8Figure 9.1 Sensitive Periods and Effect on Prenatal Development The darker bars indicate the most sensitive period for certain organs and structures, and the lighter bars indicate lessened vulnerability. Sensitivity is greatest during the embryonic period, although some structures remain vulnerable throughout the prenatal period.
9Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Average neonate (“baby!”) weighs 7 pounds and is 20 inches longBy one year, triples weight and is 29 inchesGenetics lays foundation for how tall and how body fat is distributedEnvironment influences this foundation through nutrition, health care, and lifestyle choices« Technology TipThis Public Broadcasting Station site provides information in both Spanish and English about the developing child from birth through age 5, including developmental milestones, reading lists, and access to other online child development sites.
10By three years, 1000 trillion connections formed Brain DevelopmentAt birth, brain has billions of neurons but limited connection and incomplete myelinizationBy three years, 1000 trillion connections formedExperience /activity increase neural connectionsBrain prunes, discards unnecessary connections; frequently used connections become permanentYoung brains are highly plastic (“malleable”), and dense with neurons« Discussion TipGiven brain development and plasticity during infancy, discuss how one can stimulate brain development in infancy without overstimulating and upsetting the baby.
11Perceptual Development: Vision Infants are born very nearsighted and lack convergence (ability to focus both eyes)Prefer to look at complex stimuli and facesHelps develop social bond with caretakerMore difficulty processing male facesDepth perception developed in first year“Visual cliff”Acquired about the same time as mobility« Discussion TipDiscuss how baby walkers may be potentially dangerous to an infant who has not yet acquired depth perception.
12Figure 9.2 Depth Perception in Infancy Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk’s visual-cliff apparatus tests depth perception in infants.
13Perceptual Development: Hearing React to sounds prenatally around 20th week, particularly mother’s voiceEarly discrimination of similar consonant sounds and ability to remember simple speech soundsPrefer soft, rhythmic sounds (lullabies) and baby talk (exaggerated, high-pitched sounds)
14Perceptual Development: Other Senses Prefer sweet tastes at birth (breast milk is sweet)Detect mother’s smell as early as 3 days oldVery responsive to touchTouching and caressing stimulates physical and cognitive growth« Discussion TipDiscuss with students why at birth an infant’s sense of smell is so much more developed than eyesight (brain development). Do we lose this ability? No. But we often rely more on visual cues as visual perception improves. Many students believe that people who are blind or deaf have better developed senses when in reality they just rely more on these cues than people who have sight or hearing.« Teaching TipIn a written paper, have students answer: “You have just been told that you are going to have a baby. Use your knowledge about infant development to design a nursery for your baby. Create a list of items you’d like to include such as furniture, toys, bedding, and describe how you would decorate the walls.”« Technology TipThis Early Childhood Care and Development site emphasizes the international challenges of caring for children and their families. Students can access information, resources, and links to other countries and cultures in how they are meeting the needs of children and families.
15Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget studied childrenInterviewed and observed children while solving problemsDeveloped theory about how mental abilities developCognition advances in series of distinct stages« Technology TipThe Jean Piaget Archives provides a list of Piaget’s writings and access to publications inspired by Piaget’s writings in the field of developmental psychology in English, Spanish, and Dutch.
16Schemas, Assimilation, and Accommodation Schema = Any mental idea, concept, or thoughtFormed based on experience in world to fit perceptions of the worldAssimilation = Apply existing schema to current understanding (e.g., call truck a “car”)Accommodation = Modify existing schemas – or create new ones – to adapt to environmental change
17Acquire knowledge through senses and motor abilities Sensorimotor StageBirth to 2 yearsAcquire knowledge through senses and motor abilitiesForm schemas of objects and actions within immediate perception – those seen, heard or touchedLack representational abilitiesObject permanence: an object exists even when not presentusually at 8 months, steadily improves until 24 months« Discussion TipDiscuss why the game of peek-a-boo is of so much interest to infants given their cognitive development.
18Preoperational StageSymbolic thinking is the transition between sensorimotor and preoperational2 to 6-7 yearsAcquiring and using symbols (e.g. language)Vocabulary and understanding dramatically increasesPretend play increases
19Characteristics of Preoperational Thinking Centration – focusing on one feature of objectDifficulty distinguishing appearance and realityLack of conservation – do not understand that object stays the same even if appearance changesEgocentrism – everyone sees things as they doMagical quality of preoperational thinking; difference between reality and fantasy« Discussion TipGiven young children’s thinking abilities, discuss with students why preschoolers may be initially puzzled or even frightened when meeting their favorite characters at a theme park or visiting Santa Claus.Given preschoolers egocentrism, why may it be difficult for them to be good at hide-and-seek?
20Lacking the ability of conservation, young children are likely to believe that the amount of liquid has changed when it is poured into the thinner, taller glass. They believe the taller, thinner glass has more liquid.
21Move toward becoming logical thinker Acquire conservation Concrete Operations6 or 7 through 12 yearsMove toward becoming logical thinkerAcquire conservationRecognize errors in previous thinking; accommodationReduction in egocentrism: enables empathy, persuasion, and growing sense of humorSchemas are limited to actual experiences and concrete objects and situations« Teaching TipInvite a preschool-aged child to your class and have students observe the child as you give him or her Piaget’s conservation tasks. You may also want to develop simple questions such as, “What is a friend?” Who is your best friend?” “Why is this person your best friend?” to illustrate the child’s thinking about play, and peers. This demonstration can be taped for future use if the child’s legal guardian agrees.« Discussion TipChildren’s joke books and Mad Libs illustrate in a humorous way the differences in Piaget’s preoperational and concrete operational stages of cognitive development. Tell one or several of the jokes and ask students to discuss why older children (9- and 10-year-olds) are more likely to understand the jokes and enjoy “Mad Libs” than younger children (4- and 5-year-olds).In small groups have students answer the following: “At what age would you introduce your child to the following games and toys, and why?”a. a board gameb. building blocksc. constructing a model spaceshipd. a chemistry set
22Formal Operations Teenage years, for some Abstract reasoning Can hypothesize about careers, mathematical concepts, etc.Piaget contributed to understanding cognition; very accurately identified sequence of developmentCriticism – overlooked effect of culture on development and underestimated abilities
23Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Culture and Thinking Mental processes begin externally, with social interactionsCulture profoundly influences mental processingCognition proceeds in different directions, not in stagesConceptual thinking is taughtZone of proximal development: gap between what children can already do, and what capable of with help« Discussion TipDiscuss the type of teaching aids often used in math or science lessons in the elementary school years. According to Piaget and Vygotsky, how might these aids help students learn?« Teaching TipIn a written paper, have students answer the following question: “Review the information on memory processing (Chapter 6) and problem solving (Chapter 7). What strategies and activities would Piaget and Vygotsky suggest are best for improving children’s memory and problem-solving skills? Would they suggest the same techniques or different ones?”
24Moral Reasoning: How We Think About Right and Wrong Lawrence KohlbergDeveloped moral dilemmas and had participants give reasons for answersCreated theory of how individuals morally reason and how this changesSix stages of reasoning with three levelsPreconventional, conventional, and postconventional« Discussion TipHave students answer the automatic teller machine dilemma presented in the text. What are their reasons for keeping or not keeping the money? Write their answers on the board or on an overhead transparency. After discussing Kohlberg’s theory, have them identify at which level of moral reasoning their responses fell.
25Stages of Moral Reasoning PrecoventionalBased on avoiding punishment or gaining rewardsFocus on immediate consequencesConventionalBased on standards of group or societyUnderstand rules and others’ expectationsPostconventionalUniversal principles of morality that are abstract
26Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory Theory stimulated research, criticism and controversySequence supportedMost adults progress to conventionalPostconventional is less commonGeneralizability to other cultures?Other cultures emphasize group regulation of values
27Gilligan’s Theory: Gender and Moral Reasoning Carol Gilligan, A Different VoiceBook in which Gilligan proposed female perspective to moral reasoningFemales emphasize concern, care and relations in moral decisions; men emphasize fairness and justiceLittle strong research support; both males and females use both justice and caring
28Temperament: The Influence of Biology General innate behavioral stylesIdentified easy, difficult and slow-to-warm-up temperamentsGoodness-of-fit between temperament and social relationships influences future development<<Technology TipiVillage is a useful site that links to relevant information on infant and children’s health and behavior.
29Attachment: Learning About Relationships Emotional tie between infant and caretakerSeparation anxiety and stranger anxietyInitially thought related to feedingTypically by 8 to 9 monthsHarlow and Zimmerman – monkey researchDemonstrated infant monkeys preferred comfort contact, beyond food needs« Discussion TipDiscuss how attachment may serve an evolutionary purpose.
30Secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized/disoriented Attachment StylesMary AinsworthDeveloped “strange situation” to research qualitative differences in attachmentIdentified four attachment stylesSecure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized/disorientedCulture and different child-rearing practices influence attachment
31Four Attachment Styles Secure: Parents as base to explore from, quickly soothed when parent returnsAvoidant: Ignore parent, not distressed when leave, or happy when returnResistant: “clingy,” don’t explore new situation, extreme distress when parent leavesDisorganized/disoriented: Confused, disoriented, look away while comforted
32How Does Attachment Influence Development Research partially supports notion that early attachment is foundation for later relationshipsSecure attachment related to better preschool and school-age outcomesInsecure attachment mixed resultsBonds with other caretakers can compensate for insecure attachmentsEarly insecure attachment not necessarily related to lifelong pattern
33Baumrind’s Research on Parenting Styles Three parenting styles linked to different child outcomesAuthoritarian (high control, low affection)Children more withdrawn, anxious, conformingAuthoritative (moderate control, warm)Most confident, happy childrenPermissive (low control, warm)Most immature children, little impulse control« Teaching TipIn small groups or in a written paper, have students complete the following question: “Analyze your parent(s)’ style of discipline during your childhood. How would Baumrind classify their parenting style? How well did their style complement your temperament? What impact do you think your parents’ style of discipline had on your development? Be specific, and cite examples to support your answer.”« Discussion TipDo students remember any parents from television shows that they watched as a child? Who are they? Which parenting styles do they illustrate? Are the models representative of all races and ethnicities?
34Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: The Influence of Culture Children and adults progress through eight developmental crisesUnhealthy resolution impairs later development, although damage can be repaired
35Erikson’s Childhood Stages Trust vs. mistrust: (1st year) infant’s needs must be met to develop trust in othersAutonomy vs. shame and doubt: (1-3) finding balance between independence and dependenceInitiative vs. guilt: (3-6) explore environment through trial and error; develop schemas of others’ expectationsIndustry vs. inferiority: (6-12) form opinions about self based on mastering tasks, feelings of competency or inferiority« Teaching TipIn small groups have students complete the following question: “For each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages, detail what specific behaviors may suggest that an individual is having difficulty resolving that particular stage.”« Technology TipAt this site students will find detailed information, key facts, critiques, and other links on Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development.« Discussion TipDiscuss with students how Erikson’s notion of trust versus mistrust is related to attachment.
36Identity vs. Role Confusion: Beginning in the teenage years Identity – figuring out who they are, similarities/differences from peers and parentsInfluenced by biology (puberty) and newly acquired cognitive ability (abstract reasoning)Role confusion – trying out new roles at the cost of not establishing stable identity« Teaching TipIn small groups have students complete the following question: “For each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages, detail what specific behaviors may suggest that an individual is having difficulty resolving that particular stage.”<<Discussion TipDiscuss what social institutions or organizations may play a role in helping adolescents resolve identity issues.The movie The Breakfast Club nicely illustrates Erikson’s notion of identity. Consider watching a small portion of the movie in class or assigning students to watch the movie outside of class.
37Intimacy vs. Isolation: Early Adulthood Intimacy: Refine and modify identity to accommodate values and interests of anotherIntimacy involves cooperation, tolerance and acceptance of others’ views and valuesExpressed through marriage, long-term romantic partnerships, friendship, work relationshipsIsolation: threatened by close relations with others« Teaching TipAs a written assignment, have students answer the following question: “Use the information in this chapter to analyze your current identity. How have peers and parents influenced how you see yourself? What modifications in your identity do you expect in the coming years?”
38Generativity vs. Stagnation: Adulthood Generativity: feeling of having made meaningful contribution to societyMarriage, child rearing, service to others, career accomplishmentsStagnation: sense of failure and absence of purposeMay become bitter, disenchantedMidlife crisis
39Integrity vs. Despair: Toward end of life Review life and judge direction life has takenPositive feelings about choices – integrityNegative feeling – despairFacing death with either fear or regret
40Gender Role Development By 2 or 3 years, children know their own gender and can label that of othersAt early age, children develop schemas about gender rolesSocietal expectations for female and male behaviorBy age 6, children understand that gender is constant – gender permanenceGender schema theory – modeling and reinforcement contribute to children’s construction of gender schemas« Teaching TipDivide students into same-sex groups, and have them discuss the advantages and disadvantages of being a male or a female in our society today (the men brainstorm the pros/cons of being male and the women of being female.) After 15–20 minutes, have students read their lists aloud. Then have students go over their lists within their groups, noting which of the items are biological or physical and which are socially or culturally constructed. Ask the students whether they can identify any patterns in their lists or whether the advantages and disadvantages are equally influenced by biology and culture.« Discussion TipBoys and girls are socialized from a young age to behave in gender-appropriate ways. A child who deviates from these gender expectations may be criticized, teased, or even punished. Have students think about a moment in their childhood when they, or someone they knew, failed to conform to gender expectations. Have students share these stories with the class. Have students analyze the result for not conforming and what many children then learn from these experiences.According to gender-schema theory, how might we encourage less gender-stereotyped behavior in children?40
41Puberty: Big Changes, Rapid Growth Puberty = process of sexual maturationBody growth and maturation of sex characteristicsOccurs two years earlier in girls (around 10) than boys (around 12)Timing varies between individuals and within cultures« Discussion TipAdolescence has often been depicted as a time of “storm and stress.” Discuss with students whether they felt that this time in their lives was stressful, and if so, why. Often students’ answers highlight many of the physical, cognitive, and social changes that adolescence brings.
42Gender and Reproductive Capacity Menopause occurs around 50, on averageEnd of reproductive capabilityDecrease in estrogenAndropause occurs around 60Fewer male hormones releasedMost older adults remain sexually active75% over 65 report being in good health« Technology TipMenopause Online site provides current information about women’s health issues and menopause.« Teaching TipThe movie Calendar Girls, based on the real-life story of how several older women posed nude to raise money for a charity, defies many young peoples’ stereotypes about aging and older adults. Consider watching a small portion of the movie in class or assigning students to watch the movie outside of class. Then in a written paper, have students detail what personal beliefs about aging are challenged in the movie and how their views on aging changed as a result of the movie.
43Changes in Memory and Mental Abilities Fluid intelligence tends to peak at brain maturity, although some remain strong (some decline in areas as early as late 20’s)Crystallized intelligence, influenced more by culture and experience, tends to increase to the 60’sPhysical and cognitive exercise help sustain cognitive functioning in late adulthood« Technology TipUCLA Memory and Aging Research Center site offers many links to resources dealing with age-related memory losses and neuroscience.
45Living with an intimate partner Rates increasing over past 20 years CohabitationLiving with an intimate partnerRates increasing over past 20 yearsTend to be short-lived: separate or get marriedReasons for cohabitating: test out compatibility or as alternative to marriage (gay and lesbian couples)« Technology TipUnited States Census Bureau provides a wealth of statistical information on various lifestyles in adulthood such as marriage, divorce, and cohabitation rates.
46Marriage: Adaptation, Satisfaction and Gender Differences 95% of Americans get married at some point60% of marriages worldwide are arrangedSuccessful marriage involves adaptationSatisfying marriages: similar backgrounds, waiting to marry, supportive behaviorsDissatisfying: negative comments, contempt, defensiveness, and criticism« Discussion TipHave students generate reasons why married men in the United States enjoy better health and well-being than married women.« Teaching TipAfter students have completed reading the section on satisfying marital relationships, divide them into small groups and have students develop a “manual” on how to have a happy and successful marriage.
47Figure 9.8 Marital Satisfaction and Stages of Parenting First documented by Rollins and Feldman (1975) and later replicated in many studies, the graph shows the percentage of husbands and wives who say their marriage was going well “all the time” at various stages while raising children.Adapted from Boyd C. Rollins and Harold Feldman, “Marital Satisfaction Over the Family Cycle,” Journal of Marriage and the Family, 32 (February), 25. Copyrighted 1975 by the National Council on Family Relations, 3989 Central Ave., N.E., Suite 550, Minneapolis, MN Reprinted by permission.
48Reactions to Death: Kubler-Ross’s Stages Death is a process, not a single point in timeIn current society, death is an isolated processElisabeth Kübler-RossResearcher on death and dyingIdentified five reactions of dying peopleLegitimacy, but not sequence, of stages confirmed through researchMay be experienced with other lossesOther factors influence experience of death« Technology TipFunerals and Grief Support site is a free consumer resource on funeral planning and grief support and counseling.« Discussion TipTalking about death can be quite intimidating for many students. Consider discussing students’ fears about death before studying this topic.
49Kubler-Ross Stages Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance « Teaching TipThe movie My Life poignantly illustrates Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying. Consider watching a small portion of the movie in class or assigning students to watch the movie outside of class. Then in small groups or in a written paper , have students detail how the behavior of the main character (played by Michael Keaton) evidences each stage of dying.
50Bereavement and Grief: How We Respond to Death Bereavement = experience of losing loved oneGrief = emotional reaction to lossAlthough a personal experience, research has identified common themes within three phases
51Phases Impact Confrontation Accommodation Disbelief, numbness, which dulls emotional painPerform needed functionsConfrontationDeep despair and agonyPhysical symptomsConfronting lossAccommodationAcceptance and reengagement