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How Do People Grow, Change, and Develop?

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1 How Do People Grow, Change, and Develop?

2 Nature-Nurture Revisited: Biology and Culture
How much does one’s biology or environment impact development? Nature – heredity, genetic transmission Nurture – all external environmental events Family, friends, school, media, culture Factors interact in a complex manner « Discussion Tip To illustrate the interaction of nature and nurture, write several developmental events on the board or on an overhead transparency such as the development of teeth, understanding math, or athletic ability. Have students generate all the environmental factors and biological factors that may interact to produce optimal and not-so-optimal development.

3 Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth
Sperm and ova each contribute 23 single chromosomes Zygote – fertilized egg containing 23 pairs of chromosomes Half of all fertilized eggs die and are miscarried 3 stages of prenatal development Germinal or Zygotic Embryonic Fetal « Teaching Tip In a short research paper, have students project the cost of caring for a child from conception through college age.

4 First 14 days after conception Cell division
The Germinal Stage First 14 days after conception Cell division Fifth day: zygote is 100-cell organism called a blastocyst Ninth day: blastocyst implants to uterine wall lining « Technology Tip Baby Bag provides numerous links to developmental information, including pregnancy and childbirth, parenting, health and safety, feeding and nutrition, and child care.

5 Cells begin to specialize
The Embryonic Stage Second through eighth week Development and formation of all major organs and systems Cells begin to specialize Most critical in development; most miscarriages and genetic defects occur during this time

6 Growth and maturation continues
The Fetal Stage Ninth week until birth Growth and maturation continues 14 weeks: kicking, swallowing, turn head 24 weeks: viability outside womb Responsive to sound, light, and touch during last 3 months « Teaching Tip Contact your local hospital to arrange a visit for students to the labor and delivery rooms and the neonatal floor.

7 The Importance of a Positive Prenatal Environment
Internal/external forces interfere with prenatal development Chromosomal abnormalities are genetic defects; effects arise during embryonic stage Down syndrome – extra 21st chromosome Teratogens: are external environmental agents that can harm embryo Greatest impact during sensitive periods Fetal alcohol syndrome Other drugs « Discussion Tip Ask your students to indicate by raising their hands how many of them have recently engaged in the following behaviors: smoked a cigarette, drank alcohol, taken aspirin or any other over-the-counter medication, been exposed to cleaning products or paint, or eaten raw oysters, sushi, or other uncooked meat or fish. Discuss with students how many everyday behaviors may be potential teratogens and influence prenatal development. What other behaviors do they routinely engage in that may contribute to a less-than-positive prenatal environment?

8 Figure 9.1 Sensitive Periods and Effect on Prenatal Development
The darker bars indicate the most sensitive period for certain organs and structures, and the lighter bars indicate lessened vulnerability. Sensitivity is greatest during the embryonic period, although some structures remain vulnerable throughout the prenatal period.

9 Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development
Average neonate (“baby!”) weighs 7 pounds and is 20 inches long By one year, triples weight and is 29 inches Genetics lays foundation for how tall and how body fat is distributed Environment influences this foundation through nutrition, health care, and lifestyle choices « Technology Tip This Public Broadcasting Station site provides information in both Spanish and English about the developing child from birth through age 5, including developmental milestones, reading lists, and access to other online child development sites.

10 By three years, 1000 trillion connections formed
Brain Development At birth, brain has billions of neurons but limited connection and incomplete myelinization By three years, 1000 trillion connections formed Experience /activity increase neural connections Brain prunes, discards unnecessary connections; frequently used connections become permanent Young brains are highly plastic (“malleable”), and dense with neurons « Discussion Tip Given brain development and plasticity during infancy, discuss how one can stimulate brain development in infancy without overstimulating and upsetting the baby.

11 Perceptual Development: Vision
Infants are born very nearsighted and lack convergence (ability to focus both eyes) Prefer to look at complex stimuli and faces Helps develop social bond with caretaker More difficulty processing male faces Depth perception developed in first year “Visual cliff” Acquired about the same time as mobility « Discussion Tip Discuss how baby walkers may be potentially dangerous to an infant who has not yet acquired depth perception.

12 Figure 9.2 Depth Perception in Infancy
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk’s visual-cliff apparatus tests depth perception in infants.

13 Perceptual Development: Hearing
React to sounds prenatally around 20th week, particularly mother’s voice Early discrimination of similar consonant sounds and ability to remember simple speech sounds Prefer soft, rhythmic sounds (lullabies) and baby talk (exaggerated, high-pitched sounds)

14 Perceptual Development: Other Senses
Prefer sweet tastes at birth (breast milk is sweet) Detect mother’s smell as early as 3 days old Very responsive to touch Touching and caressing stimulates physical and cognitive growth « Discussion Tip Discuss with students why at birth an infant’s sense of smell is so much more developed than eyesight (brain development). Do we lose this ability? No. But we often rely more on visual cues as visual perception improves. Many students believe that people who are blind or deaf have better developed senses when in reality they just rely more on these cues than people who have sight or hearing. « Teaching Tip In a written paper, have students answer: “You have just been told that you are going to have a baby. Use your knowledge about infant development to design a nursery for your baby. Create a list of items you’d like to include such as furniture, toys, bedding, and describe how you would decorate the walls.” « Technology Tip This Early Childhood Care and Development site emphasizes the international challenges of caring for children and their families. Students can access information, resources, and links to other countries and cultures in how they are meeting the needs of children and families.

15 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget studied children Interviewed and observed children while solving problems Developed theory about how mental abilities develop Cognition advances in series of distinct stages « Technology Tip The Jean Piaget Archives provides a list of Piaget’s writings and access to publications inspired by Piaget’s writings in the field of developmental psychology in English, Spanish, and Dutch.

16 Schemas, Assimilation, and Accommodation
Schema = Any mental idea, concept, or thought Formed based on experience in world to fit perceptions of the world Assimilation = Apply existing schema to current understanding (e.g., call truck a “car”) Accommodation = Modify existing schemas – or create new ones – to adapt to environmental change

17 Acquire knowledge through senses and motor abilities
Sensorimotor Stage Birth to 2 years Acquire knowledge through senses and motor abilities Form schemas of objects and actions within immediate perception – those seen, heard or touched Lack representational abilities Object permanence: an object exists even when not present usually at 8 months, steadily improves until 24 months « Discussion Tip Discuss why the game of peek-a-boo is of so much interest to infants given their cognitive development.

18 Preoperational Stage Symbolic thinking is the transition between sensorimotor and preoperational 2 to 6-7 years Acquiring and using symbols (e.g. language) Vocabulary and understanding dramatically increases Pretend play increases

19 Characteristics of Preoperational Thinking
Centration – focusing on one feature of object Difficulty distinguishing appearance and reality Lack of conservation – do not understand that object stays the same even if appearance changes Egocentrism – everyone sees things as they do Magical quality of preoperational thinking; difference between reality and fantasy « Discussion Tip Given young children’s thinking abilities, discuss with students why preschoolers may be initially puzzled or even frightened when meeting their favorite characters at a theme park or visiting Santa Claus. Given preschoolers egocentrism, why may it be difficult for them to be good at hide-and-seek?

20 Lacking the ability of conservation, young children are likely to believe that the amount of liquid has changed when it is poured into the thinner, taller glass. They believe the taller, thinner glass has more liquid.

21 Move toward becoming logical thinker Acquire conservation
Concrete Operations 6 or 7 through 12 years Move toward becoming logical thinker Acquire conservation Recognize errors in previous thinking; accommodation Reduction in egocentrism: enables empathy, persuasion, and growing sense of humor Schemas are limited to actual experiences and concrete objects and situations « Teaching Tip Invite a preschool-aged child to your class and have students observe the child as you give him or her Piaget’s conservation tasks. You may also want to develop simple questions such as, “What is a friend?” Who is your best friend?” “Why is this person your best friend?” to illustrate the child’s thinking about play, and peers. This demonstration can be taped for future use if the child’s legal guardian agrees. « Discussion Tip Children’s joke books and Mad Libs illustrate in a humorous way the differences in Piaget’s preoperational and concrete operational stages of cognitive development. Tell one or several of the jokes and ask students to discuss why older children (9- and 10-year-olds) are more likely to understand the jokes and enjoy “Mad Libs” than younger children (4- and 5-year-olds). In small groups have students answer the following: “At what age would you introduce your child to the following games and toys, and why?” a. a board game b. building blocks c. constructing a model spaceship d. a chemistry set

22 Formal Operations Teenage years, for some Abstract reasoning
Can hypothesize about careers, mathematical concepts, etc. Piaget contributed to understanding cognition; very accurately identified sequence of development Criticism – overlooked effect of culture on development and underestimated abilities

23 Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Culture and Thinking
Mental processes begin externally, with social interactions Culture profoundly influences mental processing Cognition proceeds in different directions, not in stages Conceptual thinking is taught Zone of proximal development: gap between what children can already do, and what capable of with help « Discussion Tip Discuss the type of teaching aids often used in math or science lessons in the elementary school years. According to Piaget and Vygotsky, how might these aids help students learn? « Teaching Tip In a written paper, have students answer the following question: “Review the information on memory processing (Chapter 6) and problem solving (Chapter 7). What strategies and activities would Piaget and Vygotsky suggest are best for improving children’s memory and problem-solving skills? Would they suggest the same techniques or different ones?”

24 Moral Reasoning: How We Think About Right and Wrong
Lawrence Kohlberg Developed moral dilemmas and had participants give reasons for answers Created theory of how individuals morally reason and how this changes Six stages of reasoning with three levels Preconventional, conventional, and postconventional « Discussion Tip Have students answer the automatic teller machine dilemma presented in the text. What are their reasons for keeping or not keeping the money? Write their answers on the board or on an overhead transparency. After discussing Kohlberg’s theory, have them identify at which level of moral reasoning their responses fell.

25 Stages of Moral Reasoning
Precoventional Based on avoiding punishment or gaining rewards Focus on immediate consequences Conventional Based on standards of group or society Understand rules and others’ expectations Postconventional Universal principles of morality that are abstract

26 Evaluation of Kohlberg’s Theory
Theory stimulated research, criticism and controversy Sequence supported Most adults progress to conventional Postconventional is less common Generalizability to other cultures? Other cultures emphasize group regulation of values

27 Gilligan’s Theory: Gender and Moral Reasoning
Carol Gilligan, A Different Voice Book in which Gilligan proposed female perspective to moral reasoning Females emphasize concern, care and relations in moral decisions; men emphasize fairness and justice Little strong research support; both males and females use both justice and caring

28 Temperament: The Influence of Biology
General innate behavioral styles Identified easy, difficult and slow-to-warm-up temperaments Goodness-of-fit between temperament and social relationships influences future development <<Technology Tip iVillage is a useful site that links to relevant information on infant and children’s health and behavior.

29 Attachment: Learning About Relationships
Emotional tie between infant and caretaker Separation anxiety and stranger anxiety Initially thought related to feeding Typically by 8 to 9 months Harlow and Zimmerman – monkey research Demonstrated infant monkeys preferred comfort contact, beyond food needs « Discussion Tip Discuss how attachment may serve an evolutionary purpose.

30 Secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized/disoriented
Attachment Styles Mary Ainsworth Developed “strange situation” to research qualitative differences in attachment Identified four attachment styles Secure, avoidant, resistant, disorganized/disoriented Culture and different child-rearing practices influence attachment

31 Four Attachment Styles
Secure: Parents as base to explore from, quickly soothed when parent returns Avoidant: Ignore parent, not distressed when leave, or happy when return Resistant: “clingy,” don’t explore new situation, extreme distress when parent leaves Disorganized/disoriented: Confused, disoriented, look away while comforted

32 How Does Attachment Influence Development
Research partially supports notion that early attachment is foundation for later relationships Secure attachment related to better preschool and school-age outcomes Insecure attachment mixed results Bonds with other caretakers can compensate for insecure attachments Early insecure attachment not necessarily related to lifelong pattern

33 Baumrind’s Research on Parenting Styles
Three parenting styles linked to different child outcomes Authoritarian (high control, low affection) Children more withdrawn, anxious, conforming Authoritative (moderate control, warm) Most confident, happy children Permissive (low control, warm) Most immature children, little impulse control « Teaching Tip In small groups or in a written paper, have students complete the following question: “Analyze your parent(s)’ style of discipline during your childhood. How would Baumrind classify their parenting style? How well did their style complement your temperament? What impact do you think your parents’ style of discipline had on your development? Be specific, and cite examples to support your answer.” « Discussion Tip Do students remember any parents from television shows that they watched as a child? Who are they? Which parenting styles do they illustrate? Are the models representative of all races and ethnicities?

34 Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: The Influence of Culture
Children and adults progress through eight developmental crises Unhealthy resolution impairs later development, although damage can be repaired

35 Erikson’s Childhood Stages
Trust vs. mistrust: (1st year) infant’s needs must be met to develop trust in others Autonomy vs. shame and doubt: (1-3) finding balance between independence and dependence Initiative vs. guilt: (3-6) explore environment through trial and error; develop schemas of others’ expectations Industry vs. inferiority: (6-12) form opinions about self based on mastering tasks, feelings of competency or inferiority « Teaching Tip In small groups have students complete the following question: “For each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages, detail what specific behaviors may suggest that an individual is having difficulty resolving that particular stage.” « Technology Tip At this site students will find detailed information, key facts, critiques, and other links on Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. « Discussion Tip Discuss with students how Erikson’s notion of trust versus mistrust is related to attachment.

36 Identity vs. Role Confusion: Beginning in the teenage years
Identity – figuring out who they are, similarities/differences from peers and parents Influenced by biology (puberty) and newly acquired cognitive ability (abstract reasoning) Role confusion – trying out new roles at the cost of not establishing stable identity « Teaching Tip In small groups have students complete the following question: “For each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages, detail what specific behaviors may suggest that an individual is having difficulty resolving that particular stage.” <<Discussion Tip Discuss what social institutions or organizations may play a role in helping adolescents resolve identity issues. The movie The Breakfast Club nicely illustrates Erikson’s notion of identity. Consider watching a small portion of the movie in class or assigning students to watch the movie outside of class.

37 Intimacy vs. Isolation: Early Adulthood
Intimacy: Refine and modify identity to accommodate values and interests of another Intimacy involves cooperation, tolerance and acceptance of others’ views and values Expressed through marriage, long-term romantic partnerships, friendship, work relationships Isolation: threatened by close relations with others « Teaching Tip As a written assignment, have students answer the following question: “Use the information in this chapter to analyze your current identity. How have peers and parents influenced how you see yourself? What modifications in your identity do you expect in the coming years?”

38 Generativity vs. Stagnation: Adulthood
Generativity: feeling of having made meaningful contribution to society Marriage, child rearing, service to others, career accomplishments Stagnation: sense of failure and absence of purpose May become bitter, disenchanted Midlife crisis

39 Integrity vs. Despair: Toward end of life
Review life and judge direction life has taken Positive feelings about choices – integrity Negative feeling – despair Facing death with either fear or regret

40 Gender Role Development
By 2 or 3 years, children know their own gender and can label that of others At early age, children develop schemas about gender roles Societal expectations for female and male behavior By age 6, children understand that gender is constant – gender permanence Gender schema theory – modeling and reinforcement contribute to children’s construction of gender schemas « Teaching Tip Divide students into same-sex groups, and have them discuss the advantages and disadvantages of being a male or a female in our society today (the men brainstorm the pros/cons of being male and the women of being female.) After 15–20 minutes, have students read their lists aloud. Then have students go over their lists within their groups, noting which of the items are biological or physical and which are socially or culturally constructed. Ask the students whether they can identify any patterns in their lists or whether the advantages and disadvantages are equally influenced by biology and culture. « Discussion Tip Boys and girls are socialized from a young age to behave in gender-appropriate ways. A child who deviates from these gender expectations may be criticized, teased, or even punished. Have students think about a moment in their childhood when they, or someone they knew, failed to conform to gender expectations. Have students share these stories with the class. Have students analyze the result for not conforming and what many children then learn from these experiences. According to gender-schema theory, how might we encourage less gender-stereotyped behavior in children? 40

41 Puberty: Big Changes, Rapid Growth
Puberty = process of sexual maturation Body growth and maturation of sex characteristics Occurs two years earlier in girls (around 10) than boys (around 12) Timing varies between individuals and within cultures « Discussion Tip Adolescence has often been depicted as a time of “storm and stress.” Discuss with students whether they felt that this time in their lives was stressful, and if so, why. Often students’ answers highlight many of the physical, cognitive, and social changes that adolescence brings.

42 Gender and Reproductive Capacity
Menopause occurs around 50, on average End of reproductive capability Decrease in estrogen Andropause occurs around 60 Fewer male hormones released Most older adults remain sexually active 75% over 65 report being in good health « Technology Tip Menopause Online site provides current information about women’s health issues and menopause. « Teaching Tip The movie Calendar Girls, based on the real-life story of how several older women posed nude to raise money for a charity, defies many young peoples’ stereotypes about aging and older adults. Consider watching a small portion of the movie in class or assigning students to watch the movie outside of class. Then in a written paper, have students detail what personal beliefs about aging are challenged in the movie and how their views on aging changed as a result of the movie.

43 Changes in Memory and Mental Abilities
Fluid intelligence tends to peak at brain maturity, although some remain strong (some decline in areas as early as late 20’s) Crystallized intelligence, influenced more by culture and experience, tends to increase to the 60’s Physical and cognitive exercise help sustain cognitive functioning in late adulthood « Technology Tip UCLA Memory and Aging Research Center site offers many links to resources dealing with age-related memory losses and neuroscience.

44 Figure 9.5 Age Trends in Mental Abilities
In his ongoing study of mental abilities, Schaie (1983, 1994, 1996) has documented that most mental abilities remain strong through early and middle adulthood. Eighty percent showed no declines by age 60, and almost two-thirds were still stable through age 80. From “The Course of Adult Intellectual Development,” by K. W. Schaie, 1994, American Psychologists, 49, 304–313. Copyright © by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted by permission of the author.

45 Living with an intimate partner Rates increasing over past 20 years
Cohabitation Living with an intimate partner Rates increasing over past 20 years Tend to be short-lived: separate or get married Reasons for cohabitating: test out compatibility or as alternative to marriage (gay and lesbian couples) « Technology Tip United States Census Bureau provides a wealth of statistical information on various lifestyles in adulthood such as marriage, divorce, and cohabitation rates.

46 Marriage: Adaptation, Satisfaction and Gender Differences
95% of Americans get married at some point 60% of marriages worldwide are arranged Successful marriage involves adaptation Satisfying marriages: similar backgrounds, waiting to marry, supportive behaviors Dissatisfying: negative comments, contempt, defensiveness, and criticism « Discussion Tip Have students generate reasons why married men in the United States enjoy better health and well-being than married women. « Teaching Tip After students have completed reading the section on satisfying marital relationships, divide them into small groups and have students develop a “manual” on how to have a happy and successful marriage.

47 Figure 9.8 Marital Satisfaction and Stages of Parenting
First documented by Rollins and Feldman (1975) and later replicated in many studies, the graph shows the percentage of husbands and wives who say their marriage was going well “all the time” at various stages while raising children. Adapted from Boyd C. Rollins and Harold Feldman, “Marital Satisfaction Over the Family Cycle,” Journal of Marriage and the Family, 32 (February), 25. Copyrighted 1975 by the National Council on Family Relations, 3989 Central Ave., N.E., Suite 550, Minneapolis, MN Reprinted by permission.

48 Reactions to Death: Kubler-Ross’s Stages
Death is a process, not a single point in time In current society, death is an isolated process Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Researcher on death and dying Identified five reactions of dying people Legitimacy, but not sequence, of stages confirmed through research May be experienced with other losses Other factors influence experience of death « Technology Tip Funerals and Grief Support site is a free consumer resource on funeral planning and grief support and counseling. « Discussion Tip Talking about death can be quite intimidating for many students. Consider discussing students’ fears about death before studying this topic.

49 Kubler-Ross Stages Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance
« Teaching Tip The movie My Life poignantly illustrates Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying. Consider watching a small portion of the movie in class or assigning students to watch the movie outside of class. Then in small groups or in a written paper , have students detail how the behavior of the main character (played by Michael Keaton) evidences each stage of dying.

50 Bereavement and Grief: How We Respond to Death
Bereavement = experience of losing loved one Grief = emotional reaction to loss Although a personal experience, research has identified common themes within three phases

51 Phases Impact Confrontation Accommodation
Disbelief, numbness, which dulls emotional pain Perform needed functions Confrontation Deep despair and agony Physical symptoms Confronting loss Accommodation Acceptance and reengagement

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