Presentation on theme: "Modeling Cold Load Pickup Eric Jung. Agenda Traditional methods of analysis Un-diversified load allocation Emergency capacity determinations Voltage drop."— Presentation transcript:
Agenda Traditional methods of analysis Un-diversified load allocation Emergency capacity determinations Voltage drop analysis Examples
What is Cold Load Pickup? Cold load pickup is a loss of diversity following an extended outage. Cold refers to the state of the load, not the ambient temperature. Problems stem from thermostatically controlled loads.
Inland Hurricane…or Derecho? SouthEasterns Service Territory
Rule of thumb Methods & Shortcomings Assume 200%-300% of full load current –Only a 100% swing…Is that all? Fails to take nature of load into account Traditional methods require: –Normal peak data –Many assumptions
Requirements for modeling Billing file with 15-minute interval data –With AMR data, this is no problem. –Without AMR data, this must be calculated. Knowledge of operational characteristics of C&I customers –How will load ramp up after an outage? –What load will pick up immediately?
Un-diversified load allocation 1.Set sources to swing. 2.Set all load groups to diversity fixed. 3.CF % for residential should be 95%-100%. 4.C&I groups are variable. 5.Apply and Run
Emergency system capacity The following capacities must be determined: –Short time overload capacity of substation transformer –Emergency conductor capacity –Overcurrent device capacity Emergency voltage standards must be established.
Emergency capacity of sub transformer FA 65˚C rating is 25%-40% above base Short time overload of < 30 min –50% pre-outage loading = 168% overload –70% pre-outage loading = 158% overload –90% pre-outage loading = 145% overload Combined yield: –181%-235% over base 55˚C rating
Determine capacity of conductor Emergency ampacity of overhead conductor: Emergency ampacity using 100˚C conductor temperature (no change in ambient) –122% @ 25 C˚ Ambient –131% @ 40 C˚ Ambient
Determine capacity of conductor example Emergency ampacity of 4/0 ACSR in 0˚C (32˚F) ambient Emergency ampacity of #2 ACSR in 38˚C (100˚F) ambient
Determine capacity of system protection Electronic Reclosers –Minimum phase trip setting –Ground trip must account for downstream single phase devices. –Windmill will base capacity on lowest Min Trip. Hydraulic Recloser –Cooper reclosers reference R280-90-4 –Limit to 150% of series coil rating
Voltage drop setup: capacity Set capacity colors to match emergency capacities. Could use Color by Custom. –Allows further breakdown to fuse, OCR… –Allows multiple colors based on % over capacity
Voltage drop setup: voltage ANSI C84.1-2006 Range B standard –91.7%-105.8% nominal When is Range B tolerable? –Short term emergency conditions –Should be corrected as soon as possible to Range A
Principle Lessons Learned System protection –Should be based on: Capacity Fault current Cold load pickup Coordination –Should not be based on: Load current Some arbitrary minimum fault impedance The way weve always done it.
Contact info Eric Jung Engineering Manager SouthEastern IL Electric Co-op email@example.com