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Native Americans of America

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1 Native Americans of America
Learning about Tribes of North America

2 Kwakiutl Location- Pacific Northwest Coast and British Columbia, Canada Climate- cold dry region with most of the precipitation coming in the form of snow. Clothing- Kwakiutl men didn't usually wear clothing at all, though some men wore a breech cloth. Women wore short skirts made of cedar bark. In colder weather, both genders wore knee-length tunics, long cloaks of shredded cedar bark, and moccasins on their feet.

3 Kwakiutl Type of housing- coastal villages of rectangular cedar-plank houses with bark roofs. Usually these houses were large (up to 100 feet long) and each one housed several families from the same clan (as many as 50 people.) Food- The Kwakiutl Indians were fishing people. Kwakiutl men caught fish and sea mammals from their canoes. They also hunted deer, birds, and small game. Kwakiutl women gathered clams and shellfish, seaweed, berries, and roots.

4 Kwakiutl Interesting Facts- Kwakiutl women gathered plants, herbs and clams and did most of the child care and cooking. Men were fishermen and hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine. The Kwakiutl chief was always a man, but the clan leaders could be either men or women.

5 Nez Perce Location: Mostly Idaho- some in Oregon and Washington State
Climate: Cold and wet, especially in the mountainous regions. Clothing: Nez Perce women wore long deerskin dresses. Nez Perce men wore breechcloths with leather leggings and buckskin shirts. Both men and women wore moccasins on their feet.

6 Nez Perce Type of Housing- Originally, the Nez Perce lived in settled villages of earth houses. They made these homes by digging an underground room, then building a wooden frame over it and covering the frame with earth, cedar bark, and Tule mats. There were two styles of Nez Perce earth houses: oval-shaped longhouses, which could be as long as 150 feet, and smaller round houses. Dozens of families lived together in a longhouse, while only one family lived in a round house.

7 Nez Perce Food- The Nez Perce were fishing and hunting people. Nez Perce men caught salmon and other fish, and also hunted in the forests for deer, elk, and other game. Once they acquired horses, the Nez Perce tribe began to follow the buffalo herds like their Plains Indian neighbors. Nez Perce women also gathered roots, fruits, nuts and seeds to add to their diet. Interesting Facts- Nez Perce women were in charge of the home. Besides cooking and cleaning, a Nez Perce woman made most of the clothing and tools her family needed. Nez Perce men were hunters and warriors, responsible for feeding and defending their families. Only men became Nez Perce chiefs, but both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine.

8 Inuit Location- Arctic
Climate- Cold and Harsh with long cold winters and cool summers. Clothing- Only fur clothing was warm enough in such a cold place.  The Inuit preferred the fur of the caribou, though they sometimes used fur of other animals such as seals and polar bear.  Type of Housing- Igloo. To make an igloo, hard-packed snow was cut into blocks with a long knife made of bone, ivory, or metal. A man could build an  igloo in an hour. In the igloo, Inuit slept on a low snow platform covered with twigs and caribou furs. Each igloo had a skylight made of freshwater ice. When summer arrived the igloo melted, and the family had to move into tents made of animal skins.

9 Inuit Food- The Inuit people hunt for their food.  They eat primarily fish, sea mammals and a few land mammals. They hunt seals, especially, the ring seal. Inuit know a great deal about how seals live.  They also know about ice that covers the sea in the winter.  They know where to go on that ice to find the seals. Interesting Fact- Men and women did different things.  Men were the hunters and home builders, while women prepared the food, worked on skins and made the clothing.  Men and women needed each other.  Every Inuit got married.

10 Hopi Location- Northwestern Arizona Climate- Cool and dry
Clothing- Originally, Hopi men didn't wear much clothing-- only breechcloths or short kilts (men's skirts). Hopi women wore knee-length cotton dresses called mantas. A manta fastened at a woman's right shoulder, leaving her left shoulder bare. Missionaries didn't think this dress style was modest enough, so in the 1900's many Hopi women started wearing blouses underneath their mantas. This style is still in use today. Men and women both wore deerskin moccasins on their feet.

11 Hopi Type of Housing- Hopi people lived in adobe houses, which are multi-story house complexes made of adobe (clay and straw baked into hard bricks) and stone. Each adobe unit was home to one family, like a modern apartment. Hopi people used ladders to reach the upstairs apartments. A Hopi adobe house can contain dozens of units and was often home to an entire extended clan. Here are some pictures of Hopi adobe homes and other Indian houses. Food- The Hopis were expert farming people. They planted crops of corn, beans, and squash, as well as cotton and tobacco, and raised turkeys for their meat. Hopi men also hunted deer, antelope, and small game, while women gathered nuts, fruits, and herbs. Favorite Hopi recipes included hominy, baked beans, soups, and different types of cornbread.

12 Hopi Interesting Fact- Generally, Hopi women were in charge of the home and family. Hopi clans are matrilineal, which means Hopi people trace their family through their mothers. Hopi men were in charge of politics, agriculture and war. Hopi political leaders and warriors were traditionally always men. Both genders took part in storytelling, music and artwork, and traditional medicine.

13 Seminole Location- Florida Climate- Hot, humid, and wet
Clothing- Seminole men wore breechcloths. Seminole women wore wraparound skirts, usually woven from palmetto. Shirts were not necessary in Seminole culture, but men and women both wore poncho-style mantles in cool weather. The Seminoles also wore moccasins on their feet.

14 Seminole Type of Housing- The Seminole people lived in houses called chickees. Seminole chickees were made of wood and plaster, and the roofs were thatched with palmetto fiber. Here are some pictures of chickees like the ones Seminole Indians used. Food- The Seminoles were farming people. Seminole women harvested crops of corn, beans, and squash. Seminole men did most of the hunting and fishing, catching game such as deer, wild turkeys, rabbits, turtles, and alligators. Seminole Indian dishes included cornbread, soups, and stews.

15 Seminole Interesting Facts- Seminole men were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Seminole women were farmers and also did most of the child care and cooking. Both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine. In the past, the chief was always a man, but today a Seminole woman can participate in government too.

16 Pawnee Location- The Pawnee Indians are original people of Nebraska and Kansas. Climate- Moderate but cool at times. Clothing- Pawnee women wore deerskin skirts and poncho-like blouses. Pawnee men wore breechcloths and leather leggings. Men did not usually wear shirts, but warriors sometimes wore special buckskin war shirts. The Pawnees wore moccasins on their feet, and in cold weather, they wore long buffalo-hide robes.

17 Pawnee Type of Housing- Most Pawnee Indians lived in settled villages of round earthen lodges. Pawnee lodges were made from wooden frames covered with packed earth. When the Pawnee tribe went on hunting trips, they used buffalo-hide tipis (or teepees) as temporary shelter, similar to camping tents. Here are some pictures of lodges, tipis, and other Indian houses. Food- The Pawnees were farming people. Pawnee women raised crops of corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers. The men worked together to hunt buffalo and antelopes. Originally, Pawnee hunters would drive buffalo onto marshy land where it was easier to shoot them, but once they acquired horses, they hunted buffalo from horseback.

18 Pawnee Interesting Facts- Pawnee men were hunters and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Pawnee women were farmers and also did most of the child care and cooking. Only men became Pawnee chiefs, but both genders took part in storytelling, artwork and music, and traditional medicine.

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