Presentation on theme: "Native American Nations"— Presentation transcript:
1Native American Nations Description: The student will describe how early Native American cultures developed in North America.a. Locate where the American Indians settled with emphasis on Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plateau (Nez Perce), Southwest (Hopi), Plains (Pawnee), and Southeastern (Seminole). b. Describe how the American Indians used their environment to obtain food, clothing, and shelter.Created by Sharon AmoloSharon Amolo is a Media Specialist at Gwin Oaks Elementary
2Click on the Arctic region to learn more about the Inuit.
3The Inuit of Alaska and Northwest Canada The Inuit lived in the extreme arctic climate of Northwest Canada and Alaska. The Inuit have lived in the Arctic for thousands of years. The area has cold and harsh winters and cool summers.
4Inuit FoodThe Inuit of Alaska and Northwest Canada caught or hunted the food they ate. They traveled and fished along the ocean and seashore each season. They used harpoons to hunt the animals. The main food they hunted were seals. They also ate whales, walruses, caribou (reindeer), polar bears, and birds. They also gathered plants such as grasses and seaweed.
5Inuit HousingThe Inuit built homes called igloos. The igloos were made fromsnow and ice. In the arctic, there are not many building materials.No trees grow in the arctic so houses can not be made from wood.Instead the Inuit used blocks of snow to make their homes. In thesummer, when the snow melts, the Inuit lived in tent-like huts madeof animal skins stretched over a frame.
6Inuit ClothingThe Inuit wore thick clothing made from caribou and seal hides.They also made all of their outer clothing waterproof since theyhunted for a lot of their food in canoes.
7Click on the Pacific Northwest to learn about the Kwakiutl.
8The Kwakiutl of the Pacific Northwest The Kwakiutl lived on the northwest Pacific coast in the area that is now extends from the top of California to Alaska. The area had lots of trees. The summers were warm and the winters were mild and rainy.
9Kwakiutl FoodThe Kwakiutl ate fish as their main source of food. Kwakiutl men also hunted deer and moose, while women gathered shellfish, seaweed, roots, and berries.
10Kwakiutl HousingThe Kwakiutl lived in longhouses made from the large cedar trees which surrounded them. The homes only had one door and no windows. There was also a hole in the top of the house to let smoke out. The Kwakiutl also painted symbols on the front and inside of their homes and had totem poles that told their family history.
11Kwakiutl ClothingThe Kwakiutl wore different clothing depending on the season. In the summer the men wore breechcloths made from grass. The women wore dresses made from the same types of grasses. In the winter both men and women wore clothes made from animal skins.
12Click on the Plateau region to learn about the Nez Perce.
13The Nez Perce of the Plateau Nez Perce live in the plateaus and the valleys of what is now known as north central Idaho, Montana, northeastern Oregon, and southeastern Washington.
14Nez Perce FoodThe Nez Perce were fishing and hunting people. Nez Perce men caught salmon and other fish, and also hunted in the forests for deer and elk. They also hunted buffalo herds in the open plateaus. Nez Perce women gathered roots, fruits, nuts and seeds.
15Nez Perce Housing earth house teepee teepee earth lodge Originally, the Nez Perce lived in earth houses made by digging an underground room, then building a wooden frame over it and covering the frame with earth, cedar bark, and mats. Once the Nez Perce began hunting the buffalo, they began to use teepees like the Plains tribes.
16Nez Perce ClothingNez Perce women wore long deerskin dresses. Nez Perce men wore breechcloths with leather leggings and buckskin shirts. Their clothes were fringed and decorated with beadwork, shells, and painted designs. Sometimes the leaders wore feather headdresses. Both Nez Perce women and men both wore their hair long, either leaving it loose or putting it into two braids.
18The Hopi of the Southwest The Hopi lived in the low, flat desert and high plateaus of the dry southwest. They were desert dwellers and lived in permanent villages.
19Hopi FoodThe Hopi were farmers and sheepherders. The main food they ate and grew was corn, but they also grew beans, squash, melons, and other vegetables and fruits. Another food that made was Piki bread. The men usually farmed and herded animals. The Hopi also raised turkeys and gathered wild plants for food.
20Hopi HousingHopi traditionally live in terraced pueblo structures made of stone and adobe (sun-baked clay). Their houses had flat roofs, were several stories high, and were often joined together in groups.
21Hopi ClothingThe clothing the Hopi wore was made of animal skins and cotton. The Hopi clothes fit very loose. On an average day the men wore shirts and tunics and the women wore skirts or dresses. In the winter they added shawls, blankets and extra clothing to their outfits.
22Click on the Plains region to learn about the Pawnee.
23The Pawnees of the Plains The Pawnee once lived in the plains region in what is now Nebraska. The villages consisted of 10 to 12 large, round, earth-covered houses. The Pawnee left their villages once or twice a year to hunt buffalo on the plains.
24Pawnee Food buffalo corn squash The Pawnee got most of their food from farming. The women raised corn (maize), squash, pumpkins, and beans. The Pawnee also used horses during their buffalo hunts. However, the hunting was secondary to farming .
25Pawnees Housing teepee earth lodge The Pawnee lived in large, dome shaped, earth-covering lodges. Skin tepees were used for buffalo hunts. Pawnee were unlike most of the Plains Indians since their villages tended to be permanent.
26Pawnees ClothingThe Pawnee wore different clothing depending on the season. In the summer women wore skirts and moccasins and men wore loincloths. Men also wore a second belt that they used to hang their tomahawks, knives and guns. In the winter men wore buffalo robes and long leather pants, while women wore buck skin dresses with leggings. Both men and women would pierce their ears and wear beaded earrings. Pawnee men shaved all the hair on their head except for a small piece on the top.
27Click on the Southeast to learn about the Seminole.
28The Seminole of the Southeast The Seminole lived in the southeast in what is now Florida. They were originally part of the Creek tribe of Georgia. As settlers moved into Creek territory in the early 1700s the Seminole fled to Florida. While there they formed an independent Native American nation.
29Seminole Food beans turtle alligator corn The Seminoles were farming people. Some of the foods they planted included squash, beans, maize, and pumpkins. The women also gathered wild plants for eating. Seminole women harvested crops. Seminole men did most of the hunting and fishing, catching game such as deer, wild turkeys, rabbits, turtles, and alligators.
30Seminole HousingThe Seminoles lived in large villages built near their fields. The Seminole built houses called chickees. The chickee was made out of wooden poles and had roofs covered with branches, palmetto leaves, and grass. The walls to the houses were open and were built on a platform to keep them safe from the swamp water, snakes, and alligators.
31Seminole ClothingSeminole men wore breechcloths. Seminole women wore wraparound skirts, usually woven from palmetto leaves. Both men and women wore ponchos in cool weather. After the white settlers arrived the Seminoles adapted European clothing and the men began wearing turbans and long colorful tunics while the women wore full patchwork skirts.
32GREAT JOB!Click on this link to see if you can identify the houses, plants, and animals of the different groups.