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Fundamentals of Petrochemicals Presented by Umar Raja 25th May 2011.

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1 Fundamentals of Petrochemicals Presented by Umar Raja 25th May 2011

2 Introduction  Mr Umar Raja, Principal Process Engineer Umar has over 20 years experience in developing concept and detail design with an ability to see them through start-up, operations and operations management.  The goal of today's workshop is to quickly and effectively bring you up to speed with the language, concepts and key issues in the petrochemical industry. It has been designed for managers, engineers, graduates, operators and other personnel who are new or are requiring insight into the Refining and Petrochemicals industry.  The workshop will provide an excellent overview for people from technical, non- technical and commercial backgrounds, who have limited experience and wish to improve their familiarity with some of the systems and technologies involved.

3 Summary  Chemical Industry  Oil Refineries & Petrochemical Refineries  Feed Stocks & Products  Basic Building Block Chemicals  Process Flow Configuration  Hands-on Session - Constructing simplified flow-schemes  Major Processes: Separation, Reaction, Equipment and Environment  The Petrochem business?  Role of Engineers  Challenges in the Chemical Industry  Where can I get more information  Workshop Summary & Questions

4 The Chemical Industry  Chemical products made from gas and crude oil (~70000 products)  End products include plastics, soaps, detergents, solvents, paints, drugs, fertilizer, pesticides, explosives, synthetic textile fibres and rubbers, flooring and insulating materials and much more.  The largest petrochemical manufacturing industries are to be found in the United States, Western Europe, Asia and the Middle East.  In 2007, 2,980 operating plants worldwide  10 Million direct employees, 50 million indirect employees  Annual growth rate 2.4 %. Global enterprise valued at $2.2 Trillion …… and growing!

5 Refining -The Mother Industry 5-6% 95% C R U D E O I L

6 Petrochemical Refinery THE PURPOSE OF A PETROCHEM REFINERY IS TO TRANSFORM RELATIVELY LOW VALUE PRODUCTS FROM OIL REFINERY INTO HIGH VALUE PRODUCTS AS EFFICIENTLY, PROFITABLY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND A WAY AS POSSIBLE

7 Petrochemical Refinery

8 Feed Stocks & Products

9 Chemical Industry- Product Pattern

10 Basic Building Blocks aromatics The term ‘aromatics’ is typically used to describe  Benzene  Toluene  Xylenes BTX aromatics These are commonly referred to as BTX aromatics and are produced in a refinery or petrochemicals complex olefins The term ‘olefins’ is used to describe molecules with a C double bond  Ethylene  Propylene  ButenesButadiene  Butenes or Butadiene light olefins These are commonly referred to as light olefins and are also produced in a refinery or petrochemicals complex very high-value Olefins and aromatics are very high-value products  Prices have reached over 1,000 $ / tonne for Paraxylene and benzene Ethylene and propylene. Compared to naphtha at 40-60% of this value

11 Basic Building Blocks- Aromatics Benzene, C 6 H 6, colourless and highly flammable liquid  Carcinogen, additive in gasoline now limited  Building block for over 250 products e.g.. Ethyl benzene (for styrene), Cumene (for phenol), Cyclohexane

12 Basic Building Blocks- Aromatics

13 Toluene (Methylbenzene), C 7 H 8 or C 6 H 5 CH 3, is a clear, water-insoluble liquid  Produces benzene and xylenes  Toluene for toluene diisocyanate (TDI), manufactures polyurethane  Produces phenol, caprolactam, nitrobenzene, benzoic acid.  Octane booster in gasoline  50% produces benzene and xylenes, 25% in solvents and 10% in the TDI. Around 15% of demand is by gasoline. [1] Basic Building Blocks- Aromatics

14 Paraxylene (p-Xylene), C 8 H 10, is colourless and a flammable liquid  Isomers are O-xylene and M-xylene  One of the fastest growing petrochemicals  p-Xylene is used for PTA, DMT and PET for polyester  High purity needed for polymerisation process Basic Building Blocks- Aromatics

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16 Basic Building Blocks - Olefins  Ethylene, C 2 H 4, is a gaseous organic compound  Simplest Olefin Chemical feedstock  Most produced organic compound  90% used to produce three chemical compounds −ethylene oxide −ethylene dichloride −ethylbenzene −polyethylene

17 Ethylene Ethyl Benzene Styrene Polystyrene Ethylene Oxide Ethylene Glycols Polymers, HDPE, LLDPE, LDPE LDPE Ethylene Dichloride Vinyl Chloride Monomer PVC Basic Building Blocks - Olefins

18 LDPE produces containers, dispensing bottles, tubing, plastic bags. Other products made from it include: Food storage and laboratory containersFood storage and laboratory containers Parts that require flexibility, for which it serves very wellParts that require flexibility, for which it serves very well Parts of computer hardware, such as hard disk drives, screen cards, and optical disc drives

19 Basic Building Blocks - Olefins HDPE is resistant to solvents and has a wide variety of applications, including: Plastic lumber Folding tables/chairs Storage sheds Chemical-resistant piping systems Water pipes, for domestic water supply Refillable bottles Bottle Caps

20 Basic Building Blocks - Olefins  Butadiene, C 4 H 6  Main intermediate for polymer production  Product of steam cracking  Light feeds, give primarily ethylene and heavier feeds form heavier olefins, butadiene, and aromatic hydrocarbons.  Most butadiene is used in styrene-butadiene rubber (BDR) production for the tyre industry (~28%)  Other polymers include Polybutadiene (PB), styrene-butadiene latex (SBL), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)

21 Basic Building Blocks - Olefins shoe heels and soles, gaskets and even chewing gum. Musical instruments golf club heads (due to its good shock absorbance), automotive trim components, automotive bumper bars, enclosures for electrical and electronic assemblies, protective headgear, whitewater canoes, buffer edging for furniture and joinery panels, luggage, small kitchen appliances, and toys, eg. Lego bricks

22 Basic Building Blocks - Olefins Propylene, C 3 H 6  Converts to acetone and phenol via the cumene process  Produces isopropanol (propan-2-ol), acrylonitrile.  Separated by distillation from hydrocarbon mixtures.  Products include plastic items for medical/laboratory, kettles, food containers, clear bags and ropes. Propylene PolypropylenePropylene Oxide Oxo alcohols / isopropyl alcohol/ acrylic acid/ Acrylonitrile Cumene Ethylene / Propylene Rubbers

23 Petrochemical Refinery – Flow Configuration

24 Major Processes – Aromatics Complex & Naphtha Cracker Paraxylene 1400 Kta Benzene 932 Kta Medium/Heavy Naphtha 2923 Kta Naphtha Cracker DeC5’d Pygas 440 Kta Light Naphtha 3489 Kta Propylene 720 Kta Ethylene 1440 Kta MTBE 185 Kta Butadiene 200 Kta C2/C3 Cut 162 Kta LPG 291 Kta L.t Naphtha 308 Kta H 2 92 KtaH 2 35 Kta H 2 Export 127 Kta Heavy Aromatics 26 Kta Tail Gas 85 Kta Butene 1 54 Kta Toluene 0 Kta Catalytic reformer for aromatics ̶ Feeds are heavy naphtha ̶ 60-70% yield of aromatics ̶ Up to 5% benzene, more in dedicated ‘benzene reformers’ Steam cracker for olefins ̶ Feeds are ethane, propane, C4s, naphtha ̶ 50-80% yield of olefins, 2–13% yield of BTX Aromatics Complex

25 Aromatics Complex - Overview The following processes recover aromatic compounds from mixture  Distillation  Extraction  Purification The following processes convert lower-value aromatics into higher value aromatics  Xylene isomerisation  Toluene conversion  C9+ aromatics conversion

26 Aromatics Complex - Overview  Distillation won’t separate aromatics from non-aromatics due to the similar boiling points  Aromatic are extracted from non-aromatic using either −Solvent extraction (liquid-liquid extraction) −Extractive distillation −Hybrid extraction (combination of the two)  Purification of paraxylene from other C8 aromatics when not achieved by distillation uses following two techniques −Crystallisation exploits wide differences in freezing points −Adsorption exploits differences in molecular shapes

27 Aromatics Complex - Production Processes

28  Catalytic Reformer Operation with high catalyst activity to increase reformate aromatic yields from 50% to 75%  UDEX Process (UOP Dow Extraction) Aromatic rich feed with solvent removes non Aromatics in raffinate stream and aromatics in extract stream.  Sulfolane TM Process similar to the UDEX but uses internal recycle streams to enhance separation and aromatic recovery  Sulfolane by Shell Oil Company in the early 1960s is still the most efficient solvent available for the recovery of aromatics. Aromatics Complex - Production Processes

29 Aromatics Complex - Sulfolane TM Process

30 Aromatics Complex - Chemical Transformations  Toluene conversion into xylenes or benzene can be classified into 3 categories depending on the feed: −100% toluene feed −Toluene together with C 9 and heavier aromatics −Toluene plus methanol Toluene Hydrodemethylation to convert toluene to benzene −Highly exothermic, hydrogen atmosphere to suppress coke formation −Demethylation of occurs at about 650°F and 82barg

31 Aromatics Complex - Chemical Transformations + P-xylene H2OH2OH2OH2O + CH 3 OH  Toluene hydro de-alkylation  Toluene methylation: Toluene and methanol + benzene CH 4 + H 2

32 Aromatics Complex - Chemical Transformations

33 Toluene Disproportionation to convert toluene to benzene and xylene  2 moles of toluene into 1 mole of benzene and 1 mole of xylene  Catalyst transfers methyl group from one methylbenzene ring to another methylbenzene ring  Expensive than hydrodemethylation.  Involves hydrogen as reaction mixture is equilibrium limited. Aromatics Complex - Chemical Transformations 2 + Mixed xylene Benzene

34 Aromatics Complex - Chemical Transformations

35 Process in which mixed C8 aromatics depleted in paraxylene are isomerised to produce more paraxylene There are two types of xylene isomerisation  Ethylbenzene (EB) isomerisation  Ethylbenzene (EB) dealkylation The reaction path is dependent on catalyst used Aromatics Complex - Chemical Transformations CH5C2H5CH5C2H5 + H 2 CH5C2H5CH5C2H5 + C 2 H 6 Mixed xylenes Benzene

36 Xylene Isomerisation Process  Feed and hydrogen are preheated to reaction temperature  Isomerisation reactor is a fixed bed down flow vessel operating at temperatures of 450C and 31barg  Deheptanizer separates isomerised product as the bottoms stream Aromatics Complex - Chemical Transformations

37 Aromatics Complex – Selective Adsorption  Isomers boil closely and conventional distillation is not practical.  Parex process simulates a moving bed of adsorbent  Separation takes place in the adsorbent chambers.  99.9 wt-% pure para-xylene at 97 wt-% recovery per pass Parex process to separate Paraxylene from Xylene mixtures

38 Naphtha Steam Cracking – olefins The feedstock is heated to the point that the energy transfer from heat is enough to ’crack’ the molecule into two or more smaller molecules. High heat input Mixture HC and steam passed through tubes inside a furnace Very Short Residence Time <1s Rapid Quench of reaction followed by distillation % yield of olefins, 2– 13% yield of BTX

39 Naphtha Steam Cracking – Overview

40 Hands on Session 1)The petrochemicals may be olefins or their precursors, or various types of ________ petrochemicals. 2) An ________ _______ is a combination of process units which are used to convert _________, from a variety of sources, and ___________ into the basic petrochemical intermediates: ______, ______, and ______. 3) Aromatics can be produced from variety of different feedstocks, including ______, _______, ________, and ___________. 4) Fill in the missing components for polystyrene production ______________ _____________________________ Polystyrene

41 Hands on Session 5) Fill in the missing process link 6) Traditional _________ won’t separate aromatics from non- aromatics due to _____ _____ ______. Aromatic components can be extracted from non-aromatic components using ____ _____ or _______ _______. 7) The two processes used to purify paraxylene from other C8 aromatics are ___________ and ___________. 8) _____________ exploits wide differences in freezing points and adsorption exploits differences in _________ ___________. 9) Toluene via ____________ or __________with C9- aromatics can produce _____ and an equilibrium mixture of xylenes. Ethylene, propylene, Butenes & butadiene Naphtha (  C) ?

42 Hands on Session 10)Fill in the missing processes and components for the aromatic complex block flow below: ? ? ? Gas ? Toluene ? C 9 Aromatics TADP Separation ? MetaxyleneIsomerisation ? O-xylene / M- xylene separation ? O- xylene

43 Hands on Session 1)The petrochemicals may be olefins or their precursors, or various types of ________ petrochemicals. 2) An ________ _______ is a combination of process units which are used to convert _________, from a variety of sources, and ___________ into the basic petrochemical intermediates: ______, ______, and ______. 3) Aromatics can be produced from variety of different feedstocks, including ______, _______, ________, and ___________. 4) Fill in the missing components for polystyrene production ______________ _____________________________ Polystyrene Benzene EthylbenzeneStyrene Ethylene Aromatic AromaticsComplex Naphtha Py Gas Benzene TolueneXylene Naphtha LPG Condensate

44 Hands on Session 5) Fill in the missing process link 6) Traditional _________ won’t separate aromatics from non- aromatics due to _____ _________. Aromatic components can be extracted from non-aromatic components using ____ _____ or _______ _______. 7) The two processes used to purify paraxylene from other C8 aromatics are ___________ and ___________. 8) _____________ exploits wide differences in freezing points and adsorption exploits differences in _______________. 9) Toluene via _____________ or ___________with C9-aromatics can produce _______and an equilibrium mixture of xylenes. distillation similar boiling points solvent extraction extraction distillation crystallisation adsorption crystallisation molecularshapes Ethylene, propylene, Butenes & butadiene cracking Naphtha (  C) disproportionation transalkylation benzene

45 Hands on Session 10)Fill in the missing processes and components for the aromatic complex block flow below: Hydrotreating Reformer naphtha Gas Toluene Benzene C 9 Aromatics TADP Separation Paraxylene Separation MetaxyleneIsomerisation P-xylene O-xylene / M- xylene separation O- xylene Benzene Toluene Separation Orthoxylene Separation

46 Reaction and Reactor  Reaction - Process leading to transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.  Reactor - Confines within which reaction occurs.  Principal is not just confined to industrial reactors; but; - Metabolic Processes in Living Organisms -Atmospheric Chemistry.

47 Ideal, Batch and Flow Reactor  Ideal Reactor- has uniform temperature, pressure and composition. -In practice reactor temperature, pressure and composition are not uniform.  Batch Reactor- Where reactor mass is not exchanged with surroundings  Flow Reactor - Where reactor mass is exchanged with surroundings.

48 Adiabatic and Isothermal Reactor Adiabatic Reactor- Where Reactor does not exchange heat with surrounding. Isothermal Reactor- Where Reactor has good contact with surrounding but held at constant temperature (in both time and position within reactor).

49 CSTR or MFR Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor OR Mixed Flow Reactor. Reaction occurs at constant pressure, constant temperature; and composition inside reactor is assumed to be that of effluent.

50 Tubular Reactor Ideal Tubular or Plug Flow Reactor Reactor operating isothermally and at constant pressure and at steady-state with unique residence time. Fluid fills the tube and moves like a plug down the length of the tube. Fluid properties are uniform over cross-section normal to direction of flow.

51 Industrial Reaction  What is expected from a Reaction? - Product of Choice  What is a Catalyst? -Substance that enhances reaction without being consumed

52 2NH3 Reactants Ammonia Synthesis N2 + 3H2

53 Reaction and Catalyst  How long should a reaction take? -Fast to be economical  What is Economical? -Good value in relation to money, time and effort  Ammonia is a cheap commodity, so catalyst must be cheap and durable! Lasts longer and produces 2000 times its value.

54 Industrial Reaction  If conversion is less what comes to mind?  How to dramatically improve it?  What are the factors? -Catalysts -Thermodynamics  Which of above is a primary Consideration? - Thermo is Primary- Catalyst is Secondary

55 Kinetics Identification of Reaction - Elementary and Stoichiometric Reaction H 2 +Br 2 2HBr - Multi-step arrangement in Network (sequence/intermediates) Br+H 2 → HBr + H H+Br 2 → HBr + Br Break or Make a single chemical bond. Must be written the way it takes place.

56 Environment - Water Petrochemical Refinery environmental impacts on Water: process wastewater from desalting, distillation, cracking, and reforming operations about 24% of total emissions is released to wastewater large quantities of cooling water

57 Environment - Air Petrochemical Refinery environmental impacts on Air:  volatile hydrocarbons from crude oil  SO x from crude oil and process heat  NO x and particulates from process heat  H 2 S from sulfur recovery operations  about 75% of total emissions by weight are released to air

58 Environment – Waste & Global Warming Solid Waste  Petrochemical plants generate significant amounts of solid waste and sludge, some of which is hazardous because of organics and heavy metals. Contribution to Global warming  energy-intensive operation  most of the energy is consumed as process heat  thus, little prospect for replacement of process energy by renewable or non-CO2-intensive sources Of great concern are accidental discharges as a result of abnormal operation. Of great concern are accidental discharges as a result of abnormal operation.

59 Environment - Minimising Pollution  Operate Furnaces Efficiently  Waste Material to Flare  Avoiding Spills and Accidental Releases  Water Treatment

60 Petrochemical Business P rice and quality of feedstock and products is constantly changing. Government regulations add additional constraints. Not much differential between price of feedstock’s and products. HOW DO I KEEP IN BUSINESS?

61  I need to design and revamp the plant utilizing the latest technology to be more efficient  I need to make the plant more flexible and responsive  I need to operate (control) the plant in the most efficient manner possible  I need to keep the equipment running all the time I NEED ENGINEERS! Petrochemical Business

62 Role of Engineers  Operations & Maintenance Engineers  Control Systems Engineer  Design Engineer  Health & Safety  Environmental Impacts  Planning & Scheduling  Reliability Engineer  Plant Manager

63 Chemical Industry- The Challenges  Feedstock availability and increasing cost  Environmental controls e.g. increasing constraints on emissions  Energy Savings  Process Efficiency  Catalyst Development  Increasing demand for products

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65 Workshop Summary  Presented only some of the main processes in petrochemicals, others downstream are polymers, plastics, fibres and resins is extensive.  A petrochemical refinery is made up of a combination of highly integrated processes such as distillation, extraction, and various separation operations.  Olefins and aromatics are the building blocks for a wide range of materials and products  Aromatic complexes is a general term for a combination of process units that produce the three basic chemicals  Crackers convert feed-stocks into ethylene, propylene, butane, butadiene via cracking.

66 Further Information Books: Speight, James. G. 2002, Chemical Process and Design Handbook John Wiley & Sons. 2007, Wiley Critical Content - Petroleum Technology, Volume 1-2 Chenier, P. 2002, Survey of Industrial Chemistry, Third Edition Internet: Google Search, Online Books, Articles

67 Q & A QUESTIONS

68 Summary  Keywords –Language, Concept, Key Issues  Petrochemicals- Petrochemical Refineries are a combination of highly integrated processes involving Reaction, Separation; and Extraction  Aromatics Complex- A combination of Process units that converts Naphtha and Pygas into basic chemical intermediates. Simplest configuration produces Benzene, Toluene and Xylene.  Basic Building Block Chemicals.  Process Flow Configuration  Hands-on Session - Constructing simplified flow-schemes  Major Processes: Separation, Reaction, Equipment and Environment  The Petrochem business?  Role of Engineers  Challenges in the Chemical Industry  Where can I get more information  Workshop Summary & Questions


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