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Group 6: Jacob Hebert, Michael McCutchen, Eric Powell, Jacob Reinhart

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1 Group 6: Jacob Hebert, Michael McCutchen, Eric Powell, Jacob Reinhart
Syngas Synthesis & Use Group 6: Jacob Hebert, Michael McCutchen, Eric Powell, Jacob Reinhart

2 Syngas Short name for synthetic gas made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide Created by the process of gasification (biomass steam reforming) CH4 + H2O → 3H2 + CO Main use is for the generation of electricity

3 Purpose of Syngas Syngas is an intermediate compound that holds many valuable uses. Production of syngas has: opened up a wide variety of research opportunities in renewable energy sources provided efficient production of other chemicals environmental benefits provided a safer fuel source

4 Use: Electricity Generation
Steam reforming is used to produce a liquid called pyrolysis oil, used like crude oil. Syngas has the ability to replace natural gas as a more thermally efficient liquid fuel. Electricity can be generated from the power provided by the combustion of syngas at the cost of zero carbon emissions This provides a much cleaner, economical, and renewable source instead of our common reliability on natural gas.

5 Use: Gas Engines Syngas is considered a renewable fuel since its origins mainly come from biological materials such as organic waste. Putting a carbonic waste stream through syngas synthesis converts waste to power through combustion. Benefits include : renewable power, reduction of carbon emissions, problematic wastes to usable fuel, and onsite power production.

6 Intermediate for other compounds
Methanol: Serves as a fuel that has a high octane rating, easily distributable, and its low volatility Ammonia: use as a cleaning solution, fertilizers, and is used in the production of many organic compounds like our pharmaceuticals and plastics

7 Synthesis Methods Types of carbon feedstocks:
Carbon feedstock is reacted with H2O and/or O2 to produce H2 and CO in a process called Gasification Types of carbon feedstocks: Natural gas and Heavy Oil: Requires purification of methane and higher hydrocarbons respectively Biomass and Coal: Requires pyrolysis prior to gasification Pyrolysis: decomposition of carbon material by heating in the absence of oxygen

8 Gasification: Steam Reforming
Feedstock reacts with steam to produce CO and H2 CH4 + H20  CO + 3H2 ΔH = +206kJ/mol Results in CO:H2 ratio of 1:3 Highly endothermic reaction Operating temperature can range from 800K to 1500K Heat generated by combusting part of feed stock or external heating Catalysts used to enhance reaction kinetics

9 Pyrolysis Example pyrolysis system for biomass

10 Steam Reforming Example
Steam reforming plant: Texas City, Texas.

11 Gasification: Partial Oxidation
Feedstock reacts with oxygen to produce CO and water; generated water reacts with feedstock CH O2  CO + 2H2 ΔH = -38kJ/mol Results in CO:H2 ratio of 1:2, which is desirable for methanol synthesis Exothermic, so requires less heat generation

12 Other Gasification Reactions
Autothermal Reforming: Combines steam reforming and partial oxidation into one process Can be used with CO2 feed to yield different CO:H2 Water Gas Shift: Equilibrium reaction converting between CO and H2 CO + H2O ↔ CO2 + H2 ΔH = -41kJ/mol Control T and P for desired CO: H2 ratio

13 Room for improvement According to an article in Joshua Mackaluso in Basic Biotechnology eJournal, some areas requiring future research are: Reactor design and function must be optimized Downstream marketability of syngas and its derived products and be improved Discuss optimization of the reactor through monitored flow rate, monitored agitation speed

14 Steam Reforming - Challenges
Controlling ratio of H2/CO, which can be different for different applications (H2 storage, alcohol synthesis) Achieving good conversion – need to balance side reactions, thermodynamics, kinetics Need a good water source, can be a geographical concern General catalyst concerns Nickel catalyst

15 Partial Oxidation - Challenges
Requires substantial O2 supply Very high temperatures (1400C) Generates byproducts which need to be scrubbed (e.g. HCN) … but no catalyst is used, so no issues with catalyst poisoning, coking etc. and less to consider with pressure drop, transport properties etc.

16 Future for Syngas As stated in an article by Jessica Ebert of Biomass Magazine “once you have syngas you have optionality.” This is because “Syngas has the building blocks to create all the products and chemicals currently generated in the petrochemical industry.” Significance of syngas as a product

17 Conclusions We can see that Syngas production while not yet optimized is a very important product. It is versatile and has a variety of uses. As research continues and reactors are optimized Syngas may even become a primary source of fuel; as mentioned it can replace natural gas.

18 References Synthesis Gas Chemistry and Synthetic Fuels - Syngaschem BV. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2015, from Synthesis Gas | Linde Engineering. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2015, from The magic of syngas. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2015, from Mackaluso, J. (n.d.). The use of Syngas derived from biomass and waste products to produce ethanol and hydrogen. Basic Biotechnology EJournal, 3, Retrieved from Anton, V. C. (2001). Fischer Tropsch: a futuristic view. Fuel Processing Technology 71(1), pp

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