Presentation on theme: "Group 6: Jacob Hebert, Michael McCutchen, Eric Powell, Jacob Reinhart"— Presentation transcript:
1 Group 6: Jacob Hebert, Michael McCutchen, Eric Powell, Jacob Reinhart Syngas Synthesis & UseGroup 6: Jacob Hebert, Michael McCutchen, Eric Powell, Jacob Reinhart
2 SyngasShort name for synthetic gas made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxideCreated by the process of gasification (biomass steam reforming)CH4 + H2O → 3H2 + COMain use is for the generation of electricity
3 Purpose of SyngasSyngas is an intermediate compound that holds many valuable uses.Production of syngas has:opened up a wide variety of research opportunities in renewable energy sourcesprovided efficient production of other chemicalsenvironmental benefitsprovided a safer fuel source
4 Use: Electricity Generation Steam reforming is used to produce a liquid called pyrolysis oil, used like crude oil.Syngas has the ability to replace natural gas as a more thermally efficient liquid fuel.Electricity can be generated from the power provided by the combustion of syngas at the cost of zero carbon emissionsThis provides a much cleaner, economical, and renewable source instead of our common reliability on natural gas.
5 Use: Gas EnginesSyngas is considered a renewable fuel since its origins mainly come from biological materials such as organic waste.Putting a carbonic waste stream through syngas synthesis converts waste to power through combustion.Benefits include : renewable power, reduction of carbon emissions, problematic wastes to usable fuel, and onsite power production.
6 Intermediate for other compounds Methanol: Serves as a fuel that has a high octane rating, easily distributable, and its low volatilityAmmonia: use as a cleaning solution, fertilizers, and is used in the production of many organic compounds like our pharmaceuticals and plastics
7 Synthesis Methods Types of carbon feedstocks: Carbon feedstock is reacted with H2O and/or O2 to produce H2 and CO in a process called GasificationTypes of carbon feedstocks:Natural gas and Heavy Oil:Requires purification of methane and higher hydrocarbons respectivelyBiomass and Coal:Requires pyrolysis prior to gasificationPyrolysis: decomposition of carbon material by heating in the absence of oxygen
8 Gasification: Steam Reforming Feedstock reacts with steam to produce CO and H2CH4 + H20 CO + 3H2 ΔH = +206kJ/molResults in CO:H2 ratio of 1:3Highly endothermic reactionOperating temperature can range from 800K to 1500KHeat generated by combusting part of feed stock or external heatingCatalysts used to enhance reaction kinetics
10 Steam Reforming Example Steam reforming plant: Texas City, Texas.
11 Gasification: Partial Oxidation Feedstock reacts with oxygen to produce CO and water; generated water reacts with feedstockCH O2 CO + 2H2 ΔH = -38kJ/molResults in CO:H2 ratio of 1:2, which is desirable for methanol synthesisExothermic, so requires less heat generation
12 Other Gasification Reactions Autothermal Reforming:Combines steam reforming and partial oxidation into one processCan be used with CO2 feed to yield different CO:H2Water Gas Shift:Equilibrium reaction converting between CO and H2CO + H2O ↔ CO2 + H2 ΔH = -41kJ/molControl T and P for desired CO: H2 ratio
13 Room for improvementAccording to an article in Joshua Mackaluso in Basic Biotechnology eJournal, some areas requiring future research are:Reactor design and function must be optimizedDownstream marketability of syngas and its derived products and be improvedDiscuss optimization of the reactor through monitored flow rate, monitored agitation speed
14 Steam Reforming - Challenges Controlling ratio of H2/CO, which can be different for different applications (H2 storage, alcohol synthesis)Achieving good conversion – need to balance side reactions, thermodynamics, kineticsNeed a good water source, can be a geographical concernGeneral catalyst concernsNickel catalyst
15 Partial Oxidation - Challenges Requires substantial O2 supplyVery high temperatures (1400C)Generates byproducts which need to be scrubbed (e.g. HCN)… but no catalyst is used, so no issues with catalyst poisoning, coking etc. and less to consider with pressure drop, transport properties etc.
16 Future for SyngasAs stated in an article by Jessica Ebert of Biomass Magazine “once you have syngas you have optionality.” This is because “Syngas has the building blocks to create all the products and chemicals currently generated in the petrochemical industry.”Significance of syngas as a product
17 ConclusionsWe can see that Syngas production while not yet optimized is a very important product. It is versatile and has a variety of uses.As research continues and reactors are optimized Syngas may even become a primary source of fuel; as mentioned it can replace natural gas.
18 ReferencesSynthesis Gas Chemistry and Synthetic Fuels - Syngaschem BV. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2015, fromSynthesis Gas | Linde Engineering. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2015, fromThe magic of syngas. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2015, fromMackaluso, J. (n.d.). The use of Syngas derived from biomass and waste products to produce ethanol and hydrogen. Basic Biotechnology EJournal, 3, Retrieved fromAnton, V. C. (2001). Fischer Tropsch: a futuristic view. Fuel Processing Technology 71(1), pp