5 Aromatic compound Benzene uses combined and processed with other basic chemicals (such as ethylene or propylene) to produce countless consumer goodsThe largest derivative outlet for benzene is ethylbenzeneproduction of styrenepolystyrenewidely used to produce cumenePhenol, cyclohexane, and aniline
10 Aromatic compound Benzene global demand According to a new IHS Chemical (NYSE: IHS) global market study, global demand for benzene, an aromatic hydrocarbon and one of the primary chemical building blocks for the petrochemical industry, increased to 43.7 million metric tons in 2013, an increase of 2.8 percent above demand for benzene in 2012.
16 Benzene production Extractive distillation Sulfolane Extractive Distillation Technology (SED)
17 Benzene production Catalytic reforming Reforming takes straight chain hydrocarbons in the C6 to C8 range from the gasoline or naphtha fractions and rearranges them into compounds containing benzene ringsA typical catalyst is a mixture of platinum and aluminium oxide
18 Benzene production Production from pyrolysis gasoline Pyrolysis gasoline is the by-product of steam cracking of paraffin gases, naphtha, gas oils and other hydrocarbons used to make ethylene.It contains 60% aromatics, 50% of which is benzene
22 Aromatic compound TDI uses As raw material for flexible polyurethane (PU) foam used in furniture, mattresses and car seats.rigid foams and adhesives, paints, concrete sealers, as a cross-linking agent for nylon 6, and as an intermediate in PU coatings and elastomers
27 Toluene Toluene to benzene production technology Toluene hydrodealkylationThe hydrodealkylation is conducted either purely thermally at °C and bar or catalytically at somewhat lower temperatures of °C and bar Over Cr2O3, Mo2O3, or CoO on supports (e.g., Al2O3) or, as in a recent development, at °C over Rh/Al2O3.
28 Toluene Toluene to benzene production technology Toluene disproportionation2 toluene molecules are reacted and the methyl groups rearranged from one toluene molecule to the other, yielding one benzene molecule and one xylene molecule
29 Toluene Toluene to TDI production process Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is currently produced via a three-step process:Nitration of toluene to dinitrotoluene (DNT)Toluene is nitrated in two steps, producing the three isomers of mononitrotoluene. and the mixed mononitrobenzene isomers are further nitrated resulting in dinitrotoluene isomersReduction of dinitrotoluene to toluene diamine (TDA)Dinitrotoluene is dissolved in methanol and reduced continuously by reaction with hydrogen in the presence of a suitable catalyst
30 Toluene Toluene to TDI production process Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is currently produced via a three-step process:Phosgenation of TDA to TDIThe 80/20 TDA produced by any of the above processes is converted to diisocyanate by reaction with phosgenephosgene
31 Aromatic compound Xylene the o- isomer has the IUPAC name of 1,2-dimethylbenzenethe m- isomer has the IUPAC name of 1,3-dimethylbenzenethe p- isomer has the IUPAC name of 1,4-dimethylbenzene
32 Aromatic compound Xylene Properties The melting point ranges from −47.87 °C (−54.17 °F) (m-xylene) to °C (55.87 °F) (p-xylene)The boiling point for each isomer is around 140 °C ( °F)The density of each is around 0.87 g/mL (7.26 lb/U.S. gallon)Xylene in air can be smelled at 0.08 to 3.7 parts of xylene per million parts of air (ppm)https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Xylene.html
34 Aromatic compound Recent update Developing technologies China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (CPCC) and Sinopec have developed a new composite solvent for extractive distillation (ED) of aromatics.ExxonMobil proposes a bound zeolite catalyst for use in alkylation, transalkylation or isomerization of aromatic hydrocarbons.UOP has developed a new family of zeolites that can be used in alkylation of aromatics, transalkylation of aromatics, isomerization of aromatics and alkylation of isoparaffins.
35 Aromatic compound Recent update Catalyst development in aromatic hydrocarbon production using catalytic pyrolysis1. Aromatic hydrocarbons production from ex situ catalysis of pyrolysis vapor over Zinc modified ZSM-5 in a packed-bed catalysis coupled with microwave pyrolysis reactor, published in Fuel Volume 129, 1 August 2014, Pages 78–85
36 Aromatic compound Recent update Catalyst development in aromatic hydrocarbon production using catalytic pyrolysis from biomass1. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons by catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae with zeolites: Catalyst screening in a pyroprobe, published in Bioresource Technology Volume 139, July 2013, Pages 397–401
37 Aromatic compound Recent update Catalyst development in aromatic hydrocarbon production using catalytic pyrolysis from biomass2. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons through catalytic pyrolysis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from biomass, published in Bioresource Technology Volume 147, November 2013, Pages 37–42
38 Aromatic compound Recent update Catalyst development in aromatic hydrocarbon production using catalytic pyrolysis from biomass3. Production of Light Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Biomass by Catalytic Pyrolysis, published in Chinese Journal of Catalysis Volume Volume 29, Issue 9, September 2008, Pages 907–912