Petrochemicals: Global Markets Petrochemicals: Global Markets Benzene Ethylbenzene (55%) Cumene (17%) Cyclohexane (14%) Remaining Alkylbenzene 3% Nitrobenzene 6% Others 5% Mixed Xylenes Paraxylene (70%) Ortho Xylene (12%) Solvents (14%) Principal Feedstock's & Largest Consumers Basis: World Petrochemical Feedstock Analysis – CMAI (2005)
Petrochemicals: Global Markets Petrochemicals: Global Markets Benzene: Regional Demand A regional breakdown of major benzene demand - North America’s and Europe’s once dominate positions are being overtaken by Asia’s growth. North America and Europe had maintained their considerable market share by virtue of higher production of cumene and cyclohexane versus that of Asia, which is dominant in styrene. Together the three regions dominate global demand as they account for over 80 percent of the total derivative production for the world..
Petrochemicals: Global Markets Petrochemicals: Global Markets Mixed Xylenes Paraxylene (70%)Ortho Xylene (12%)Solvents (14%) Principal Feedstock: Mixed Xylenes Demand: 34.3 Million MT Paraxylene: Forecast Growth 80% by 2020 Strong demand for paraxylene is a function of the world’s growing appetite for polyester for both packaging (water bottles) and textile applications. Mixed xylenes demand is centered in Northeast Asia, accounting for 45 percent of total world demand. Both China and South Korea are significant net importers of mixed xylenes and are expected to continue this trend through 2020. Imported mixed xylenes are converted to paraxylene and ultimately polyester in this region, for growing domestic demand and for re-export as textiles in apparel.
Petrochemicals: Global Markets Petrochemicals: Global Markets Mixed Xylenes: Regional Demand North America currently accounts for nearly ¼ of global mixed xylenes demand but this share should erode to 17 percent by 2020. With demand growth forecast to average 3.0 percent per year through 2020, mixed xylenes demand in North America will grow through the forecast period but more slowly than in Asia, the Middle East and South America. Demand growth is forecast to be the strongest in the Middle East, averaging just less than 13 percent per year through 2020. Nearly all the mixed xylenes produced in the Middle East is converted to paraxylene, which in turn is converted to PTA for export or is exported as paraxylene..
Petrochemicals: Global Markets Petrochemicals: Global Markets Summary: Feedstock Requirements Rapid demand growth in Asia Changes to gasoline regulations The influence of feedstock availability on capacity growth. The is perhaps one of the most important differences between the world of olefins and the world of aromatics. Note: Aromatics products and feedstocks, such as benzene, toluene and naphtha, are liquids and are much easier and less expensive to transport than light feedstocks (ethane, propane, and butane) for olefins.
Petrochemicals: Global Markets Petrochemicals: Global Markets Naphtha Considerations The rapid increase in condensate production in the Middle East will result in increasing supplies of naphtha. Some of the condensate will be processed in the Middle East thereby increasing naphtha exports while the balance will be marketed in Asia where it will be used to produce petrochemicals. The potential naphtha yield is about 50 percent. Naphtha trade as a percentage of reported production is about 20 percent. There is some trade in aromatic (high N+A) naphtha but most naphtha trade is feed for olefins plants. Most of the naphtha trade occurs between producers in the Middle East and consumers in Asia. South America, Africa and the FSU are also net exporters whereas Asia, North America and Europe are net importers.
Petrochemicals: Aromatics Production Aromatics Catalyst The xylenes category in Table III-12 covers a number of inter-conversion processes, including disproportionation of toluene to benzene and xylenes; transalkylation of toluene with trimethyl benzenes to xylenes; and isomerization of m-xylene to o-xylene and p-xylene
Petrochemicals: Petrochemicals: Aromatics Production By Interconversion Process Technology BTX Hydrodealkylation Cyclohexane Cumene Pyrolysis Gasoline Extraction Reforming & Reforming Extraction Transalkylation of Toluene with Trimethyl Benzene Toluene Disproportionation Selective Toluene Disproportionation Benzene from Coal / Pet Coke Isomerization & Separation of Para- and Ortho Xylene Ethylbenzene by Distillation from Xylenes Cyclohexane by Hydrogenation of Benzene PXE C0-Prod
Petrochemicals: Global Markets Petrochemicals: Global Markets Benzene Ethylbenzene (55%) Cumene (17%) Cyclohexane (14%) Remaining Alkylbenzene 3% Nitrobenzene 6% Others 5% Principal Feedstock: Benzene Demand: 36.2 Million MT Forecast: 4.1 %/Year Growth 2000 – 2020 Total Demand Growth: 24.3 Million MT Note: Demand for benzene in the styrenics chain (ethylbenzene) is forecast to grow at rates of 3.5 percent per year through 2020. Note: Forecast growth for cumene is expected to be significantly stronger, averaging almost 5.0 percent per year through 2020..
Petrochemicals: Aromatics Production Aromatics Catalyst: Cumene Cumene is also produced by the alkylation of benzene, this time with propylene. Basically all cumene is used to produce phenol and acetone via the cumene hydroperoxide process. The use of traditional Friedel-Craft type of alkylation catalysts is being superceded by zeolites. The total value of cumene catalysts in 2001 is about $11 million. The growth in demand, also averaging about 3% AAGR, is largely driven by phenol demand for polycarbonate production (via bisphenol A), and to a lesser degree, phenolic resins, nylon, alkylphenols and polyphenylene oxide