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1. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Day.

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Presentation on theme: "1. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Day."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Day 1 – Section 3 Basic Petroleum Chemistry

2 2. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Introduction Composition Of Crude And Petroleum Products 1.Names of hydrocarbons and their groupings into hydrocarbon types. 2.Most important physical and chemical properties of specific hydrocarbons. 3.General chemical nature of crude petroleum and the refining operations which produce the petroleum products.

3 3. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry PARAFFINS Formula = C n.H (2n+2) where n = the number of Carbon atoms Crude petroleum and its products contain compounds of carbon and hydrogen. Carbon has a combining power (bonds) of 4 and hydrogen has a combining power (bond) of 1. Simplest hydrocarbon molecule contains one Carbon atom and 4 hydrogen atoms and is C 1 H 4 known as METHANE. Natural Gas

4 4. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Ethane C2H6 Propane C3H8 n-Butane C4H10 Methane CH4 iso-Butane C4H10

5 5. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry OLEFINS Formula = C (n). H (2n) where n = the number of Carbon atoms BUTENE C 4 H 8 known as Butene-1 one double linkage (bond) on Double, or even a triple linkage between carbon atoms. This type of linkage increases chemical activity.

6 6. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

7 7. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry NAPHTHENES Naphthene or cyclic structure - carbon atoms form a ring with only two linkages available for hydrogen or substation (described later). The simplest form is 3 carbons CYCLOPROPANE C 3 H 6

8 8. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Cyclohexane C6H12

9 9. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry AROMATICS Combination of hydrogen and carbon based on a six carbon atoms ring with an unsaturated type linkage.BENZENE C 6 H 6 Benzene is a known carcinogen and requires special health considerations. Benzene in gasolines is generally limited to 1% or less Series of compounds known as AROMATICS

10 10. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Benzene C6H6 Toluene C7H8

11 11. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry ortho Xylene C8H10 para Xylene C8H10 meta Xylene C8H10 Xylene isomers

12 12. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Two aromatic rings can join to form Naphthalene Three aromatic rings can join to form Anthracene

13 13. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Four or more aromatic rings can join to form ‘Polynuclear Aromatics’ C 20 H 12 Benzo(a)pyrene which is a potential carcinogen.

14 14. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry PONA Paraffins, Olefins, Naphthenes and Aromatics. (PONA) Petroleum chemists and engineers use PONA to describe the broad composition various refinery hydrocarbon streams (or distillation cuts or boiling ranges) and their approximate “PONA” composition.

15 15. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Summary of Product Types from Petroleum Carbon Number Boiling RangeName Deg. CDeg. F C1-C4<0<30 Natural gas (LNG), Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) C4-C Gasoline, Naphtha C12-C Kerosene, Jet Fuel C15-C Gas Oil, Heating Oil, Diesel, Lube Oil >C25>400>750Residuum, Asphalt (Bitumen), Paraffin Wax

16 16. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Other hydrocarbon derivatives Oxygen – specifically hydroxyl group – OH produce ALCOHOLS Methane becomes Methanol Ethane becomes Ethanol (found in wines, spirits and beer) Propane becomes Propanol (or Isopropanol used in hand cleaners).

17 17. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry

18 18. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Sulphur Compounds Hydrogen Sulphide H2S – a special case- Toxic Gas Aliphatic Sulphides – Mercaptans R-SH

19 19. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Aliphatic Sulphides

20 20. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN A REFINERY Gasoline Treating Mercaptans are mixed with Caustic solution (Sodium Hydroxide NaOH) to react and produce an organic sodium sulphide which is soluble in water and removed.

21 21. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Cracking Reaction Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC) or Thermofor Catalytic Cracker (TCC). T Catalyst ‘cracks’ or breaks longer hydrocarbon molecules into smaller fractions Produces wide range of hydrocarbons from gases through to heavy residuum

22 22. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Alkylation Reaction Reaction of two gases Isobutane with Butene/Propylene to produce Alkylate Alkylate- gasoline blend stock high octane (RON 100) used in motor gasolines & aviation gasolines. Catalyst - Sulphuric acid or Hydrofluoric acid

23 23. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Isomerization Reaction Changes straight chain paraffins into isomers which have higher octane rating normal Pentane (octane 68) into Isopentane (octane 92) Gasoline blend stock

24 24. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Dehydrocyclization Reaction Changes straight chain paraffin into a ring or cyclic formation (aromatic) with increase in octane rating Normal Heptane C7H16 (octane zero) transformed into Toluene (octane 120) Valuable gasoline blend stock. Hydrogen gas produced - used in other processes.

25 25. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Hydrogenation – Sulphur removal Breaking the molecule and converting the sulphur radical into hydrogen sulphide and joining the hydrogen atoms to the free linkages (bonds)

26 26. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Sulphur Recovery Hydrogen sulphide gas is converted into elemental yellow sulphur by burning in air to convert to Sulphur Dioxide SO2 SO2 then reacted with Alumina catalyst to produce elemental sulphur.

27 27. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Naphthene Dehydrogenation Catalyst & temperature break hydrogen from cyclic structure Cyclohexane to form Benzene and 6 Hydrogen atoms Octane increase 83 to 100+.

28 28. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry Oxidiser Reaction - Bitumens Reacts heavy vacuum treated residuum with air to polymerise heavy hydrocarbons (heavier molecules) Produces bitumen for road making. Two hydrogen atoms stripped off and reacted with air (oxygen) to produce water (steam)

29 29. © 2013 Petroch Services Pty Ltd BP Version J11002– Occupational Hygiene in the Oil & Gas Industry End of Section 3 Basic Petroleum Chemistry


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