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1 Walkthroughs: Gradual Release of Responsibility Nancy Frey San Diego State University PowerPoint Slides available at Click Resources tab to find presentations

2 Early Predictors for Passing (or Failing) the CAHSEE Grade Point Average Absences Classroom Behavior These are present as early as fourth grade Zau, A. C., & Betts, J. R. (2008). Predicting success, preventing failure: An investigation of the California High School Exit Exam. Sacramento, CA: Public Policy Institute of California.

3 It sounds so easy, so what gets in the way? Hard Books Students must read books at their grade level DIY Learning Read chapter 4 tonight and answer the questions at the end Little Opportunity for Scaffolded Instruction I did it, now you do it alone

4 Ineffective Instructional Practice in First Grade Low Academic Quality Mediocre Academic Quality High Academic Quality Positive Emotional Climate 31%28%23% Negative Emotional Climate 17%-- Stuhlman, M. W., & Pianta, R. C. (2009). Profiles of educational quality in first grade. Elementary School Journal, 109(4),

5 Opportunities to Learn in Fifth Grade Pianta, R. C., et al. (March 30, 2007). Opportunities to learn in Americas elementary classrooms. Science (315),

6 Student Voices: Susana, Mariana, and Coraima What did your elementary teacher do to make learning easier? Aida Allen at their fifth grade promotion, July 2004

7 From Teachable to Coachable Teachable Moment An unplanned event that can be used as a learning opportunity. Coachable Moment A situation that opens a door for you to model, scaffold, and coach for effective practice. Reciprocal and iterative

8 Factors in Recognizing the Coachable Moment Understanding the schools goals + Determining the teachers stage of development in applying the strategy = Performing a gap analysis to identify what needs to happen next

9 Goals for Walkthroughs Look for patterns Teacher Grade-level School (data analysis by walking around)

10 General Questions to Consider Is there a clear academic focus? What is the level of student engagement? What do the walls of the classroom show? How well do students understand the assignment? Do students communicate effectively and demonstrate critical thinking skills? Ginsberg, M. B., & Murphy, D. M. (2002). How walkthroughs open doors. Educational Leadership, 59(8),

11 CfU: How well do students understand? What are you working on? Why are you doing this work? What do you do when you need extra help? How do you know you are done?

12 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it You do it together Collaborative Independent You do it alone A Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

13 In some classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson I do it Independent You do it alone Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

14 In the worst classrooms … TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY (none) STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Independent You do it alone Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

15 The Good Enough Classroom TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it Independent You do it alone Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

16 TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson Guided Instruction I do it We do it You do it together Collaborative Independent You do it alone A Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

17 5 Phases of Direct Instruction Chris Weber, Garden Grove Unified School District, Principals Study Group Session 3,

18 Table Talk What evidence do you see of learning in this classroom during modeling, guided instruction, collaborative learning, and independent learning?

19 Using Your Analysis Skills What feedback would you offer these teachers?

20 Modeling and Setting Purpose

21 Establishing Purpose Through Modeling Why? Focuses attention Alerts learner to key ideas Prevents birdwalking and maximizes learning time Can be used in formative assessment THIS IS WHEN STUDENTS ARE INTRODUCED TO A NEW STRATEGY Types Content goal (based on the standards) Language goal (vocabulary, language structure, and language function) Social goal (classroom needs or school priorities)

22 Examples of Content and Language Goals Science C: Identify the steps in the life cycle of a frog. L: Use signal words to describe the life cycle of a frog. Social Studies C: Identify the causes of the Revolutionary War. L: Explain the meaning of taxation without representation to a peer and summarize the meaning in writing.

23 Examples of Content and Language Goals Language Arts C: Describe how a character changes in a story. L: Use sensory detail to give readers a clear image of the character and the changes. Math C: Determine reasonableness of a solution to a mathematical problem. L: Use mathematical terms to explain why an answer is reasonable.

24 Orientation Teacher states the objective Match objective to rigor of standard Expectations are clearly defined Activate prior knowledge Incorporate student engagement Chris Weber, Garden Grove Unified School District, Principals Study Group Session 3,

25 Modeling In 3rd Grade Experienced teacher Establishing Purpose and Modeling How does Katie model the use of academic language? In what ways does she demonstrate her thinking?

26 Presentation Provide a detailed model of new concept and/or skill Plan to model Stay focused on the topic Choose materials Provide visual supports and representations (Thinking Maps) Incorporate student engagement Chris Weber, Garden Grove Unified School District, Principals Study Group Session 3,

27 Feedback for Katie In what ways did she check for understanding? What positive affirmation would you offer? What question might you pose? Do you have a suggestion for her?

28 Guided Instruction

29 Students begin to take on what they have begun to learn Often, they use but confuse Teacher is there to help with the tricky parts Strategic use of cues, prompts, and questions

30 Guided Practice Move students toward accuracy Teachers gradually reduce support and release responsibility to students Monitor students as they practice skill Provide immediate feedback Incorporate student engagement Questions to consider: What materials will you use? Partners or groups? How will you check for understanding? Who needs more SP? Chris Weber, Garden Grove Unified School District, Principals Study Group Session 3,

31 Guided Instruction in 2nd Grade Literacy coach is modeling Power Writing for the classroom teacher Offering scaffolded instruction for students who have been introduced to a new instructional routine Experienced teacher Purpose: release responsibility to students to engage in Power Writing How does Aida use prompts, cues, and questions to guide instruction?

32 Feedback for Aida In what ways did she check for understanding? What positive affirmation would you offer? What question might you pose? Do you have a suggestion for her?

33 Collaborative Learning to Deepen Metacognition

34 Purposes of Productive Group Work Students are consolidating their understanding Negotiating understanding with peers Engaging in inquiry Apply knowledge to novel situations Productive failure

35 Collaborative Learning in First Grade Students are English learners at early intermediate stage Early in the school year What student learning is accomplished through productive group work?

36 Feedback for Heather In what ways did she check for understanding? What positive affirmation would you offer? What question might you pose? Do you have a suggestion for her?

37 Integrating GRR Into Walkthroughs What are the benefits and challenges? What processes do teachers expect? How will they know what is expected of them? In what ways can this best work for administrators and teachers?

38 Focus Lesson Guided Instruction Collaborative Independent I do it We do it You do it together You do it alone Two Ideas: One Common Purpose

39 PowerPoint Slides available at Click Resources tab to find presentations


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