Presentation on theme: "Explicit Instruction: when, where, and how?"— Presentation transcript:
1Explicit Instruction: when, where, and how? 1Explicit Instruction: when, where, and how?Title SlideBaltimore CityPublic Schools
2Professional Norms Engage in the activities Limit “techno-stractions” 2Engage in the activitiesLimit “techno-stractions”Maintain a solution oriented postureHonor time limits* Parking lot for questions & feedbackFacilitator will have a participant read the norms and ask if there are any questionsFacilitator identifies the parking lot area’s for burning questions and feedback
3Session Goals Participants will… 3Participants will…Articulate the district’s definition of Explicit InstructionIdentify where Explicit Instruction can be utilized within the district’s Instructional Model for LiteracyIdentify teaching elements used within a Focus Lesson that are examples of Explicit InstructionMake connections between Explicit Instruction and district wide initiativesFacilitator will select a participant to read aloud the purpose of today’s sessionFacilitators will discuss norms with group
4Stop and Jot On the index card provided respond to the 4On the index card provided respond to thequestions below:What do you know about Explicit Instruction? Whatdo you think should be happening? (3 minutes)Share your response with a partner (2 minutes)Participants will answer the questions on an index card and then turn and talk to share responsesWhole group shareFacilitator will choose a participant to chart responses
5Explicit Instruction… 5is a structured, systematic and effective methodology for teaching academic skills. It is called explicit because it is an unambiguous and direct approach to teaching that includes both instructional design and delivery procedures. Explicit instruction is characterized by a series of supports or scaffolds, whereby students are guided through the learning process with clear statements about the purpose and rationale for learning the new skill, clear explanations and demonstrations of the instructional target, and supported practice with feedback until independent mastery has been achieved (Archer & Hughes, 2011).Ask a participant to read the quote aloud.Say: Think about the definition, now popcorn out some short phrases that resonate with you around explicit instruction. (chart responses, check or highlight repeated phrases)Say: Now you will popcorn out one word that resonates from your phrase. (chart responses, check or highlight repeated words)
6Explicit Instruction… 6is a structured, systematic and effective methodology for teaching academic skills. It is called explicit because it is an unambiguous and direct approach to teaching that includes both instructional design and delivery procedures. Explicit instruction is characterized by a series of supports or scaffolds, whereby students are guided through the learning process with clear statements about the purpose and rationale for learning the new skill, clear explanations and demonstrations of the instructional target, and supported practice with feedback until independent mastery has been achieved (Archer & Hughes, 2011).Say: So these were some of the phrases and words that resonated with you in the definition.Facilitator will re-read the quote and ask participants to share any additional thoughts about explicit instruction with an elbow partnerFacilitator will revisit the stop and jot chart identifying connections between responses, the definition and determining missing pieces.Say: Let’s go back to our chart is there anything in the chart that we see here? Is there anything that we would change now that we know the definition? Anything we would add?Say: this is the definition of explicit instruction that aligns with the districts vision for effective teaching and learning and that having this shared language will help guide school leaders and teachers in implementation. Now let’s look at how we get there.
7Gradual Release of Responsibility Model of Explicit Instruction:Gradual Release of Responsibility7TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”ModelFocus Lesson“We do it”Guided Instruction“You do ittogether”CollaborativeShareSay: This is what it is. The way we get to explicit instruction is through the gradual release of responsibility. The displayed graphic shows the shift from teacher as model to joint responsibility to student independence and application by the learner. The “I do, We do, You do” language you see here is really model, guide, share and independent.Say: Look at the graphic, where do we see this evidenced in our definition? Turn and talk to someone next to you.Have a few participants share out.“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
8What it’s not: The Sudden Release of Responsibility 8TEACHER RESPONSIBILITYModel“I do it”Model/ Focus Lesson“You do italone”IndependentSay: This is what it isn’t. In this model a teacher would read a chapter aloud and have students answer questions independently. What do you think happens here with student learning? What have you noticed in your experience? Why do you think that this? Share with someone next to you.Facilitator should highlight…The issue here is that students are not given the approximation time needed with guidance from the teacher providing timely, corrective feedback which we know is essential in explicit instruction. (Tie back to definition)that students may become frustrated and may shut down, rush through it, struggle with it or constantly ask the teacher for support where the teacher is left running from student to student trying to clear up misconceptions and provide support.STUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
9Gradual Release of Responsibility 9The gradual release model of instruction suggests that the cognitive load should shift slowly and purposefully from teacher as model to joint responsibility to independent practice and application by the learner (Pearson and Gallagher 1983)“ effective instruction often follows a progression in which the teachers gradually do less of the work and students gradually assume increased responsibility for their learning. It is through this process of gradually assuming more and more responsibility for their learning that students become competent, independent learners”. (Graves and Fitzgerald 2003)Have participants read the slideSay: “Think about what you know about explicit instruction and how it connects to what you just read about gradual release of responsibility? (refer to the explicit instruction chart created earlier) Turn and talk to a partner.”Have participants share whole group (chart responses)Say: In thinking about developing college and career ready students the gradual release model helps prepare students to become competent, independent learners.
10Explicit Instruction and the Gradual Release of Responsibility 10Model / Focus LessonsExplicit Instruction and the Gradual Release of ResponsibilityGuidedIndependentSay: We know teachers must explicitly teach by demonstrating for students in modeled focus lessons, guiding in small groups, providing several opportunities for collaborative practice so they become independent learners.Say: You will be viewing a short clip of a few photos. We are viewing this clip because it provides a visual of the components of the gradual release of responsibility. As you view this clip, think about the evidence you see of explicit instruction, keeping in mind our anchor chart around explicit instruction that we created earlier. Take notes as necessary. After you’ve viewed the short clip you will share what you noticed with a partner.Play the video file Overview_ALC-3.Allow participants time to share observations with a partner.Reconvene the group and have participants share.Shared/ Collaborative
12!= Important * =Interesting ?= Questions Professional Reading12Directions:Read pages 4 – 10 (top of page) and code the text using the punctuations below. Summarize and share ideas with a partner. (20 minutes)!= Important * =Interesting ?= QuestionsFacilitator will model the text coding strategy with the first paragraph of the Focus LessonsFacilitator will explain that everyone will read pages (Directions on slide)Say: We are having you read this chapter because it will help build your background knowledge of the components of the gradual release of responsibility. We are only reading pages because this will help you see how we use the gradual release of responsibility to explicitly teachAfter reading, Facilitator will direct participants to share important and interesting ideas as well as any questions they have with the person behind them for 5 minutes.Say: Now, on a sticky note you will write one thing you found important interesting or a question you had, now you will place them on the correct component chart
13Our Mission…13Baltimore City Schools will prepare critical and analytical thinkers for the 21st century who read with comprehension and enthusiasm; listen with understanding and empathy; speak with conviction and authority; and write with clarity and purpose. We will achieve this mission by providing and supporting a comprehensive literacy instructional model for teachers, school leaders, and communities.Facilitator will ask a volunteer to read aloud the MissionSay: Where do you see a connection between the work city schools has done this year and where city schools is moving? Have participants share thoughts with partner and then whole groupSay: With the common core stressing more student ownership and thinking about preparing our students to be critical and analytical thinkers for the 21st century explicit instruction will be the vehicle to achieving student independence.
14Say: Because we are all k-8’s we are going to take a look at the 1-5 model of Highly Effective Instruction. You are getting ready to view a shared reading lesson which we see under whole group reading instruction. Think about the opportunities for gradual release of responsibility and explicit instruction within the model.
15Whole Group Reading Instruction Inside the Instructional Model:Whole Group Reading Instruction15Whole Group Reading Instruction(daily)10-20 minutesFocus Lessons (explicit teaching of a readingstrategy, skill, or concept)Interactive Read-aloudsThink-aloudsShared ReadingClose Reading
16Video Look For’s Video Look For’s 16As you watch the video use the look for sheet to capture any evidence of the gradual release of responsibility.Say: you will be using the look for sheet in your binder (observation notes) to capture your thinking(direct participants to write explicit instruction and gradual release down the side of their sheets)Have participants share observations with a partner
17Video17Play VideoAfter video give participants a couple of minutes to finalize evidence on their look for sheet.Facilitator will have created a chart for each of the following questions and have pasted the charts around the room:Was model evident? How do you know?Was guided evident? How do you know?Was shared/collaborative evident? How do you know?Was independent evident? How do you know?Participants will get into school teams after viewing the video. Each team will answer each of these questions on a post it note and distribute post its to their appropriate chart. Facilitator will share out post its within the model chart; and then show the model slide so participants can weigh similarities and differences. Facilitator will share out post its within the guided chart; and then show the guided slide so participants can weigh similarities and differences. Facilitator will repeat this process until all charts and slides have been reviewed and thought through. Whole group discussion should identify if anything was missing and seek to answer, how might the “missing” have effected student learning?
18What are the students doing? Model/ Focus LessonWhat are the students doing?18What is theteacher doing?Focusing on a single teaching pointExplicitly showing the students a learning behavior through modelingUsing only 10‐15 minutes of instructional timeWatching what the teacher is doingPreparing to participateSay: What did we notice within the guided portion of the lesson? (Facilitator chart while participants share out)Facilitator add important information as necessary
19What are the students doing? Guided19What is theteacher doing?What are the students doing?Providing opportunities for students to verbalize thoughtsListening in to conversations to assess understandingInviting students to “give it a try” scaffolding release of someresponsibility for learning to studentsDifferentiating through adapting content, process, or productMaking thinking visible with some form of writingPracticing modeled skill or behaviorTurning & TalkingMaking thinking visible with some form of writingSay: What did we notice within the shared/collaborative part of the lesson? (Facilitator chart while participants share out)
20Shared/Collaborative 20What is theteacher doing?What are the students doing?Creating opportunities for student collaborationTaking anecdotal notesFacilitating or scaffolding small group workListening to studentsDiscussing ideas and conceptsPracticing a previous teaching pointMaking connections between content and their own livesExplaining processesChecking each other’s understandingMaking a contribution to the joint effort or projectReflecting upon & assessing group and personal learningSay: What did we notice about the independent part of the lesson? (Facilitator chart while participants share out)
21What are the students doing? Independent21What is theteacher doing?What are the students doing?Conferring with studentsObserving and taking anecdotal notesAssessing individual student responsesStrategically and independently applying strategies & skills in authentic situationsTaking responsibility for learningKeeping records of learningReflecting upon personal growthAssessing personal progressSay: What may have been missing in the lesson? Was student learning impacted?
22Gradual Release of Responsibility Model 22TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY“I do it”ModelFocus Lesson“We do it”Guided Instruction“You do ittogether”ShareCollaborativeSay: We’ve absorbed a lot of information up to this point. Turn to someone to your right and share your learning to this point.Have participants share whole group“You do italone”IndependentSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
23Instructional Framework Inside theInstructional FrameworkA Closer Look23P1 Know your studentsP2 Set and track goals based onstudent performance levelsP3 Develop standards-based unitsand long-term plansP4 Design lessons to meet learners’unique needsP5 Use and align resourcesstrategicallyP6 Mobilize families andstakeholders in support ofstudent successP7 Organize classroom space andmaterialsPlanT1 Communicate standards-basedlesson objectivesT2 Present content clearlyT3 Use strategies and tasks toengage all students in rigorousworkT4 Use evidence dependentquestioningT5 Check for understanding andProvide specific, academicfeedbackT6 Facilitate student-to-studentinteraction and academic talkT Implement routines to maximizeinstructional timeT8 Build a positive, learning focusedclassroom cultureT9 Reinforce positive behavior,redirect off-task behavior, and de-escalate challenging behaviorTeachRA Analyze student progresstoward goalsRA Modify instruction inresponse to dataRA Assess and refine classroomspace and cultureRA Partner with students andfamilies to reflect onstudent’s progressReflect & AdjustSay: You all have brought up some really great points about this teacher’s practice. I want to take a minute to look at the Instructional Framework in your binder.Which Key Actions in the Framework connect to Explicit Teaching and the actions a teacher must take to do it successfully? Let participants turn and talk or generate a whole group list/share-out.Although we don’t have time to go through the Instructional Rubric today, please note that a lot of the content we have talked about today is embedded in the Rubric and the Rubric can be used as a reflection tool as you reflect and analyze your own practice. When you have a chance, I especially encourage you to look at Plan 4, Teach 2 and Teach 4.
24Explicit Instruction: A Daily Practice 24Take-Away’sImplications for my workWhat resonated with you?How has your thinking changed or been challenged?How can I use my current resources?What can I try immediately?Have participants get into school teams to discuss
25Thoughts to ponder…25“Explicit teaching is not just merely giving students clear directions or even stating the learning goals at the beginning of a lesson – it is a way of thinking about and acting out teaching and learning in a principled way throughout the lesson (from assessment through to planning implementation and review).” (Christine Edwards‐Groves 2002)Say: One thing we must remember is that (read the quote)
26Closing Please fill out the evaluation! 26 Facilitator will have participants complete evaluations