Presentation on theme: "Lifespan Development. Stages in Life-Span Development Prenatal Infancy Early childhood Late childhood Adolescence Early adulthood Middle adulthood Late."— Presentation transcript:
Stages in Life-Span Development Prenatal Infancy Early childhood Late childhood Adolescence Early adulthood Middle adulthood Late adulthood Conception to birth Birth to ~ 18 mo ~ 18 mo to ~ 6 yrs ~ 6 yrs to ~ 13 yrs ~ 13 yrs to ~ 20 yrs ~ 20 yrs to ~ 30 yrs ~ 30 yrs to ~ 65 yrs ~ 65 yrs and older
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Oral: 0 – 12 months. Gratification is obtained through sucking and other oral means. Immediate gratification is the goal. (Pleasure principle rules). Anal: 12 –24 months. Gratification is obtained through expelling and retaining feces and urine.
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Phallic: 2 - ~ 5 years.Gratification is through the manipulation of genitals. Latency: ~ 6 - ~ 12 years. Loss of interest in sexual gratification. Identification with the same-sex parent. Genital: ~12 years and older. Concern with adult modes of pleasure.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage ( birth to 2 years) –Learning through active interaction with the environment –Becoming aware of cause-effect relationships –Learning that objects exist even when not in view –Imitating crudely the actions of others
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Preoperational Stage (ages 2 – 6 years) –Begins with child being very egocentric –Language and mental representations develop –Objects are classified by just one characteristic at a time
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Concrete operations stage ( ages 7 – 12 years) –Develops conservation of volume, length, mass, etc. –Organizes objects into ordered categories –Understands relational terms (e.g., bigger than, above) –Begins using simple logic
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Formal operations stage ( ages over 12) –Thinking becomes abstract and symbolic –Reasoning skills develop –A sense of hypothetical concepts develops
A Comparison of the stage theories of Freud, Erikson, and Piaget Age FreudEriksonPiaget Infancy OralBasic trust vs. mistrustSensorimotor 1-2 yrs AnalAutonomy vs. shame/doubt End of sensorimotor onset of preoperational 3-5 yrs PhallicInitiative vs. guiltPreoperational 6-12 yrs LatencyIndustry vs. inferiorityEnd of preoperatnl. onset of concrete op 12-18 yrs. GenitalIdentity vs. role confusion Formal operations Young adult ---------Intimacy vs. isolation ----------- Adulthood ---------Generativity vs. stagnation ----------- Maturity ---------Ego integrity vs. despair-----------