Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Making Sense of Science Megan Tichy, Ph.D. Lecturer, Texas A&M University.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Making Sense of Science Megan Tichy, Ph.D. Lecturer, Texas A&M University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Making Sense of Science Megan Tichy, Ph.D. Lecturer, Texas A&M University

2 Toxic grains Scientific and non-scientific names Quantification Parts per million Gluten Chemical structure Processing Distillation Highlights

3 Classification based on physical, behavioral or genetic diversity Subject to revisions Scientific names HumanPeaWheat DomainEukarya KingdomAnimaliaPlantae PhylumChordataMagnoliophyta ClassMammaliaMagnoliopsidaLilliopsida OrderPrimatesFabalesCyperales FamilyHominidaeFabaceaePoaceae GenusHomoPisumTriticum SpeciesH. sapiensP. sativumT. aestivum More specific Mnemonic device: Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach

4 Poaceae Festucoideae Oryzeae - rice Triticeae - wheat, rye, barley Aveneae - oats Panicoideae Andropogoneae - sorghum Tripsaceae - corn Paniceae - millet KINGDOM – Plantae – plants PHYLUM – Magnoliophyta – flowering plants CLASS – Liliopsida – monocotyledons ORDER – Cyperales – grasses/sedges The grass family FAMILY SUBFAMILY TRIBE Donald D. Kasarda, Ph.D., Research Chemist (Retired), USDA

5 Wheat Triticum aestivum Barley Hordeum vulgare Rye Secale cereale Images: Home-Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA); Toxic grains Durum Hard Red Winter Hard Red Spring Hard White Wheat Soft Red Winter Soft White Wheat Modern wheat varieties

6 Attawhole wheat, stone-grinded Bulgurwhole wheat, precooked, dried, cracked, and sifted Couscous moistened semolina, rolled and shaped, coated with finely ground wheat four Farinaendosperm milled to fine granular consistency, sifted Seitanwashed dough; water removes starch Semolinainner endosperm of wheat not ground into flour Images: Wikipedia commons Seitan (Taiwan) Wheat products Atta (India)Farina

7 Ancient forms of wheat Einkorn Triticum monococcum Diploid Emmer (farro) Triticum dicoccum Tetraploid Spelt (dinkel) Triticum spelta Hexaploid Kamut Triticum turanicum Tetraploid Genetics: Diploid = 14 chromosomes Tetraploid = 28 chromosomes Hexaploid = 42 chromosomes More chromosomes = easier to breed varieties suitable for non-ideal soils/climates

8 Wheat proteins ProteinSoluble in AlbuminWATER - neutral pH GlobulinWATER - salt solutions ProlaminETHANOL % alcohol GlutelinNONE OF THE ABOVE dilute acids/bases, detergents, or reducing agents Gluten Cause of most wheat allergies

9 It is highly probable that glutenin proteins are toxic. Attempts to breed wheat with satisfactory baking properties tolerated by coeliac patients will be very difficult. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol May;18(5): Gluten proteins HMWLMW All coded by different genes (DNA) Prolamine = proline + glutamine

10 GrainProlamin fraction% total protein WheatGliadin69 RyeSecalin30-50 BarleyHordein46-52 OatsAvenin16 MilletPanicin40 CornZien55 RiceOrzenin5 SorghumKafirin52 Grain proteins toxicsafestill questioned contaminated? pure?

11 Bran Rich source of magnesium and iron. ¼ cup contains 6 grams fiber. Germ Embryo vitamin E, magnesium, riboflavin, thiamin, phosphorus, niacin, iron and zinc. Some fat and protein. Manufacturers remove the germ and bran to make refined bread flour Anatomy of a kernel Endosperm Storage tissue starch, gluten Whole-grain: endosperm, bran, and embryo (all three parts of the kernel!) left intact

12 flour dough starch (sugars) 75% gluten (protein) 12% (varies) Wheat flour: gluten and starch H2OH2O C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O + energy glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water dough yeast bread Image:

13 Flour contains 10-15% protein The protein is 80% gluten Q: If 1 slice of bread uses 40 g flour how much gluten is in it? A: solve for protein 40 g X 0.13 = 5.2 g protein solve for gluten 5.2 g X 0.8 = 4 g gluten Q: How many mg gluten is in 1/8 teaspoon flour? A: Conversion for wheat flour 1 tsp = 2.5 g 1/8 tsp all purpose flour = 0.31 g flour 0.31 g X 0.13 X 0.8 = g gluten 1/8 tsp 33 mg gluten How much gluten? Measuring spoon image:

14 How much is too much? Codex Alimentarius (WHO/FAO), has two limits for gluten-free: 0.02% gluten content - rendered gluten-free 0.002% gluten content - naturally gluten-free food Normal gluten intake by healthy individuals = 13 g gluten per day Compare – 50 mg (0.05 g) vs. 13 g Normal intake is 260 times as much as the suggested threshold Ingestion of contaminating gluten should be kept lower than 50 mg/day in the treatment of CD – C. Catassi et al. AmJ Clin Nutr 2007;85:160–6. Some people are far more sensitive* A person could ingest 3-6 mg gluten per day by consuming 6-8 ounces of naturally gluten free grain food *Reference: A milligram gluten a day keeps the mucosal recovery away: a case report, F. Biagi, J. Campanella and S. Martucci et al., Nutr Rev 62 (2004), pp. 360– % = 20 parts per million or ppm

15 A part per what? Examples of a part per twelve One egg out of a dozen One cupcake out of a dozen One pane from this stained-glass window per cent means one part per hundred X 100 = A part per hundred (%) One bushel of wheat (60 lbs) contains 1 million individual kernels A part per million (ppm)

16 Use % for larger fractions 1 part per 100 = 0.01 = 1% Use ppm for smaller fractions 1 part per 1,000,000 = = % Calculating ppm: Start with the fraction (part/whole) Rather than 2 decimal places to the right % Move 6 decimal places to the right ppm 20 ppm = 20 minutes in: A)4 days B) 10 weeks C) 2 years

17 20 minutes 4 days 1 hour 60 minutes 1 day 24 hours = = 3,472 ppm = 20 minutes 2 years 1 hour 60 minutes 1 day 24 hours year 365 days = = 19 ppm = Quiz answer

18 20 ppm 20 seconds in 11.5 days 20 inches in 15.8 miles 20 ounces in 62,500 pounds 20¢ in $10,000 Perspective: How much is 20 ppm? Tiny amounts are biologically significant! Most fish need 4 ppm dissolved oxygen to survive; Bass and trout seek out waters with 9-12 ppm oxygen

19 Using ppm to calculate quantity gluten ppm gluten 2 g Tsp non-dairy GF creamer 20 g 10 GF crackers 200 g 4 slices GF bread mg0.4 mg4 mg mg1 mg10 mg mg2 mg20 mg mg4 mg40 mg Reminder: The ingestion of contaminating gluten should be kept lower than 50 mg/day in the treatment of CD

20 Proteins Contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, often sulfur Broken down to 22 naturally occurring amino acids Starch vs. Protein Starches Contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen Broken down to only one material, glucose glucose amino acid

21 I Have Received Much Kudos For Learning These Very Well Mnemonic device: Essential amino acids (from diet) All amino acids have a 1-letter abbreviation

22 Proteins are polymers of amino acids with directionality C (carboxy)-terminus N (amino)-terminus Beads on a string Protein primary structure Stability: Proteins vary widely in their stability to heat Proline is known to provide stability to proteins


24 Secondary structure: Regularly repeating local structures stabilized by hydrogen bonds. Ex: alpha helix, beta sheet Tertiary structure: Overall shape or fold; the spatial relationship of the secondary structures relative to one another Quaternary structure: Results from interaction of more than one protein molecule (subunit) which functions as part of the larger assembly or protein complex. Protein folding

25 amino acids binding site Protein function requires folding Structure: keratin Transport: hemoglobin Storage: myoglobin Hormones: insulin Catalysis: lactase 5 common protein functions: Just a few beads from the string gluten

26 The average person consumes g bound glutamate/day g MSG/day MSG gluten L versus D In higher mammals, all proteins contain L amino acids. During hydrolysis L D The D form is tasteless

27 Other small molecules gluten The structure of caffeine Not all symptoms are related to celiac disease Calcium oxalate can form crystals which eventually grow into kidney stones Oxalate binds with calcium in your urinary tract The structure of calcium oxalate milligrams daily appears to be safe Starbucks Tall Coffee = 260 milligrams

28 How do we test for gluten? ELISA – Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay ELISA detection limit between 1-2 ppm, with <0.5 ppm reported* Any of the following can be made from wheat starch: Maltodextrin, glucose syrup, dextrose Poly-ols, sugar alcohols (sorbitol, xylitol, mannitol etc…) Lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid (vinegar), ascorbic acid Hydrolyzed wheat starch *Sousa et al. Am J Clin Nut, Vol. 87, No. 2, , February 2008 North America – starch products usually derived from corn Hydrolysis = hydro (water) + lysis (cleavage/breakage) A chemical reaction in water that breaks down wheat starch

29 Alcoholic fermentation A vessel allows carbon dioxide to escape, but prevents outside air from coming in C 6 H 12 O 6 2 C 2 H 5 OH + 2 CO 2 glucose ethanol + carbon dioxide Without oxygen present: Wine/brandy - natural sugars present in fruits Rum - cane sugar or molasses Whiskey- amylase-treated grain Vodka - amylase-treated grain or potatoes Gin- grain infused with juniper berry Safe liquors

30 Distillation: separation based on volatility Volatile Non-volatile Volatility - how readily substances become gases Stronger intermolecular forces decrease volatility It takes more energy to break these molecules apart Also not volatile: large peptides (proteins) starches, any polymer Not solely based on size of the molecule

31 Ethyl acetate Molecular Weight: 88 g/mole Boiling Point: 77 C Ethanol Molecular Weight: g/mole Boiling Point: 64.7 C Acetone Molecular Weight: g/mole Boiling Point: 56.5 C Butanol Molecular Weight: g/mole Boiling point: C Increasing boiling point Volatility size 3 Cs 1 O 2 Cs 1 O 4 Cs 1 O 4 Cs 1 O

32 Simple distillation procedure The separated liquid (distillate) drips out into a new chamber Volatile portion enters gas phase Tubes are cooled gas liquid Ethanol gas floats up circulates through condensing tubes Liquid heated in boiling chamber Peptides/amino acids do not evaporate

33 Conclusions There are MANY other names for wheat Spelt is NOT an alternative for wheat! A ppm is not a quantity 20 ppm can be many different quantities, depends on how much you ate! Gluten is a highly stable protein fraction Several different fragments of gliadin and glutenin are toxic Small molecules do not mimic gluten, but can have negative health effects of their own Distillation is separation based on volatility Distilled products are gluten-free as long as gluten was not added post-distillation

34 THANK YOU! Brazos Valley Gluten Intolerance Group Denise Fries, Taylor JensenJulie Hoyle (secretary), Jen Sara BoswellKim Melissari (treasurer), Lauren Monica Michalka Family Shane (husband), Nathan (son) Karen Jones & Family McLean family – Rochester, NY Santiago family – Bryan, TX GIG mentors Cynthia Kupper, RD Betty Barfield Texas A&M University Dr. Ganesa Gopalakrishnan

Download ppt "Making Sense of Science Megan Tichy, Ph.D. Lecturer, Texas A&M University."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google