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HOK Potential parking, planet, physical fitness, public image Value.

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Presentation on theme: "HOK Potential parking, planet, physical fitness, public image Value."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOK Potential parking, planet, physical fitness, public image Value

2 Parking The Big Issue The (university) chancellors job has come to be defined as providing parking for the faculty, sex for the students and athletics for the alumniThe (university) chancellors job has come to be defined as providing parking for the faculty, sex for the students and athletics for the alumni Clark Kerr, UC-Berkeley chancellor, 1967 Clark Kerr, UC-Berkeley chancellor, 1967 Parking is the most important issue for everyoneParking is the most important issue for everyone Albert Carnesale, UCLA chancellor, 2003

3 But Parking Costs Love Affair with Automobile American cars in motion five percent of dayAmerican cars in motion five percent of day 95 percent of American automobile commuters park free95 percent of American automobile commuters park free Standard 4 park spaces per 1,000 office feetStandard 4 park spaces per 1,000 office feet Parking adds 27 percent to office building costsParking adds 27 percent to office building costs 67 percent if below ground Urban construction per space: $16,000 to $32,000Urban construction per space: $16,000 to $32,000 Various articles, Shoup

4 Our Love Affair Costs One Los Angeles deck built in 2003 UCLAs 1,500 new spacesUCLAs 1,500 new spaces Generated 5,630 one-way car trips/day 3.8 trips per space 1.1 million new vehicle miles traveled/month $57 a month to park in each space which cost CA taxpayers $233 for debt service and operating expenses

5 Auto Externalities Our Love Affair with Automobile Parking issues Employee Health Personal Costs Pollution-air & water Congestion Foreign Policy International TradeGlobal Warming SafetyTime

6 Change Inevitable Our Love Affair with Automobile Peak Oil, Global Warming Theres really no doubt were going to have to change our habits. Were going to have to design our cities differently…We could be in deep trouble as a social system. How do we achieve fairness when the gridlock between rich and poor already stops us from having an energy policy? We could see democracy entering its death throes Charles Maxwell, American energy guru often called dean of energy analysts

7 Parking Our Love Affair with Automobile Time right for new thinking TDM thinking

8 TDM Synonymous w/transportation sustainability Transportation demand management: any set of actions influencing peoples travel behavior in such a way that alternative mobility options (non-personal auto) are presentedTransportation demand management: any set of actions influencing peoples travel behavior in such a way that alternative mobility options (non-personal auto) are presented A toolbox for enhancing mobility, Meyer, 1997A toolbox for enhancing mobility, Meyer, 1997 TDM actions focus on short-term mitigation of existing congestion and on avoiding future, long-term issues through strategic thinkingTDM actions focus on short-term mitigation of existing congestion and on avoiding future, long-term issues through strategic thinking Demand management as element of transportation policy, Meyer, 1999 Demand management as element of transportation policy, Meyer, 1999

9 TDM Around World The United Kingdom Toward a Sustainable Transport System Study over five years, 92,500 locations A 10-percent reduction in car milesA 10-percent reduction in car miles Corresponding increase in transit use, bike & hikeCorresponding increase in transit use, bike & hike Prior pilots showed a 14-percent reductionPrior pilots showed a 14-percent reduction And the UK now plans free transport advisors nationwide at equivalent cost of building 17 interstate miles

10 TDM Around World Western Australia For a decade, TravelSmart or individualized dialogue marketing or individualized dialogue marketing 350,000 citizens Shows a 14-percent reduction in car-miles drivenShows a 14-percent reduction in car-miles driven 27-percent increase in muscle-powered transport27-percent increase in muscle-powered transport 67:1 benefit-cost ratio – (construction projects 4:1)67:1 benefit-cost ratio – (construction projects 4:1) Little bouncebackLittle bounceback Today, opening a new commuter rail line with 90-percent approval ratings

11 TDM Around World Western Australia Perth-area expanding TravelSmart to individually, dialogue market citizens in Energy, Water, Recycling People want to be part of the solution. They just dont know how. Brög, TravelSmart founder, 2007

12 TDM – American Concept Think Globally, Act Locally Employer BasedEmployer Based 1. To save on parking construction 2. To save on health care costs Utilize Social MarketingUtilize Social Marketing Utilize Individualized Dialogue MarketingUtilize Individualized Dialogue Marketing Underscored by extensive communication, marketing, behavioral change and consumer behavior dataUnderscored by extensive communication, marketing, behavioral change and consumer behavior data Utilize Carrots, sticks AND tambourinesUtilize Carrots, sticks AND tambourines

13 TDM – Martha Jefferson Hospital Think Globally, Act Locally C-ville, parking space construction averages $23,000C-ville, parking space construction averages $23,000 Martha Jefferson is moving by 2012 primarily due to need for parkingMartha Jefferson is moving by 2012 primarily due to need for parking Original plans call for 1,265 space parking deckOriginal plans call for 1,265 space parking deck But try TDM before building $29 mil deckBut try TDM before building $29 mil deck Use savings for better, more beautiful, functional hospital building

14 Social Marketing TDM – Martha Jefferson Plan Discuss auto externality issues w/staff at monthly department/division meetings for 1 year. Socially market externalities in short, five-minute segments (one externality each meeting) led by know-nothing upper management 1. Illustrates management behind sustainability, behind doing right thing. Upper management follows short basic script 2. Allows framing discussion. Max 10 slides keeps upper management directing info flow 3. Eliminates off-message questions. Keep meeting short for departments benefit 4. Allows monthly reiteration of same, simple right thing message. The hospital cares. Hope you do too 5. Reinforces changers. Assures them they made right decision

15 Social Marketing Health Externality Discussion Greatest potential for organizational health benefits accrue if sedentary adults begin regular, moderate activity Like walk to transit stop daily Or active daily transportation Doctors prescribe walks today Business: Every $ spent on fitness returns $3.15 in health benefits Some employers pay bonus for fitness -- $7 to $14 per percentage/pound lost

16 Social Marketing Congestion Externality Discussion In US, 226 million vehiclesIn US, 226 million vehicles Over 3.7 billion hours of travel delay…2.3 billion gallons of wasted fuel annually in congestionOver 3.7 billion hours of travel delay…2.3 billion gallons of wasted fuel annually in congestion Cost… $63 billion in 2003Cost… $63 billion in 2003 Individual drivers spent three times as much time stuck in traffic in 2003 – an average 47 hours – than 1983Individual drivers spent three times as much time stuck in traffic in 2003 – an average 47 hours – than 1983 Texas Transportation Institute, 2005

17 Social Marketing Global Warming Externality Transportation causes 33 percent of US CO 2 emissions – 1,959 million metric tons; the largest single amount in economy – while producing 11 percent GDPTransportation causes 33 percent of US CO 2 emissions – 1,959 million metric tons; the largest single amount in economy – while producing 11 percent GDP C0 2 emissions to GDP fell 23 percent since 1990 due to drops in industrial and commercial emissions amid overall economic gainsC0 2 emissions to GDP fell 23 percent since 1990 due to drops in industrial and commercial emissions amid overall economic gains U.S. vehicle miles traveled are increasing over two percent annually and as much as 6.2 percent, erasing those industrial/commercial C0 2 gainsU.S. vehicle miles traveled are increasing over two percent annually and as much as 6.2 percent, erasing those industrial/commercial C0 2 gains Americans drive 2.9 trillion miles/year in 411 billion car trips, 87 percent aloneAmericans drive 2.9 trillion miles/year in 411 billion car trips, 87 percent alone US-DOT, US-EIA, US-DOC

18 Social Marketing Foreign Policy Externality Americans drive 2.9 trillion miles/year in 411 billion car trips, 77 percent aloneAmericans drive 2.9 trillion miles/year in 411 billion car trips, 77 percent alone billion car trips are commutes60-65 billion car trips are commutes 70 percent of 19 million oil barrels/day into fuel tanks. 163 billion gas/diesel gallons annually in cars70 percent of 19 million oil barrels/day into fuel tanks. 163 billion gas/diesel gallons annually in cars 63 percent of oil imported (12.2 million barrels daily)63 percent of oil imported (12.2 million barrels daily) $251 billion in 2005 to import oil. Largest $ amount in US trade deficit$251 billion in 2005 to import oil. Largest $ amount in US trade deficit US-DOT, US-EIA, US-DOC

19 Social Marketing Foreign Policy Externality Social Marketing Foreign Policy Externality US – 2.7 % of worlds oil reserves, 5 % of population, uses 26 % of worlds oil (USGS) Much oil from countries who dont like AmericaMuch oil from countries who dont like America 9 of 11 OPEC nations are Islamic. Two major exporters, Iran and Venezuela, angry at US, w/Nigeria in civil war9 of 11 OPEC nations are Islamic. Two major exporters, Iran and Venezuela, angry at US, w/Nigeria in civil war 2 in 3 barrels of proven oil in Persian Gulf states2 in 3 barrels of proven oil in Persian Gulf states

20 Social Marketing Foreign Policy Externality Past 30 years, US engaged in petro- imperialismPast 30 years, US engaged in petro- imperialism US puts up a democratic façade, emphasizes freedom of the seas (or pipeline routes) and seeks to secure, protect, drill and ship oilUS puts up a democratic façade, emphasizes freedom of the seas (or pipeline routes) and seeks to secure, protect, drill and ship oil US military become global oil protection forceUS military become global oil protection force Kevin Phillips, American Theocracy Three in four worldwide call US in Iraq blood for oil in 2002 survey of 33,000Three in four worldwide call US in Iraq blood for oil in 2002 survey of 33,000 Pew Charitable Trust, 2003

21 Change Inevitable Writing on wall IF we allow ourselves to see itWriting on wall IF we allow ourselves to see it In our lifetime, parking decks become white elephants?In our lifetime, parking decks become white elephants? The visionary firm that recognizes and addresses has key to mitigation of global warming, congestion, and other externalities of auto usageThe visionary firm that recognizes and addresses has key to mitigation of global warming, congestion, and other externalities of auto usage While providing key value to clientsWhile providing key value to clients New, value pricing revenue stream???

22 Dialogue Marketing TDM – Martha Jefferson Plan Monthly ask employees following externality discussion if want more info or consider another transportation mode Sign each up for dialogue marketing 1. Allows work with only employees predisposed to act 2. Allows bypass/isolation of advocates for auto lobby 3. Builds towards individual and corporate tipping point 4. Similar to TravelSmart but employer focused

23 TDM – Martha Jefferson Plan Think Globally, Act Locally Have knowledgeable advocate individually market that employee with data and rewards for attempting other commute styles. Perhaps requires several individual meetings. Again, similar to Western Australias successful TravelSmart program. 1. About percent of telephoned households refuse to hear more 2. Still so effective that 135,000 families targeted this year 3. Cost: $50 per household 4. All demographics – including professionals – utilizing alternative transport With social marketing, moves the mass as well as quickly gathers low hanging fruit.

24 Dialogue Marketing TDM – Martha Jefferson Plan Discover commute needsDiscover commute needs Show options: Hike, bike, car-van pool, transit, telecommuteShow options: Hike, bike, car-van pool, transit, telecommute Bus schedule from nearest stop; Perhaps free pass Bike shop discounts Nearby employees working similar hours Emphasize guaranteed ride home programEmphasize guaranteed ride home program Emphasize flex car possibilitiesEmphasize flex car possibilities Solve other disincentivesSolve other disincentives Research: Why Americans drive? What causes change?Research: Why Americans drive? What causes change?

25 Dialogue Marketing TDM – Martha Jefferson Plan In each company department, train first commute changers to become individualized marketers 1. As known entities, they become living proof 2. And can be compensated for educating others Constantly connect driving externalities to media coverage Illustrates personal rewards of those changers 1. Personally lose weight 2. Personally save money 3. If Cash-Out, can invest saved money as will

26 HOK Client Generate company background dataGenerate company background data Preliminary cost and environmental impactPreliminary cost and environmental impact Devise program for that locationDevise program for that location Provide PowerPoint/video for five-minute externality social marketing over year-long programProvide PowerPoint/video for five-minute externality social marketing over year-long program Train/provide dialogue marketer/champion for each firmTrain/provide dialogue marketer/champion for each firm Turn parking savings into greater buildings

27 Will Work in America? In 1990, Cornell University in NY began TDM program for faculty and staff Today 52 percent of faculty/staff arrive on alternative transportationToday 52 percent of faculty/staff arrive on alternative transportation Student parking permits halved in six years and 26 percent today purchase transit passesStudent parking permits halved in six years and 26 percent today purchase transit passes Both happier. Staff morale up. Turnover downBoth happier. Staff morale up. Turnover down Re-utilizing former parking spacesRe-utilizing former parking spaces

28 Will Work in America? U.S. Census Bureau: 1.4 mil sq ft. complex for 6,000 employees. Suitland, MD.U.S. Census Bureau: 1.4 mil sq ft. complex for 6,000 employees. Suitland, MD. Opened Nov with 4,000 parking spaces after three-year TDM program increased carpooling 17.9 %, transit 30.6 % and decreased SOV by 8.2 %Opened Nov with 4,000 parking spaces after three-year TDM program increased carpooling 17.9 %, transit 30.6 % and decreased SOV by 8.2 % National Capital Planning Commission limits parking to one space for every two employeesNational Capital Planning Commission limits parking to one space for every two employees Washington: Commute Transport ReductionWashington: Commute Transport Reduction

29 Will Work in America? IRS Tax CreditsIRS Tax Credits Cash Out ParkingCash Out Parking World Kyoto PressureWorld Kyoto Pressure Media: Car driving connected to Global WarmingMedia: Car driving connected to Global Warming LEED ND PilotLEED ND Pilot CAFÉ rebound effectCAFÉ rebound effect New York considering congestion chargingNew York considering congestion charging Obama, McCain, Clinton, Romney: carbon taxing carbon taxing

30 HOK Potential parking, planet, physical fitness, public image Value Randy Salzman

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33 American Policy to date – State of Denial The Miracle Cure ALL scenarios – even best case – predict we WILL be forced to change our behavior Saul at Damascus is a miracle because instantaneous behavioral change DOES NOT happen Individuals do not hear one argument, one time and change their minds, much less their behavior Behavioral change, instead, is a long, complicated, variable process unique to each individual

34 Reprogramming Default Self-Determination To be autonomously motivated involves feeling a sense of choice and volition as a person fully endorses his or her own actionsTo be autonomously motivated involves feeling a sense of choice and volition as a person fully endorses his or her own actions Richard Ryan, Psychological Needs and the Facilitation of Integrative Processes,1995 Autonomous choice requires a decision that is accompanied by the experience of endorsement and willingnessAutonomous choice requires a decision that is accompanied by the experience of endorsement and willingness Moller, Ryan & Deci, Self-Determination Theory and Public Policy, 2006 Autonomous choosers often become additional mavens, and salesmen to move society TO/FROM the necessary to move society TO/FROM the necessary sustainable tipping point

35 Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation Autonomy vs Control Doing because its interesting, fun, satisfying, enjoyableDoing because its interesting, fun, satisfying, enjoyable No coercionNo coercion Satisfies our basic psychological needsSatisfies our basic psychological needs Helps personal growth and affirmationHelps personal growth and affirmation Pull or soft methodsPull or soft methods Doing due to pressure, cost, to forestall a punishment, achieve an outer-directed goal To illustrate to others Drives wealth, fame and image-consciousness Push or coercive methods

36 Govt/Media MORE Rational… The economic concept of the rational consumer does not exist… Marketers seek the child market because, once hooked, we rarely changes brands… We see more advertising AFTER buying… We have been taught since birth that buying equals happiness… We have learned to expect instant gratification… We love simplicity, not complexity… We do not want to hear bad news… We dont have the time…

37 The Default Position C hange inevitable but most resist change Early childhood theories are engravings in brainEarly childhood theories are engravings in brain Education piles up but fundamental engravings generally remain unchangedEducation piles up but fundamental engravings generally remain unchanged When forced to connect outside formal training respondent reverts to earlier engravingWhen forced to connect outside formal training respondent reverts to earlier engraving Cognitive dissonance. We try to square what we do with who we claim to be… We rationalize our behaviorCognitive dissonance. We try to square what we do with who we claim to be… We rationalize our behavior Gardner, 2004

38 Reprogramming Default C hange inevitable but most resist change REASON: Identifying, weighing relevant assessment factors RESEARCH: Collection relevant data RESONANCE: affective component *LIEDTKAS AUTHENCITY: Must feel right to an individual, fit current situation and seem doable *ARISTOTLES ETHOS: Feels relation/respect to mind-changer, finds him/her reliable REPRESENTATIONAL RE-DESCRIPTIONS: Express in multiple compatible formats RESOURCES and REWARDS: positive reinforcement *Rewarded for one course of behavior over other *New course concordant with reason, resonance, research. REAL WORLD EVENTS: Whats happening which reinforces, detracts RESISTANCES: Selective attention, retention, perception Gardner, Changing Minds, 2004

39 Reprogramming Default Of 10 worst Intl per-capita energy-use cities, nine American In the worlds worst driving city Atlanta, Georgia Henry & Gordon, Driving less for better air, 2003 Newman & Kinsworthy, Sustainability and Cities, 1999 Ozone Alerts reduce individual driving Down 3.6 mile/day Reduce it significantly if employer program Down 11.6 mile/day

40 Behavioral Change Model Seven Stages of Change 1. Awareness of Problem Issues of automobile externalities, like congestion, global warming, foreign policy 2. Accepting Responsibility We have met the enemy and he is us!) 2. Accepting Responsibility ( We have met the enemy and he is us!) Understanding the personal, corporate, organizational relevance 3. Perception of Options Recognize that there are other methods of transport 4. Evaluation of Options Consider if one or more option is viable 5. Making a Choice Truly desire to modify own behavior 6. Experimental Behavior Getting out and trying that choice 7. Habitual Behavior Adopting for long-term

41 Seven Stages of Change To affect consumer in stages… 1. Awareness of Problem 2. Accepting Responsibility Whenever individual moves from one stage to next… Provide positive feedback Thanks for becoming part of the solution Public Info/Media Coverage Seek Small Groups Reiterate Externalities Reiterate Specific Facts Tell Positive Stories Accept Defensiveness Distance from Arguments

42 Seven Stages of Change To affect consumer in stages… 3. Evaluation of Options 4. Making a Choice Whenever individual moves from one stage to next… Provide positive feedback Good thinking. For all options, you know theres a guaranteed ride home, right? Target Leaners Personalized Marketing Focus on Journey Type Bypass Defensiveness Address Disincentives to Change Provide Incentives to Try Emphasize: Doing whats right Keep Press Distant

43 Seven Stages of Change To affect consumer in stages… 5. Making a Choice 6. Experimental Behavior 7. Habitual Behavior Whenever individual moves from one stage to next… Provide positive feedback: I cant wait to see you in six months. Everybodys healthier and happier. Focus on Type of Journey Solve Disincentives Illustrate Positive Personal Effects Encourage Defensiveness Ask for Feedback Use as Example for Media, Internal Coverage Ask for Support and Promotion


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