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FAT REFORM: OBESITY, FOOD POLITICS AND THE PERILS OF DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES Jeffry N. Gerber, M.D., Denvers Diet Doctor Family Physician, Littleton Colorado.

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Presentation on theme: "FAT REFORM: OBESITY, FOOD POLITICS AND THE PERILS OF DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES Jeffry N. Gerber, M.D., Denvers Diet Doctor Family Physician, Littleton Colorado."— Presentation transcript:

1 FAT REFORM: OBESITY, FOOD POLITICS AND THE PERILS OF DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES Jeffry N. Gerber, M.D., Denvers Diet Doctor Family Physician, Littleton Colorado

2 Disclosures None

3 Outline History and Politics Science of nutrition & the evidence Re-write the nutritional guidelines Summary and action plan

4 Diabesity: A Twin Epidemic The spectrum of Insulin Resistance

5 Obesity Statistics Sources: TFAH, OECD, WHO, CDC, ADA The progression of insulin resistance 44% obese in % diabetic in 2050

6 Historical Perspective Blame behavior and lifestyle choices Eating too much and exercising too little Obesity is caused by positive energy balance! A simple explanation Health insurance will not pay for treatment Its your fault, your problem, you fix it! The Lipid Hypotheses 1950s Avoid caloric dense fatty foods I am such a glutton and sloth

7 USDA Dietary Guidelines Less saturated fats, less calories More poly-unsaturated Vegetable oils More carbohydrates, starches, sugars More inexpensive food commodities Weak evidence, the wrong tools! Phillip Handler : A vast nutritional experiment

8 Macronutrient Content More refined carbohydrates and less saturated fat Total caloric intake increases from sugar consumption -MMWR, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, February 6, 2004 / Vol. 53 / No. 4

9 Does Saturated Fat Cause Heart Disease? Outcomes looking at MI, death from MI and stroke Observational - 16 studies - No! Observational - 8 studies - Yes but problematic! Observational - 2 meta analysis, 350,000 subjects - No! RCTs - Clinical trials - 2 well done - No! RCTs - Clinical trials - 3 meta analysis - No! RCTs - Clinical trials - 1 meta analysis - Yes but problematic!

10 Food Politics: Agriculture Industrial revolution and the food commodities Corn, Wheat, Rice, Potatoes Sugars: Cane, Beet, HFCS Soybean and industrial Vegetable oils Whole foods expensive: Animals and other Plants Farming incentives, increase yields, GMOs

11 Food Politics: Manufacturing and $ales To sell refined and processed foods for profit Food commodities are the raw materials Tasty and addicting foods, eat more Deceptive advertising: Healthy foods Food lobbyists funding politicians Selling food not health

12 Our Ancestors Before Agriculture Hunter gatherers and the Paleolithic era Whole foods, some carbs Animals including Fish, seasonal Veggies, Fruits,Nuts and Roots Use of fire Agriculture and the Neolithic era Cultivate Grains and domesticate Animals for Dairy Modern civilization changing nutrition For better or worse

13 The Cost of Healthcare World leader in healthcare spending since 1980 Treating chronic diseases Medicare and Medicaid industry guidelines Treatment of illness and disease only Obesity not a medical condition A reactive and costly approach to healthcare Preventive services task force 2012, counseling Treating obesity complications is profitable

14 Evolution - Are You Kidding? Nutrition changing humans in our lifetime! The Food Revolution: Andreas Eenfeldt, M.D.

15 Fat Reform is Healthcare Reform Address obesity Save trillions treating complications Food industry regulation! Healthcare delivery Nutrition and center stage Re-define healthy nutrition Re-educate The perils of dietary carbohydrates In defense of dietary fat

16 Nutrition and Metabolism 101 Food metabolism All macronutrients are not created equal Carbohydrates are fattening and inflammatory Fats and proteins Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease Insulin resistance Inflammation Carbs Fats Proteins

17 Insulin and Insulin Receptors One of several hormones Regulate energy and energy storage Dietary carbohydrates, the primary fuel Turn on the insulin switch Dietary proteins and fats, secondary fuels Minimal effect on insulin, essential Insulin receptors normal function Cells, muscle, tissue absorb energy and nutrients Excess food energy converted to fat and stored Normally insulin will suppress appetite insulin promotes the release of stored energy Basic physiology

18 Insulin Resistance Years of carbohydrate overload More insulin is required Excess energy, stored as body fat Receptors become strained and resistant Beta cells strained, abnormal response A disease of insulin overload Insulin resistance makes us hungry Fat cells literally starve lean body tissues Hypothalamus, Nucleus Accumbens Eventual loss of central signals

19 Regulation of Food Intake Leptin – Insulin – Amylin – PP - Ghrelin - PYY - GLP-1 Resistance changes signaling Promotes inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction

20 Inflammation and Adiposity IL-6 Adiponectin Leptin TNF α Adipsin (Complement D) Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 Resistin FFA Insulin Angiotensinogen Lipoprotein lipase Lactate Type II Diabetes Hypertension Dyslipidemia Thrombosis Atherosclerosis Insulin Resistance Lyon CJ et al. Endocrinology 2003;144: ; Trayhurn P et al. Br J Nutr 2004;92:347-55; Eckel RH et al. Lancet 2005;365: CRP Inflammation Cancer IGF-1 Premature Ageing Liver & Gut Dementia Fertility

21 Insulin Resistance Evaluation OverweightObesityPre-diabetes (Metabolic Syndrome) Type II Diabetes Anthropometric measurements Medical and family history, physical 2hr OGT, GTT Metabolic markers of inflammation HgA1c, c-peptide, Insulin, CRP, Thyroid, etc… Cholesterol testing as a marker for atherosclerosis

22 Insulin Resistance Treatment The food is the medicine Remove the optional fuel Less dietary carbohydrates Turn off the insulin switch Control hunger and appetite

23 Insulin Resistance Treatment Dietary proteins Essential, healthy Dietary fats and cholesterol Essential, healthy Caloric dense and filling NOT inflammatory or atherogenic One exception Carbs and fats together Standard American diet (SAD) Carbs are the catalyst

24 Insulin Resistance Treatment Medication Physiologic drugs Metformin, Byetta, Victoza, Bydureon, Symlin Rx appetite suppressants New and future drugs OTC market Treat co-morbidities Nutrition center stage Gastric bypass surgery

25 Eat Real foods Focus on the carbohydrate content of food Avoid high glycemic foods, processed foods Eat low glycemic foods, whole and unprocessed Healthy natural fats Butter, Animal fat, Coconut oil, Olive oil, Avocado, Fish oil Low-Carb High Fat (LCHF), Ancestral diets Control of appetite and promote weight loss Enhanced fat burning during exercise Quantity, calories and portions not the focus

26 Comparing Diets Head to Head Compare the macronutrient content % of calories from carbs, protein and fat Very low fat <10%, high carb, low calorie Very low carb <10%, high fat, LCHF, 1860s LCHF vs. Ancestral diets Food quality important What diets are healthy and safe? Low carb high fat (LCHF) diets improve health! Greater weight loss, improved lipids and blood sugar Dozens of RCTs, Stanford 2007, Duke 2004, Penn 2003, 2011 Meta analysis, Santos 2012

27 Calories consumed equal, Atkins LCHF diet better controls insulin, weight and appetite


29 Lipid profile improved on Atkins LCHF

30 Effects of LCHF diet on emerging plasma markers, Richard J. Wood, et al. J. Nutrition. 136: , February 2006 Advanced Lipids and LCHF Diets Favorable LDL subclasses or particle sizes Triglycerides decrease, healthy HDL-C increases Other markers Apo-B, LDL particles Lpa, genetic markers Advanced labs Berkeley Heart Lab NMR Liposcience VAP Cholesterol

31 Marcia at 262 lbs, BMI 41 lost 70 lbs, now 192 lbs, 27% loss TBW, BMI 30

32 Female age 45, 57, 262 lbs, BMI 41 OGT performed, FBS=96, 1HR=180, 2Hr=129 HgA1C=6.4%, c-peptide=4.7 TRG=221, HDL=36, TC=148, LDL=69, NON-HDL=112, TC/HDL=4.2, LDL Pattern A/B 8 months later lost 70 lbs, 192 lbs, BMI 30, 27% loss of body weight FBS 76 HgA1C=5.1%, ?c-peptide TRG=147, HDL=40, TC=186, LDL=121, NON-HDL=151, TC/HDL=5.2, ?particle size Dr Gerber Patient: Marcia

33 David at 312 lbs, BMI 40 lost 153 lbs, now 159 lbs, 49% loss TBW, BMI 20

34 Male, age 71, 63, 312 lbs, BMI 40 OGT: FBS=105, 1HR=219, 2HR=201 HgA1C=6.8% TRG=193, HDL=28, TC=225, LDL=158, NON-HDL=197 2 years later, lost 153 lbs, 159 lbs, BMI 20, 49% loss of body weight OGT: pending, FBS normal HgA1C=4.6% TRG=109, HDL=40, TC=155, LDL=93, NON-HDL=115 Dr Gerber Patient: David

35 Patrick at 220 lbs, BMI 32 Lost 45 lbs, now 175 lbs, 20% loss TBW, BMI 24

36 Dr Gerber Patient: Patrick Male, age 53, 6, 220 lbs, BMI 32 OGT performed, FBS=86, 1HR=148, 2HR=103 HgA1C=5.4%, c-peptide=4.1 TRG=133, HDL=47, TC=238, LDL=164, NON-HDL=191, TC/HDL=5.1 7 moths later lost 45 lbs, 175 lbs, BMI 24, 20% loss of body weight FBS=77 HgA1C=5.1%, c-peptide=0.9 TRG=75, HDL=78, TC=200, LDL=75, NON-HDL=122, TC/HDL=2.6

37 Age 43, lost 10 pounds on a Paleo diet, 183 lbs, BMI 25 Berkeley Heart Lab Triglycerides and HDL-C improved, LDL-C, Apo-B unchanged LDL subclasses (particle size) remained favorable, 9p21 genetic markers at risk Carotid IMT, 39 yrs., heterogeneous plaque <20% Dr Gerber Patient: Eric

38 Author: Gary Taubes 2002 New York Times Magazine: What If Its All Been a Big Fat Lie 2008: Good Calories Bad Calories 2010: Why We Get Fat: And What To Do About It 2011 New York Times Magazine: Is Sugar Toxic 2012 Newsweek: Why the Obesity Campaign is failing Nutrition and the history of weak scientific evidence

39 Nutrition for the New Millennium Re-defining healthy nutrition Less refined and processed foods More whole foods including natural fats New federal dietary guidelines Food industry regulation Re-define healthcare delivery Nutrition centerstage Control the cost of healthcare

40 Good Food is Good Medicine! Jeffry N. Gerber, M.D.

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