2Section 1 Italy Birthplace of the Renaissance Goals and Objectives: Upon completion students should be able to:Explain how political and economic conditions resources, geographic locations and cultures have contributed to cooperation and conflictDescribe the changes in Europe as a result of the early Renaissance.
3Italy’s advantagesRenaissance the period from called the Renaissance, which means rebirth. Italy had three things that fostered the Renaissance.1. Thriving cities2. A wealthy merchant class3. Classical heritage of Greece and Rome
4The rise of city states in Italy The plague (1300’s) killed as many as 60% in some towns.This cut back the number of laborers and thus increased the wages of those that remained. Art was pursued by many of the wealthy.
5The wealthy patrons1. Members of the wealthy class turned to controlling the government by loaning money to the different leaders of the government. 2. One family Medici controlled Florence not themselves but by giving money to the ruling council. 3. These ruling merchants supported the arts, which allowed a rebirth of the classics.
6The ClassicsThe artists supported by the wealthy men, drew on the classic remains of the ancient Greek and Roman influences that surrounded the cities of Italy.
7Discussion Questions: What new cultural features have emerged in the U.S. recently? Why have they grown?What are the cultural centers of the U.S. today? Why are they the centers?Are there values that could be categorized as uniquely American?
8Classical and Worldly Values 1. Study of the classics turned to Humanism, which focused on human potential and achievements. 2. Humanists encouraged and supported the study of classical educations such as history, literature, philosophy; known as the humanities.
10The Conflict between the Church and new ideas Religious tradition focused on church ideas such a sacrifice and living in ordinary ways, focusing on being righteous.The humanist in Italy enjoyed material luxuries, fine music, and tasty foods.Secularism-worldly and concerned with the here and now.Some church leaders got more worldly living in beautiful mansions, had lavish banquets and wore fine clothing.Even popes of the Roman church became patrons of the arts, by buying a great deal of art to beautify the churches.
11A Renaissance ManA renaissance man was one who strove to master all areas of study, they were educated and universal in abilities.They mastered many different things and were wittyThey studied the classics and knew literature and poetry.Baldassare CastiglioneAuthor of the Courtier
12A Renaissance WomenThe Renaissance woman knew the classics and was charming.She would not seek fame of her abilities.Most women had no power, however one lady of a ruling family married the ruler of another city-state. Isabella D’Este brought many different artists into her court thus promoting the spread of and acceptance of the art collection she acquired.Isabella D’Este
13Renaissance Revolutionizes Art Medieval artists used religious items to paint whereas the artists of the renaissance started painting individuals (portraits)The technique of perspective has three dimensions on a flat surface.
14RealismShowing images in the true form that they appear in rather than trying to change them for perfect images.Michelangelo painted realistic images and Donatello sculpted to show natural postures and personality. Sistine-Michelangelo-Sistine Chapel Raphael- School of Athens
15Renaissance Writers Change Literature Renaissance writers did not write in the classical Latin, however he or she wrote in vernacular- his or her own language.They wrote for self-expression or to portray the individuality of their subjects.
16Machiavelli: Should rulers be loved or feared? Machiavelli advises rulers, by writing a political guidebook, The Prince.He tells how a ruler can gain power and then maintain that power.stated that most people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt.To keep power a leader must be strong like lion and shrewd like fox. He wasn’t concerned with what is morally right, but what is politically effective.Is Machiavelli correct??
17Women WritersWomen usually wrote about personal subjects, not politics.Vittoria Colonna helped publish The Courtier.
18Sections 2 The Northern Renaissance Goals and Objectives: Upon completion, students should:Explain the main reasons why the Renaissance spread to N. Europe.Identify key contributors to the Northern Renaissance.Explain the term cultural diffusion while providing examples.
19The Northern Renaissance Begins Flanders became the center of the N. RenaissancePopulation growth rebounded from the years of the plague and the 100 years war between France and England ended.The rulers of England and France bought paintings of the artists to place in their palaces. (patrons)The ideas and methods of the renaissance blended with the culture of the Northern Europeans and became uniquely Northern European.humanists looked at social reform based on Christian values.
20Artistic Ideas SpreadItaly had a civil war and many of the writers and artists of Italy traveled north to get out of harm’s way. Thus spreading the classics to northern Europe.The German painters took to painting in a style known as realism. Painting scenes or events as they truly were. He painted the monarchs of England.Flemish painters used oil to display their individuality and worldly pleasures Hans Holbein- Henry VIII Jan Van Eyck- The Arnolfini WeddingAlbrecht Durer-The Adoration of the Magi
21Northern Writers Try to Reform Society Christian humanists looked at the church believing it had failed to inspire people to live a Christian life.Christian humanists tried to reform society including the growth of education to women.
22Discussion Questions: Who are the people today who could be considered reformers?What areas of reform do you see taking place today?Who are the most influential people today in American society? How have they gained such influence?
23Thomas MooreThomas More wrote a book entitled Utopia looking for a perfect world full of peace loving people in a land where greed, corruption, war and crime had been weeded out.
24Women ReformersMany women could not unable to read or write, Christine de Pizan was an exception.She wrote in French, writing many books including short stories, biographies and manuals on military techniques.She questioned why boys and girls were treated differently.
25The Elizabethan Age The period from 1558-1603 where she ruled England. As Queen, she was a major patron of the arts in supporting poetry and music as well as literature.
26William Shakespeare Considered the greatest play write ever. He used the classics as an inspirationUsed the human soul to write about human flaws.
27The Printing Press spreads ideas Chinese inventor Bi sheng invented a movable type but it was impracticleJohan Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1440.This was used to produce bibles, books and pamphlets.
28The legacy of the Renaissance New artistic ideas and techniques were practiced.The Church was challenged by secular ideasThere was a rise of humanismVernacularism led to more languages being writtenA respect for the classics was restored.Literacy increased because of more available books.Christian humanism spread in the north.
29Section 3 Luther Leads the Reformation Goals and Objectives: Upon completion, students should:Explain the reasons for the reformation:Describe the impacts of the reformation.Summarize the ways in which Europe changed as a result of the reformation.Summarize the Elizabethan age:
30Luther Leads the Reformation Causes of the ReformationChurch Authority ChallengedSecularism, individualism of RenaissancechallengeChurch authorityRulers challenge Church’s powerPrinting press spreads secular ideasNorthern merchants resent paying church taxes
31Causes of the Reformation Criticisms of the Catholic Church• Corrupt leaders, extravagant popes• Poorly educated priests
32Early Calls for Reform • John Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over clergy’s• Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More are vocalcritics of the Church• Reading religious works, Europeans form ownopinions about Church
34Luther Challenges the Church The 95 Theses• Martin Luther protests Friar Johann Tetzel’sselling of indulgences• Indulgence—a pardon releasing a person frompenalty for a sin• In 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking“pardon-merchants”• Luther’s theses circulate throughout Germany• Luther launches the Reformation—a movementfor religious reform• Reformation rejects pope’s authority
35Discussion Questions: What traditional beliefs, customs, practices or laws are challenged in American society today?What methods are being used to challenge these traditions?
36continued Luther Challenges the Church Luther’s Teachings• People can win salvation by good works and faith• Christian teachings must be based on the Bible,not the pope• All people with faith are equal, can interpret Biblewithout priests
37The Response to Luther The Pope’s Threat • Pope Leo X issues decree threatening toexcommunicate Luther (1520)• Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken away• Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated
38The Emperor’s Opposition • Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor • He issues Edict of Worms (1521),declaring Luther a heretic• Luther and followers begin a separatereligious group—LutheransThe Peasants’ Revolt• Inspired by Reformation, German peasantsseek end to serfdom (1524)• Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 peopledie
39The Peasants’ Revolt• Inspired by Reformation, German peasantsseek end to serfdom (1524)• Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 peopledieGermany at War• Some princes side with Luther, become knownas Protestants• Charles V fails to return rebellious princes toCatholic Church• Peace of Augsburg (1555)—each prince candecide religion of his state
40England Becomes Protestant Henry VIII Wants a Son• Henry has only daughter, needs male heir to rule England• Henry wants a divorce; Pope refuses to annul—set aside—his first marriage to Catherine ofAragonThe Reformation Parliament• Parliament passes laws ending pope’s power inEngland• Henry remarries, becomes official head of England’sChurch• Thomas More refuses to go against Catholic Churchand is beheaded
41The Act of SupremacyThomas More spoke out against Henry in 1534 and was arrested and executed.The Act of Supremacy stated that England’s citizens must renounce the Pope’s authority and to accept Henry as the official leader of the Church of England.Henry died in 1547Henry>>>Edward VI>>>Mary>>>ElizabethHenry VIII just 9 years old Catherine’s daughter Anne Boleyn’sdied in ruled 6 years restored Catholicism daughter
43England Becomes Protestant Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges• Some Protestants and Catholics opposeElizabeth• Phillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatensEngland• Elizabeth’s need for money brings conflict withParliament
44Elizabeth Restores Protestantism In 1559 Parliament officially set up the Anglican Church, making her the head of the church.Elizabeth created reforms that appealed to both Catholics and Protestants, many catholic traditions continued but priests could marry.
45Elizabeth’s challenges Catholics still tried to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots, her cousin.Philip II tried to launch a Spanish invasion, he failed.Elizabeth constantly feuded with parliament over money.
46Section 4 The Reformation Continues Upon completion, students should:Identify the specific examples of protestant growth in Europe.Describe the ways in which the Catholic church responded to protestant expansion.Summarize the reforms of the church
47John Calvin and Calvinism Religious theologian. Founder of Calvinist thought, ruler of GenevaHis ideas would spread through Europe. One of the more powerful Christian reformersThe idea that God has already decided who is to be saved, your actions really don’t matter.
48John Calvin More than just religious scholar, a leader as well. Calvin ruled Geneva as a theocracy (a government based on religious laws)Anyone who did not follow his rules were either banished or executed.
49Calvinism spreadsIn Scotland Calvinism spread, followers were known as Presbyterians.In France Calvinists followers were called Huguenots.
50Catholic Reform St. Ignatius of Loyola In 1522 he wrote Spiritual ExercisesDaily plan for meditation, prayer and studyOver time he gathered followersIn 1540 his followers were named an official religious order by the Pope, called Jesuits.
51Jesuits: Defenders of the church The “Jesuits” spread throughout EuropeThey created rigorous but EXCELLENT schoolsConcentrated equally on classical works and theologySpread Catholicism through EuropeHeld off Protestant advancement in Poland and Southern Germany
52Pope Paul and the Council of Trent Pope Paul IIILed the reformationInvestigated indulgencesCalled the Council of Trent
53Council of Trent The Church’s interpretation of the Bible was final. You need faith AND good works to get into HeavenIndulgences were valid expression of faith, but false purchase of them was banned
54Impacts of the Reformation: Protestant churches flourishedFormation of church schools and universitiesChurch political authority declined in Europe as monarchs and states gained power.Roots of the Enlightenment were formed as people began to question other ideas long held by the church.