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Protestant Reformation

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1 Protestant Reformation

2 GPS Standards SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. d. Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation; include the ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin.

3 Essential Question How did the ideas of Luther and Calvin start a reformation in the church?

4 Causes of the Reformation
Renaissance focusing on secular and the individual challenged church authority. Rulers began to challenge the church’s political power. Merchants resented paying church taxes to Rome Social, Political, economic, and religious causes.

5 Social The Renaissance values of humanism and secularism led to people to question the church. The printing press helped to spread ideas critical of the Church.

6 Political Powerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe. Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority.

7 Economic European princes and kings were jealous of the Church’s wealth. Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the Church

8 Religious Some church leaders had become worldly and corrupt
Many people found Church practices such as the salve of indulgences unacceptable.

9 The 95 Theses Luther took a public stand against the actions of a friar named Johann Tetzel. Selling indulgences to re-build St. Peter’s Cathedral. Indulgences: Pardon, that released a sinner from preforming the penalty that a priest imposed for sins. October 31, Posted the 95 thesis on the church. Copied words on the printing press.

10 Reformation A movement for religious reform. It led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority.

11 Luther’s Teachings Ideas rested on 3 main ideas:
1. people could win salvation only by faith 2. all church teachings should be clearly based on the words of the Bible 3. all people of with faith were equal. Therefore, people did not need priests to interpret the Bible for them.

12 Pope’s threat Pope Leo X issued a decree threatening Luther with excommunication unless he took back his statements. Luther and his students threw his decree in a bonfire at Wittenberg.

13 Emperor’s Opposition Charles V, a devout Catholic, also opposed Luther’s teachings. Summoned so town of Worms in 1521 to stand trial and take back his statement. Edict of Worms=Luther declared an outlaw and that all his books would be burned. Found shelter and translated the New testament into German. Luther and followers became a separate religious group: Lutherans

14 Calvin continues the Reformation
1536- Published Institutes of the Christian religion. Expressed ideas about God, salvation, and human nature. Men and women are sinful by nature. Went on to say that God chooses a very few people to save (“The elect”). God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved= Predestination.

15 Calvinism Religion based on Calvin’s teachings.
Believed ideal government was a theocracy. - Government controlled by religious leaders Calvinism spreads From Geneva, John Knox put ideas to work in Scotland. Followers became known as Presbyterians.

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