Presentation on theme: "Word Order in German Main Clauses Mr. David Schwarzbauer VIS, Vienna International School, German Department."— Presentation transcript:
Word Order in German Main Clauses Mr. David Schwarzbauer VIS, Vienna International School, German Department
Word Order in German Main Clauses Unlike in English, the word order in German main clauses is rather complicated. The only thing that is always true for them is that the finite verb (first part of predicate if it consists of two parts/or the predicate) is always on the second position. This is not true, however, in a question or a subordinate clause.
Word Order in German Main Clauses Here are four rules for main clauses in German: 1. On the first position you almost always have the subject of the sentence. 2. On the first position you can also have the one of all the other sentence elements that you want to stress: object (direct/indirect), adverbial phrases of time, place, reason and manner. In that case the subject moves to the position after the finite verb (to the third position). 3. As mentioned before, the finite verb is always on the second position. 4. The past participle and the infinite forms of the verb (second part of the predicate if it consist of two parts) are usually on the last position.
Word Order in German Main Clauses 1. positionfinite verbsubject indirect objekt direct objekt timeplace past participle /infinitiv question subjectIchhabedirdas Buchgestern in der Schule gegebenwho? ind. objectDirhabeichdas Buchgestern in der Schule gegebenwhom? dir. objectDas Buchhabeichdirgestern in der Schule gegebenwhat? timeGesternhabeichdirdas Buch in der Schule gegebenwhen? place In der Schule habeichdirdas Buchgesterngegebenwhere? past participle /infinitiv Gegebenhabeichdirdas Buchgestern in der Schule What did I do?
Word Order in German Main Clauses Following order is generally used in German main clauses if none of the components after the finite verb is stressed: subject - finite verb - indirect object - direct object* (- adverbial phrases of time, place, reason and manner - partizip II/infinite verb)** *Ich gebe dir das Buch. ** Ich habe dir das Buch gestern in der Schule wegen meiner Schuldgefühle heimlich gegeben. Can you write five more acceptable versions of the last sentence?
Word Order in German Main Clauses Although you will find out that you can juggle things around in German main clauses, there are some rules that are always to be followed: indirect object comes before direct object (...dir das Buch...) adverbial phrase of time comes before the adverbial phrase of manner comes before adverbial phrase of place (…gestern mit dem Bus in die Schule…) more general adverbial phrase of time comes before precise adverbial phrase of time (…gestern um 18:00 Uhr…) first part of predicate comes at second, second part of predicate comes at last position of the clause (...habe...gegeben.)