Norman, Ortony, Revelle (2004) Emotion and behavior are determined by different levels of the brain: •Reflective: –contemplation •Behavioral: –Making plans –controling everyday behavior •Visceral: –good ~ bad; threat ~ benefit –hurtig og konstant skanning; mavefornemmelsen
Norman (2002) Emotional design Affect changes the operating parameters of cognition! •Positive affect enhances creative, breadth-first thinking •Negative affect focuses cognition, enhancing depth-first processing and minimizing distractions. –Therefore, it is essential that products designed for use under stress follow good human-centered design, for stress makes people less able to cope with difficulties and less flexible in their approach to problem solving. –Positive affect makes people more tolerant of minor difficulties and more flexible and creative in finding solutions. Products designed for more relaxed, pleasant occasions can enhance their usability through pleasant, aesthetic design. •Aesthetics matter: attractive things work better.
Fogg: Computer as Tool Persuasive design through.. •Reduction –Maximize gain •Tunneling –Consistency; beslutsomhed •Tailoring –Relevance •Surveillance –Compliance with/ without internalization; Must be overt; eks: hygiejne •Self-monitoring –Human drive for self-undestanding; eks.: puls-måler ændrede målsætning •Conditioning –Skinner/ Pavlov; eks.: Fuzzy TV •Suggestions –‘Kairos’; GPS; km/t-målere
Fogg: Computer as Medium •Simulation –Cause & effect: exploration in a ‘safe place’ without consequences, without waiting •HIV roulette –Environment: safe place •Fitness-systemer; Astma; fobi-behandling –Objects •Drunk driving
Fogg: Computer as Social Actor •Stor tilbøjelighed til at forholde sig til konversationelle systemer som til et andet individ, eks. ELIZA …… •Virkemidler ift. captology: –Rewarding with positive feedback –Modelling target behavior/ attitude –Provide social support
ELIZA •ELIZA-anekdoten hos Murray: VicePresident: Do you think that I can use the computer this morning? TeleType: WHY DO YOU ASK? VP: I might be able to make some additional telcomp sales. TT: WHY AREN’T YOU SURE? VP: My prospective customers have never seen.. the system. TT: DOES THIS MEAN VERY MUCH TO DO YOU? VP: Of course it does. TT: YOU SEEM VERY POSITIVE ABOUT THAT. VP: This is ridiculous. TT: TELL ME MORE ABOUT YOUR PROSPECTIVE CUSTOMERS. VP: Please dial me up on 491 - 1850 [glemmer at taste punktum] VP ringer til computerafdelingen - meget vred – får kontakt til ‘researcher’.. VP: WHY are you being SO SNOTTY to me? RESEARCHER: What do you mean why am I being so snotty to you?