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Dollard and Miller Prominent researchers in 40’s, 50’s

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Presentation on theme: "Dollard and Miller Prominent researchers in 40’s, 50’s"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dollard and Miller Prominent researchers in 40’s, 50’s
Wanted to extend Behaviorism Tried to meld psychoanalytic and behavior theory Criticized Skinnerian Behaviorism Cited four shortcomings

2 Skinner Model Shortcomings
Ignores motivation/thinking Based on animal studies Ignores social dimension of learning Treats organism as passive

3 Stagesetters People like Dollard and Miller and others (e.g., Julian Rotter), unlike Skinner, accepted importance of cognitive processes in influencing behavior

4 D and M’s Habit Heirarchy
What is this concept? How is it a deviation from Skinner? Dollard and Miller opened the door for interactional learning models- environment, thinking (internal processes) and behavior

5 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura (1925 -)
‘The prospects for survival would be slim indeed if one could learn only from the consequences of trial and error.’

6 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Behaviorism with an increased interest in internal states Building upon Staats (1975, 1981), who suggested internal states (attitudes, self-concept)

7 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Main elements of the theory: Reciprocal Determinism (i) The individual, (ii) the environment, and (iii) the mental structures that mediate the two will interact with one another in complex ways Observational learning- models Behaviors need not be performed to be learned (vicarious learning)

8 Elements of Bandura’s Theory
People tend to have consistent goals (e.g. a good exam grade for a person whose goal is to succeed academically will reinforce them to a greater extent than it would a person who cares less about their academic performance)

9 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
Bobo doll study (Bandura, 1965) Nursery school children watched an adult on TV who performed four novel, aggressive acts on a plastic ‘Bobo doll’. The adult was then either rewarded, punished, or received no consequences Later: all children could perform the behavior if asked but those who had seen the adult rewarded were more likely to behave aggressively when alone This is sometimes called ‘vicarious conditioning’

10 Bobo Experiment

11 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory: Cognitive Elements
Self-efficacy- another aspect of Bandura’s theory An efficacy expectation is the extent of the belief that one’s actions can bring about a certain outcome – i.e. Is it within my power to do so? “I can get an A on the exam if I try.” An outcome expectation is the extent of the belief that one’s actions will bring about a certain outcome – i.e. Is it likely to happen?

12 Motivation and Efficacy
A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and well-being. People with high assurance in their capabilities approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. Such an efficacious outlook fosters intrinsic interest and deep engrossment in activities.

13 Creating Efficacy-Sucesses
The most effective way of creating a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences. If people experience only easy successes however they come to expect quick results and are easily discouraged by failure. A resilient sense of efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through perseverant effort.

14 Creating Efficacy-Social Models
The second way of creating and strengthening self-beliefs of efficacy is through the vicarious experiences provided by social models.

15 Creating Efficacy-Persuasion
Social persuasion is a third way of strengthening people's beliefs that they have what it takes to succeed. People who are persuaded verbally that they possess the capabilities to master given activities are likely to mobilize greater effort and sustain it

16 Creating Efficacy-Reduce Stress
The fourth way of modifying self-beliefs of efficacy is to reduce people's stress reactions. One way to do it-- alter their negative emotional proclivities and misinterpretations of their physical states.

17 Cognitive Processes SLT stresses the importance of cognitive processes
Triadic reciprocal determinism Example Belief- People are untrustworthy Behavior event- shortchanged by cashier; get hostile Environment- Feedback- cashier gets hostile

18 Internal Processes Notice this man’s beliefs are internal mediators of behavior and behavior influences the environment. Internal processes important again

19 Passivity/Activity People are not passive but can impact environment
I arrive at a party and liven it up- I am affecting/ shaping environment

20 Other SLT Principles Phenomenological perspective
Imaginal Representation Observational learning

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