Dollard and Miller Prominent researchers in 40’s, 50’s
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1 Dollard and Miller Prominent researchers in 40’s, 50’s Wanted to extend BehaviorismTried to meld psychoanalytic and behavior theoryCriticized Skinnerian BehaviorismCited four shortcomings
2 Skinner Model Shortcomings Ignores motivation/thinkingBased on animal studiesIgnores social dimension of learningTreats organism as passive
3 StagesettersPeople like Dollard and Miller and others (e.g., Julian Rotter), unlike Skinner, accepted importance of cognitive processes in influencing behavior
4 D and M’s Habit Heirarchy What is this concept?How is it a deviation from Skinner?Dollard and Miller opened the door forinteractional learning models- environment, thinking (internal processes) and behavior
5 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura (1925 -) ‘The prospects for survivalwould be slim indeed ifone could learn only fromthe consequences of trialand error.’
6 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Behaviorism with an increased interest ininternal statesBuilding upon Staats (1975, 1981), whosuggested internal states (attitudes, self-concept)
7 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Main elements of the theory:Reciprocal Determinism(i) The individual, (ii) the environment, and (iii) the mental structures that mediate the two will interact with one another in complex waysObservational learning- modelsBehaviors need not be performed to be learned (vicarious learning)
8 Elements of Bandura’s Theory People tend to have consistent goals (e.g. a good exam grade for a person whose goal is to succeed academicallywill reinforce them to a greater extent than it would a person who cares less about their academic performance)
9 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Bobo doll study (Bandura, 1965)Nursery school children watched an adult on TV whoperformed four novel, aggressive acts on a plastic ‘Bobodoll’. The adult was then either rewarded, punished, orreceived no consequencesLater:all children could perform the behavior if askedbut those who had seen the adult rewarded were morelikely to behave aggressively when aloneThis is sometimes called ‘vicarious conditioning’
11 Bandura’s Social Learning Theory: Cognitive Elements Self-efficacy- another aspect of Bandura’s theoryAn efficacy expectation is the extent of the belief that one’s actions can bring about a certainoutcome – i.e. Is it within my power to do so?“I can get an A on the exam if I try.”An outcome expectation is the extent of the beliefthat one’s actions will bring about a certainoutcome – i.e. Is it likely to happen?
12 Motivation and Efficacy A strong sense of efficacy enhances human accomplishment and well-being.People with high assurance in their capabilities approach difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided.Such an efficacious outlook fosters intrinsic interest and deep engrossment in activities.
13 Creating Efficacy-Sucesses The most effective way of creating a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences.If people experience only easy successes however they come to expect quick results and are easily discouraged by failure.A resilient sense of efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through perseverant effort.
14 Creating Efficacy-Social Models The second way of creating and strengthening self-beliefs of efficacy is through the vicarious experiences provided by social models.
15 Creating Efficacy-Persuasion Social persuasion is a third way of strengthening people's beliefs that they have what it takes to succeed.People who are persuaded verbally that they possess the capabilities to master given activities are likely to mobilize greater effort and sustain it
16 Creating Efficacy-Reduce Stress The fourth way of modifying self-beliefs of efficacy is to reduce people's stress reactions.One way to do it-- alter their negative emotional proclivities and misinterpretations of their physical states.
17 Cognitive Processes SLT stresses the importance of cognitive processes Triadic reciprocal determinismExampleBelief- People are untrustworthyBehavior event- shortchanged by cashier;get hostileEnvironment- Feedback- cashier gets hostile
18 Internal ProcessesNotice this man’s beliefs are internal mediators of behavior and behavior influences the environment.Internal processes important again
19 Passivity/Activity People are not passive but can impact environment I arrive at a party and liven it up- I am affecting/ shaping environment
20 Other SLT Principles Phenomenological perspective Imaginal RepresentationObservational learning