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Chapter 6 Memory Dec 10th, 2012.

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1 Chapter 6 Memory Dec 10th, 2012

2 Memory Memory: Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information Acquired Encoding Stored in the brain Storage Later retrieved Retrieval Eventually (possibly) forgotten

3 Figure 7.2 FIGURE 7.2 Remembering is thought to involve at least three steps. Incoming information is first held for a second or two by sensory memory. Information selected by attention is then transferred to temporary storage in short-term memory. If new information is not rapidly encoded, or rehearsed, it is forgotten. If it is transferred to long-term memory, it becomes relatively permanent, although retrieving it may be a problem. The preceding is a useful model of memory; it may not be literally true of what happens in the brain

4 Three-Box Model of Memory
Psychology 101 On Line Three-Box Model of Memory Figure 7.03 from Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

5 Sensory Memory Function - holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics Capacity - large can hold many items at once Duration - very brief retention of images 0.3 sec for visual info 2 sec for auditory info Sensory Input Memory Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory

6 Sensory Memory Divided into two subtypes:
iconic memory - visual information echoic memory - auditory information Visual or iconic memory was discovered by Sperling in 1960 Sensory Input Memory Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; iconic memory; echoic memory; Sperling

7 Sperling’s Experiment
Presented matrix of letters for 1/20 seconds Whole-report procedure Participants are asked to report all the items of a display Partial-report procedure Participants are cued to report only some of the items in a display Sperling instructed subjects to stare at the center of a blank screen. Then he flashed an array of the letters for 1/20 of a second and asked subjects to name as many of the letters as possible. Try it for yourself. You’ll probably recall about a a handful of letters. In fact, Sperling found that no matter how large the array was, subjects could name only four or five items. Why? One possibility is that people can register just so much visual input in a single glance – that twelve letters is too much to see in so little time. A second possibility is that all letters registered by the image faded before subjects could report them all. Indeed, many subjects insisted that they were able to ‘see’ the whole array but then forgot some of the letters before they could name them. Did the information that was lost leave a momentary trace, as subjects had claimed, or did it never register in the first place? To test these alternative hypotheses, Sperling devised the ‘partial-report technique’. Instead of asking subjects to list all the letters, he asked them to name only one row in each array – a row that was not determined until after the array was shown. In this procedure, each presentation was immediately followed by a tone signaling which letters to name: A high-pitched tone indicated the top line; a medium pitch, the middle line; a low pitch, the bottom line.

8 Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

9 Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

10 Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

11 Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment

12 Sperling’s Experiment
Sounded low, medium or high tone immediately after matrix disappeared Tone signaled 1 row to report Recall was almost perfect Memory for images fades after 1/3 seconds or so, making report of entire display hard to do High Medium Low If the saw the entire array, subjects should have been able to report all the letters in a prompted row correctly – regardless of which row was prompted. Sperling was right: subjects correctly recalled 3 letters per row. In other words, all 9 letters, not 4 or 5, were instantly registered in consciousness before fading, held briefly in iconic memory. To determine how long this type of memory lasts, Sperling next varied the time between the letters and the tone that signaled the row to be recalled. He found that the visual image started to fade as the interval was increased to 1/3 of a second and had almost completely vanished 2/3 of a second later. Since this study, researchers have found when it comes to pictures of objects or scenes, words, sentences, and other visual stimuli briefly presented, people form ‘fleeting memories’ that last for just a fraction of a second. Not an afterimage because Sperling showed he could present the letters to one eye and influence the memory by presenting a bright flash to the other eye. This would not have worked if the visual information was stored on the retina.

13 Results from Sperling’s experiment demonstrating the existence of a brief visual sensory store. Participants were shown arrays consisting of three rows of four letters. After the display was turned off, they were cued by a tone, either immediately or after a delay, to recall a particular one of the three rows. The results show that the number of items reported decreased as the delay in the cuing tone increased.

14 Sensory Memory Sensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretation Attention is needed to transfer information to working memory Sensory Input Memory Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; attention

15 Short-Term Memory (STM)
A proposed intermediate system in which information has to reside on its journey from sensory memory to long-term memory

16 Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Model
Proposes that as information is rehearsed in a limited-capacity STM, it is deposited in long-term memory

17 Memory span The number of elements one can immediately repeat back
Typical short-term memory span is about seven items of information (i.e., words) George Miller (1957) Shepard and Teghtsoonian (1961) Information cannot be kept in STM indefinitely

18 George Miller “The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information” (1956)

19 Working Memory Holds the Information Needed to Perform a task
Memory system that provides temporary storage for information that is currently being used in some conscious capacity (Baddeley, 1986) Function - conscious processing of information where information is actively worked on Capacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items) Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds) Code - often based on sound or speech even with visual inputs

20 Reading 1

21 Baddeley’s theory of working memory in which a central executive coordinates a set of slave systems.

22 Working Memory The Central Executive
An attentional control mechanism for working memory Coordinating between the various subsystems Temporary activation of long-term memory Shifting between tasks or retrieval strategies Relying on the frontal lobe, mainly in the left hemisphere Use of language clearly relies on the central executive

23 Working Memory The visuospatial sketchpad Integrating spatial, visual, and kinesthetic information Phonological loop Articulatory loop ‘Inner voice’ used during rehearsal of verbal information Able to maintain about 1.5 to 2 sec worth of material in the loop Phonological store An ‘inner ear’ that hears the inner voice and stores the information in phonological form Imaging you solve the 15 x 15 = 225 math problem, using visuo-spatial sketchpad

24 Word length effect wit, sum, harm, bay, top

25 Working Memory Speed, rather than size of items, is the main determining factor for the success of rehearsal – compare this with circus plate spin.

26 Phonological similarity effect
"G, C, B, T, V, P” vs. “F, L, K, S, Y, G.” Performance is usually _____ when the items sound similar than when the items sound different. The phonological store retains speech-based memory for a brief period of time and unless material is rehearsed, it usually decays within 2 seconds. The articulatory control process, which is responsible for translating visual information into speech-based codes, as well as transfering it to the phonological store.

27 Processing depth Deep Type of Processing Shallow -Acoustic
Elaboration leads to better recall than shallow processing Type of Processing Shallow -Acoustic Deep Shallow - Visual 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent of words recalled 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent of words recalled

28 Working Memory measures
Digit span(Wechsler, 1974) Forward digit span (Botwinick & Storandt, 1974) Backward digit span (Gathercole & Alloway, 2008) Letter-number sequencing (Wechsler, 1997) Nonword repetition(Obrien et al., 2006) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) (Miyake et al., 2000) Tower of Hanoi (TOH)/London (Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 1998) Random number generation (RNG) (Baddeley, 1998) Operation span (Miyake et al., 2000) Dual task (Papagno et al., 1991) N-back (Smith & Jonides, 1999) Delayed-recognition (Jha & McCarthy, 2000)

29 An illustration of the delayed match-to-sample task

30 Working Memory The Frontal Cortex and Primate Working Memory
Delayed match-to-sample tasks with monkeys (Goldman-Rakic, 1992) Monkeys with lesions in the frontal cortex cannot perform this working memory task. Human infants cannot perform similar tasks successfully until their frontal cortices have somewhat matured (around 1 year)

31 Lateral views of the cerebral cortex of a human (top) and of a monkey (bottom). Area 46 is the region shown in darker color.

32 Working Memory - Neuropsychology
• Auditory-Verbal maintenance deficit following Left Supramarginal / Inferior Parietal lesions, eg KF (Warrington & Shallice, 1969) • Visual-spatial maintenance deficit following Right Inferior Parietal lesion, eg ELD (Hanley et al 1991) • Frontal patients impaired on manipulating information in Working Memory on tasks such as card sorting (Milner, 1963) and selection-without-repetition (Petrides & Milner, 1982) • Age-related Working Memory deficits following frontal-striatal decline (Gabrieli, 1996) Modality-specific, passive stores in posterior parietal/temporal cortex Common executive processes in frontal cortex

33 Neural Correlates of Working Memory
The phonological loop – Speech Left hemisphere: frontal and parietal regions The visuo-spatial sketchpad – Nonspeech Right hemisphere The central executive – Domain general Frontal lobe and ACC (anterior cingulate cortex)

34 Anderson, Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications, Edition 7e – Chapter 6

35 Awh et al., 1996 Anderson, Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications, Edition 7e – Chapter 6

36 Modality independent (Schumacher et al., 1996)
Anderson, Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications, Edition 7e – Chapter 6

37 Baddeley, 2003

38 Memory aids Chunking Hierarchical organization Rehearsal

39 Chunking Grouping small bits of information into larger units of information expands working memory load Which is easier to remember? Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; short-term memory; working memory; chunking

40 Hierarchical Organization
Related items clustered together to form categories Related categories clustered to form higher-order categories Remember list items better if list presented in categories poorer recall if presented randomly Even if list items are random, people still organize info in some logical pattern Key words: memory organization; hierarchical organization

41 Figure 7.4 FIGURE 7.4 A hypothetical network of facts about animals shows what is meant by the structure of memory. Small networks of ideas such as this are probably organized into larger and larger units and higher levels of meaning.

42 Training your working memory


44 Working Memory Baddeley’s Theory of Working Memory (2003)

45 Memory Formation Retrograde Amnesia: Forgetting events that occurred before an injury or trauma Anterograde Amnesia: Forgetting events that follow an injury or trauma Consolidation: Forming a long-term memory Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS): Mild electrical shock passed through the brain, causing a convulsion; one way to prevent consolidation

46 Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia Loss of past memory
Can’t form new memories Anterograde Amnesia

47 Figure 7.5 FIGURE 7.5 The tower puzzle. In this puzzle, all the colored disks must be moved to another post, without ever placing a larger disk on a smaller one. Only one disk may be moved at a time, and a disk must always be moved from one post to another (it cannot be held aside). An amnesic patient learned to solve the puzzle in 31 moves, the minimum possible. Even so, each time he began, he protested that he did not remember ever solving the puzzle before and that he did not know how to begin. Evidence like this suggests that skill memory is distinct from fact memory.

48 Long-Term Memory

49 Long-Term Memory Explicit Implicit Available to conscious retrieval
Can be declared (propositional) Examples “What did I eat for breakfast?” (episodic) “What is the capital of Spain?” (semantic) “What did I just say?” (working) Experience-induced change in behaviour Cannot be declared (procedural) Examples Subliminal advertising? (priming) How to ride a bicycle (skills) Phobias (conditioning)

50 Long-term Memory Declarative Non-declarative Episodic Semantic Priming
Procedural Conditioning What did I have for breakfast? What is the capital of France? Facilitated processing How to ride a bicycle Reflex response to new stimuli

51 Explicit Memory Also known as declarative or conscious memory
Properties: memory consciously recalled or declared Can use to directly respond to a question Two subtypes of explicit memory Key words: long-term memory; explicit memory; declarative memory;

52 Episodic Memory Memory tied to your own personal experiences Examples:
what did you have for dinner? do you like to eat caramel apples? Why are these explicit memories? Because you can actively declare your answers to these questions Key words: long-term memory; explicit memory; declarative memory; episodic memory

53 Semantic Memory Memory not tied to personal events
General facts and definitions about the world Examples: who was George Washington? what is a cloud? what is the climate at the north pole? These are explicit memories because you can describe what you know about them. Unlike episodic memories, your knowledge does NOT include your personal experience i.e., You may never have been to the north pole but do know about it. Key words: long-term memory; explicit memory; declarative memory; semantic memory


55 Implicit Memory Also known as nondeclarative memory
Influences your thoughts or behavior, but does not enter consciousness Three subtypes Key words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory;

56 Classical Conditioning
Studied earlier Implicit because it is automatically retrieved Key words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory; procedural memory; classical conditioning; priming

57 Priming O R E S L T E P A K T A L S TSME L O B S O M S ELAF
Priming is influence of one memory on another priming is implicit because it does not depend on awareness and is automatic Here is a demonstration Unscramble the following words: O R E S L T E P A K T A L S TSME L O B S O M S ELAF Key words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory; priming

58 Procedural Memory Memory that enables you to perform specific learned skills or habitual responses Examples: Riding a bike How to speak grammatically Tying your shoe laces Why are these procedural memories implicit? Can’t readily describe their contents try describing how to tie your shoes They are automatically retrieved when appropriate Key words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory; procedural memory

59 Procedural Memory Mirror Tracing Serial Reaction Task Rotary–Pursuit
(e.g. Corkin, 1968) Serial Reaction Task (e.g. Hazeltine et al., 1997) Rotary–Pursuit (e.g. Gabrieli et al., 1997)

60 Procedural - Neuropsychology
Amnesic patients show intact: Rotary Pursuit (Corkin 1968) Serial Reaction Task (Nissen & Bullemer 1987) Alzheimer’s patients show intact: Rotary Pursuit (Gabrieli et al 1993) Mirror Tracing (Heindel et al 1989) Parkinson’s patients impaired on: Rotary Pursuit (Heindel et al 1989) Serial Reaction Task (Ferraro et al 1993) Huntington’s patients impaired on: Rotary Pursuit (Gabrieli et al 1997) Serial Reaction Task (Willingham & Koroshetz 1993) but not: Mirror Tracing (Gabrieli et al 1997) Cerebellar lesions impair Mirror Tracing (Sanes et al 1990)

61 Procedural - Neuroimaging
Rotary Pursuit learning correlates with activity in Primary and Secondary Motor Cortex (Grafton et al 1992) Serial Reaction Task correlates with activity in Primary and Secondary Motor Cortex, and Basal Ganglia (Hazeltine et al 1997) Two hypotheses: 1. Learning repetitive sequence involves Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Motor Cortical loop Learning new visual-motor mappings involves Cerebellar-Motor Cortical loop 2. Open-loop learning (minimal feedback): Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Motor Cortical loop Closed-loop learning (continual feedback): Cerebellar-Motor Cortical loop Rotary Pursuit and Serial Reaction Task involve open-loop motor learning with little visual feedback (impaired by Basal Ganglia lesions) Mirror Tracing involves much visual feedback (impaired by Cerebellar lesions) Need to examine nonvisual feedback

62 Episodic Memory - Neuroimaging
• MTL activations during episodic encoding (Tulving et al 1996) and retrieval (Schacter et al. 1996) Anterior-Posterior dissociation? (Lepage et al. 1998; Schacter et al. 1999) • Left Frontal during Encoding (Shallice et al., 1994), right during Retrieval “HERA: Hemispheric Encoding Retrieval Asymmetry” (Tulving et al., 1994) • Posterior cingulate / Precuneus (Fletcher et al., 1996) • Left lateral inferior parietal cortex (Henson et al., 1999) Network of Frontal - Medial Temporal – Posterior areas all involved: Frontal areas control encoding and retrieval of memories? Posterior association areas store components of memories? Medial Temporal regions (temporarily) bind different components? Finer spatial resolution (fMRI) beginning to dissociate MTL regions, eg Hippocampus / Perirhinal for “Recollection / familiarity”? (Aggleton & Brown, 1999)

63 Semantic Memory - Neuroimaging
• Common activation in Left Inferior Frontal, Inferior Temporal, Angular gyrus and Temporal pole for semantic judgments to words and pictures (Vandenberghe et al 1996) • Left Inferior Temporal activations for animal and tool naming, Temporal Pole for people naming (Damasio et al., 1996) • Left Inferior Temporal activation for category- versus letter-fluency (Mummery et al 1996) • Left Middle Temporal and Premotor activations for tool vs animal naming, Left Middle Occipital for animal vs tool naming (Martin et al 1996) Distributed representations, with activations reflecting object’s interaction with world? E.g., tool naming activates motor regions McClelland and Rogers, 2003

64 Basic Neuroanatomy of Memory
A) Subcortical structures Basal ganglia and cerebellum – Procedural memory. Caudate nucleus involved particularly with habit formation (unconscious learning) Thalamus – Temporal sequencing information. Also supplementary role to medial temporal lobes in new learning Basal forebrain – The binding together of different modal components in episodic memory

65 B. Cortical structures Hippocampus – Acquisition of new factual knowledge Primary association cortex – Visual, auditory and somatosensory data Non-medial temporal – Retrieval of previously learned material e.g. autobiographical info, names, faces Ventromedial frontal lobes – Memory traces linking facts and emotion Dorsolateral frontal lobes – Recency and frequency memory. Working memory

66 Memory Declarative Non-declarative Episodic Semantic Priming
Procedural Conditioning What did I have for breakfast? What is the capital of France? Facilitated processing How to ride a bicycle Reflex response to new stimuli Many cortical regions… Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Motor cortex Cerebellum/ Amygdala (MTL?) Lateral Temporal / Frontal lobes Medial temporal Diencephalon Mammillary bodies Frontal lobe

67 Measuring Memory Tip-of-the Tongue (TOT): Feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievable Feeling of Knowing: Feeling that allows people to predict beforehand if they will be able to remember something (typically seen on game shows like Jeopardy) Recall: Supply or reproduce facts or information with some external cues; direct retrieval of facts or information Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list; known as Serial Position Effect Easiest to remember last items in a list because they are still in STM

68 Figure 7.7 FIGURE 7.7 The serial position effect. The graph shows the percentage of subjects correctly recalling each item in a 15-item list. Recall is best for the first and last items.

69 Measuring Memory (cont'd)
Recognition Memory: Identifies correctly previously learned material Usually superior to recall Distractors: False items included with a correct item Wrong choices on multiple-choice tests False Positive: False sense of recognition

70 Figure 7.8 FIGURE 7.8 (a) “Treasure map” similar to the one used by Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978) to study images in memory. (b) This graph shows how long it took subjects to move a visualized spot various distances on their mental images of the map.

71 Eidetic Imagery (Somewhat Like Photographic Memory)
Occurs when a person (usually a child) has visual images clear enough to be scanned or retained for at least 30 seconds Usually projected onto a “plain” surface, like a blank piece of paper Usually disappears during adolescence and is rare by adulthood

72 Figure 7.9 FIGURE 7.9 Test picture like that used to identify children with eidetic imagery. To test your eidetic imagery, look at the picture for 30 seconds. Then look at a blank surface and try to “project” the picture on it. If you have good eidetic imagery, you will be able to see the picture in detail. Return now to the text and try to answer the questions there. (Redrawn from an illustration in Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.)

73 Relearning Learning again something that was previously learned
Used to measure memory of prior learning Savings Score: Amount of time saved when relearning information

74 Forgetting Nonsense Syllables: Meaningless three-letter words (fej, quf) that test learning and forgetting Curve of Forgetting: Graph that shows the amount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time Encoding Failure: When a memory was never formed in the first place Memory Traces: Physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that occur when memories are stored Memory Decay: When memory traces become weaker; fading or weakening of memories Disuse: Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not used or retrieved often

75 Figure 7.10 FIGURE 7.10 The curve of forgetting. This graph shows the amount remembered (measured by relearning) after varying lengths of time. Notice how rapidly forgetting occurs. The material learned was nonsense syllables. Forgetting curves for meaningful information also show early losses followed by a long gradual decline, but overall, forgetting occurs much more slowly.

76 Memory in the courtroom

77 Additional Theories of Forgetting
Memory Cues: Any stimulus associated with a memory; usually enhance retrieval of a memory A person will forget if cues are missing at retrieval time State-Dependent Learning: When memory retrieval is influenced by body state; if your body state is the same at the time of learning AND the time of retrieval, retrievals will be improved If Robert is drunk and forgets where his car is parked, it will be easier to recall the location if he gets drunk again!

78 Figure 7.12 FIGURE 7.12 The effect of mood on memory. Subjects best remembered a list of words when their mood during testing was the same as their mood was when they learned the list.

79 Even More (!) Theories of Forgetting
Interference: Tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and vice versa Retroactive Interference: Tendency for new memories to interfere with retrieval of old memories Proactive Interference: Prior learning inhibits (interferes) with recall of later learning

80 Figure 7.13 FIGURE 7.13 The amount of forgetting after a period of sleep or of being awake. Notice that sleep causes less memory loss than activity that occurs while one is awake.

81 Figure 7.14 FIGURE 7.14 Effects of interference on memory. A graph of the approximate relationship between percentage recalled and number of different word lists memorized. (Adapted from Underwood, 1957.)

82 Figure 7.15 FIGURE 7.15 Retroactive and proactive interference. The order of learning and testing shows whether interference is retroactive (backward) or proactive (forward).


84 More on Forgetting Repression: Unconsciously pushing painful, embarrassing or threatening memories out of awareness/consciousness Motivated forgetting, according to some theories Suppression: Consciously putting something painful or threatening out of mind or trying to keep it from entering awareness

85 Flashbulb Memories Memories created during times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant events that are especially vivid Where were you when you heard that the USA was attacked on September 11th, 2001? Includes both positive and negative events Not always accurate Great confidence is placed in them even though they may be inaccurate


87 Improve Your Memory Study repeatedly to boost recall
Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material Make material personally meaningful Use mnemonic devices associate with peg words--something already stored chunk information into acronyms Study in spaced intervals

88 Improve Your Memory Activate retrieval cues--mentally recreate situation and mood Minimize interference Test your own knowledge to rehearse it to determine what you do not yet know

89 Déjà vu (似曾相识)

90 Déjà vu

91 Scientific explanations
Dual processing (2 cognitive processes momentarily out of synchrony) Neurological (seizure, disruption in neuronal transmission) Memory (Implicit familiarity of unrecognized stimuli) and attentional (unattended perception followed by attended perception)

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