2MemoryMemory: Active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) informationAcquiredEncodingStored in the brainStorageLater retrievedRetrievalEventually (possibly) forgotten
3Figure 7.2FIGURE 7.2 Remembering is thought to involve at least three steps. Incoming information is first held for a second or two by sensory memory. Information selected by attention is then transferred to temporary storage in short-term memory. If new information is not rapidly encoded, or rehearsed, it is forgotten. If it is transferred to long-term memory, it becomes relatively permanent, although retrieving it may be a problem. The preceding is a useful model of memory; it may not be literally true of what happens in the brain
4Three-Box Model of Memory Psychology 101 On LineThree-Box Model of MemoryFigure 7.03 fromWade, C., & Tavris, C. (2002). Invitation to Psychology, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
5Sensory MemoryFunction - holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristicsCapacity - largecan hold many items at onceDuration - very brief retention of images0.3 sec for visual info2 sec for auditory infoSensoryInputMemoryKey words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory
6Sensory Memory Divided into two subtypes: iconic memory - visual informationechoic memory - auditory informationVisual or iconic memory was discovered by Sperling in 1960SensoryInputMemoryKey words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; iconic memory; echoic memory; Sperling
7Sperling’s Experiment Presented matrix of letters for 1/20 secondsWhole-report procedureParticipants are asked to report all the items of a displayPartial-report procedureParticipants are cued to report only some of the items in a displaySperling instructed subjects to stare at the center of a blank screen. Then he flashed an array of the letters for 1/20 of a second and asked subjects to name as many of the letters as possible. Try it for yourself. You’ll probably recall about a a handful of letters. In fact, Sperling found that no matter how large the array was, subjects could name only four or five items. Why? One possibility is that people can register just so much visual input in a single glance – that twelve letters is too much to see in so little time. A second possibility is that all letters registered by the image faded before subjects could report them all. Indeed, many subjects insisted that they were able to ‘see’ the whole array but then forgot some of the letters before they could name them.Did the information that was lost leave a momentary trace, as subjects had claimed, or did it never register in the first place? To test these alternative hypotheses, Sperling devised the ‘partial-report technique’. Instead of asking subjects to list all the letters, he asked them to name only one row in each array – a row that was not determined until after the array was shown. In this procedure, each presentation was immediately followed by a tone signaling which letters to name: A high-pitched tone indicated the top line; a medium pitch, the middle line; a low pitch, the bottom line.
12Sperling’s Experiment Sounded low, medium or high tone immediately after matrix disappearedTone signaled 1 row to reportRecall was almost perfectMemory for images fades after 1/3 seconds or so, making report of entire display hard to doHighMediumLowIf the saw the entire array, subjects should have been able to report all the letters in a prompted row correctly – regardless of which row was prompted. Sperling was right: subjects correctly recalled 3 letters per row. In other words, all 9 letters, not 4 or 5, were instantly registered in consciousness before fading, held briefly in iconic memory.To determine how long this type of memory lasts, Sperling next varied the time between the letters and the tone that signaled the row to be recalled. He found that the visual image started to fade as the interval was increased to 1/3 of a second and had almost completely vanished 2/3 of a second later. Since this study, researchers have found when it comes to pictures of objects or scenes, words, sentences, and other visual stimuli briefly presented, people form ‘fleeting memories’ that last for just a fraction of a second.Not an afterimage because Sperling showed he could present the letters to one eye and influence the memory by presenting a bright flash to the other eye. This would not have worked if the visual information was stored on the retina.
13Results from Sperling’s experiment demonstrating the existence of a brief visual sensory store. Participants were shown arrays consisting of three rows of four letters. After the display was turned off, they were cued by a tone, either immediately or after a delay, to recall a particular one of the three rows. The results show that the number of items reported decreased as the delay in the cuing tone increased.
14Sensory MemorySensory memory forms automatically, without attention or interpretationAttention is needed to transfer information to working memorySensoryInputMemoryKey words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; sensory memory; attention
15Short-Term Memory (STM) A proposed intermediate system in which information has to reside on its journey from sensory memory to long-term memory
16Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) Model Proposes that as information is rehearsed in a limited-capacity STM, it is deposited in long-term memory
17Memory span The number of elements one can immediately repeat back Typical short-term memory span is about seven items of information (i.e., words)George Miller (1957)Shepard and Teghtsoonian (1961)Information cannot be kept in STM indefinitely
18George Miller“The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information” (1956)
19Working Memory Holds the Information Needed to Perform a task Memory system that provides temporary storage for information that is currently being used in some conscious capacity (Baddeley, 1986)Function - conscious processing of informationwhere information is actively worked onCapacity - limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items)Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds)Code - often based on sound or speech even with visual inputs
21Baddeley’s theory of working memory in which a central executive coordinates a set of slave systems.
22Working Memory The Central Executive An attentional control mechanism for working memoryCoordinating between the various subsystemsTemporary activation of long-term memoryShifting between tasks or retrieval strategiesRelying on the frontal lobe, mainly in the left hemisphereUse of language clearly relies on the central executive
23Working MemoryThe visuospatial sketchpadIntegrating spatial, visual, and kinesthetic informationPhonological loopArticulatory loop‘Inner voice’ used during rehearsal of verbal informationAble to maintain about 1.5 to 2 sec worth of material in the loopPhonological storeAn ‘inner ear’ that hears the inner voice and stores the information in phonological formImaging you solve the 15 x 15 = 225 math problem, using visuo-spatial sketchpad
24Word length effect wit, sum, harm, bay, top University,opportunity,aluminum,constitutional,auditorium
25Working MemorySpeed, rather than size of items, is the main determining factor for the success of rehearsal – compare this with circus plate spin.
26Phonological similarity effect "G, C, B, T, V, P” vs. “F, L, K, S, Y, G.”Performance is usually _____ when the items sound similar than when the items sound different.The phonological store retains speech-based memory for a brief period of time and unless material is rehearsed, it usually decays within 2 seconds.The articulatory control process, which is responsible for translating visual information into speech-based codes, as well as transfering it to the phonological store.
27Processing depth Deep Type of Processing Shallow -Acoustic Elaboration leads to better recall than shallow processingType of ProcessingShallow -AcousticDeepShallow - Visual102030405060708090100Percent of words recalled102030405060708090100Percent of words recalled
28Working Memory measures Digit span(Wechsler, 1974)Forward digit span (Botwinick & Storandt, 1974)Backward digit span (Gathercole & Alloway, 2008)Letter-number sequencing (Wechsler, 1997)Nonword repetition(Obrien et al., 2006)Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) (Miyake et al., 2000)Tower of Hanoi (TOH)/London (Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 1998)Random number generation (RNG) (Baddeley, 1998)Operation span (Miyake et al., 2000)Dual task (Papagno et al., 1991)N-back (Smith & Jonides, 1999)Delayed-recognition (Jha & McCarthy, 2000)
29An illustration of the delayed match-to-sample task
30Working Memory The Frontal Cortex and Primate Working Memory Delayed match-to-sample tasks with monkeys (Goldman-Rakic, 1992)Monkeys with lesions in the frontal cortex cannot perform this working memory task.Human infants cannot perform similar tasks successfully until their frontal cortices have somewhat matured (around 1 year)
31Lateral views of the cerebral cortex of a human (top) and of a monkey (bottom). Area 46 is the region shown in darker color.
32Working Memory - Neuropsychology • Auditory-Verbal maintenance deficit following Left Supramarginal / Inferior Parietal lesions, eg KF (Warrington & Shallice, 1969)• Visual-spatial maintenance deficit following Right Inferior Parietal lesion, eg ELD (Hanley et al 1991)• Frontal patients impaired on manipulating information in Working Memory on tasks such as card sorting (Milner, 1963) and selection-without-repetition (Petrides & Milner, 1982)• Age-related Working Memory deficits following frontal-striatal decline (Gabrieli, 1996)Modality-specific, passive stores in posterior parietal/temporal cortex Common executive processes in frontal cortex
33Neural Correlates of Working Memory The phonological loop – SpeechLeft hemisphere: frontal and parietal regionsThe visuo-spatial sketchpad – NonspeechRight hemisphereThe central executive – Domain generalFrontal lobe and ACC (anterior cingulate cortex)
34Anderson, Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications, Edition 7e – Chapter 6
35Awh et al., 1996Anderson, Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications, Edition 7e – Chapter 6
36Modality independent (Schumacher et al., 1996) Anderson, Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications, Edition 7e – Chapter 6
39ChunkingGrouping small bits of information into larger units of informationexpands working memory loadWhich is easier to remember?Key words: modal model of the mind; stage model of memory; short-term memory; working memory; chunking
40Hierarchical Organization Related items clustered together to form categoriesRelated categories clustered to form higher-order categoriesRemember list items better if list presented in categoriespoorer recall if presented randomlyEven if list items are random, people still organize info in some logical patternKey words: memory organization; hierarchical organization
41Figure 7.4FIGURE 7.4 A hypothetical network of facts about animals shows what is meant by the structure of memory. Small networks of ideas such as this are probably organized into larger and larger units and higher levels of meaning.
44Working Memory Baddeley’s Theory of Working Memory (2003)
45Memory FormationRetrograde Amnesia: Forgetting events that occurred before an injury or traumaAnterograde Amnesia: Forgetting events that follow an injury or traumaConsolidation: Forming a long-term memoryElectroconvulsive Shock (ECS): Mild electrical shock passed through the brain, causing a convulsion; one way to prevent consolidation
46Amnesia Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia Loss of past memory Can’t form new memoriesAnterograde Amnesia
47Figure 7.5FIGURE 7.5 The tower puzzle. In this puzzle, all the colored disks must be moved to another post, without ever placing a larger disk on a smaller one. Only one disk may be moved at a time, and a disk must always be moved from one post to another (it cannot be held aside). An amnesic patient learned to solve the puzzle in 31 moves, the minimum possible. Even so, each time he began, he protested that he did not remember ever solving the puzzle before and that he did not know how to begin. Evidence like this suggests that skill memory is distinct from fact memory.
49Long-Term Memory Explicit Implicit Available to conscious retrieval Can be declared (propositional)Examples“What did I eat for breakfast?” (episodic)“What is the capital of Spain?” (semantic)“What did I just say?” (working)Experience-induced change in behaviourCannot be declared (procedural)ExamplesSubliminal advertising? (priming)How to ride a bicycle (skills)Phobias (conditioning)
50Long-term Memory Declarative Non-declarative Episodic Semantic Priming ProceduralConditioningWhat did I have for breakfast?What is the capital of France?Facilitated processingHow to ride a bicycleReflex response to new stimuli
51Explicit Memory Also known as declarative or conscious memory Properties:memory consciously recalled or declaredCan use to directly respond to a questionTwo subtypes of explicit memoryKey words: long-term memory; explicit memory; declarative memory;
52Episodic Memory Memory tied to your own personal experiences Examples: what did you have for dinner?do you like to eat caramel apples?Why are these explicit memories?Because you can actively declare your answers to these questionsKey words: long-term memory; explicit memory; declarative memory; episodic memory
53Semantic Memory Memory not tied to personal events General facts and definitions about the worldExamples:who was George Washington?what is a cloud?what is the climate at the north pole?These are explicit memories because you can describe what you know about them.Unlike episodic memories, your knowledge does NOT include your personal experiencei.e., You may never have been to the north pole but do know about it.Key words: long-term memory; explicit memory; declarative memory; semantic memory
55Implicit Memory Also known as nondeclarative memory Influences your thoughts or behavior, but does not enter consciousnessThree subtypesKey words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory;
56Classical Conditioning Studied earlierImplicit because it is automatically retrievedKey words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory; procedural memory; classical conditioning; priming
57Priming O R E S L T E P A K T A L S TSME L O B S O M S ELAF Priming is influence of one memory on anotherpriming is implicit because it does not depend on awareness and is automaticHere is a demonstrationUnscramble the following words:O R E SL T E P AK T A L STSMEL O B S O M SELAFKey words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory; priming
58Procedural MemoryMemory that enables you to perform specific learned skills or habitual responsesExamples:Riding a bikeHow to speak grammaticallyTying your shoe lacesWhy are these procedural memories implicit?Can’t readily describe their contentstry describing how to tie your shoesThey are automatically retrieved when appropriateKey words: long-term memory; implicit memory; non-declarative memory; procedural memory
59Procedural Memory Mirror Tracing Serial Reaction Task Rotary–Pursuit (e.g. Corkin, 1968)Serial Reaction Task(e.g. Hazeltine et al., 1997)Rotary–Pursuit(e.g. Gabrieli et al., 1997)
60Procedural - Neuropsychology Amnesic patients show intact:Rotary Pursuit (Corkin 1968)Serial Reaction Task (Nissen & Bullemer 1987)Alzheimer’s patients show intact:Rotary Pursuit (Gabrieli et al 1993)Mirror Tracing (Heindel et al 1989)Parkinson’s patients impaired on:Rotary Pursuit (Heindel et al 1989)Serial Reaction Task (Ferraro et al 1993)Huntington’s patients impaired on:Rotary Pursuit (Gabrieli et al 1997)Serial Reaction Task (Willingham & Koroshetz 1993)but not:Mirror Tracing (Gabrieli et al 1997)Cerebellar lesions impair Mirror Tracing (Sanes et al 1990)
61Procedural - Neuroimaging Rotary Pursuit learning correlates with activity in Primary and Secondary Motor Cortex (Grafton et al 1992)Serial Reaction Task correlates with activity in Primary and Secondary Motor Cortex, and Basal Ganglia (Hazeltine et al 1997)Two hypotheses:1. Learning repetitive sequence involves Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Motor Cortical loopLearning new visual-motor mappings involves Cerebellar-Motor Cortical loop2. Open-loop learning (minimal feedback): Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Motor Cortical loopClosed-loop learning (continual feedback): Cerebellar-Motor Cortical loopRotary Pursuit and Serial Reaction Task involve open-loop motor learning with little visual feedback (impaired by Basal Ganglia lesions)Mirror Tracing involves much visual feedback (impaired by Cerebellar lesions)Need to examine nonvisual feedback
62Episodic Memory - Neuroimaging • MTL activations during episodic encoding (Tulving et al 1996) and retrieval (Schacter et al. 1996)Anterior-Posterior dissociation? (Lepage et al. 1998; Schacter et al. 1999)• Left Frontal during Encoding (Shallice et al., 1994), right during Retrieval“HERA: Hemispheric Encoding Retrieval Asymmetry” (Tulving et al., 1994)• Posterior cingulate / Precuneus (Fletcher et al., 1996)• Left lateral inferior parietal cortex (Henson et al., 1999)Network of Frontal - Medial Temporal – Posterior areas all involved:Frontal areas control encoding and retrieval of memories?Posterior association areas store components of memories?Medial Temporal regions (temporarily) bind different components?Finer spatial resolution (fMRI) beginning to dissociate MTL regions, eg Hippocampus / Perirhinal for “Recollection / familiarity”? (Aggleton & Brown, 1999)
63Semantic Memory - Neuroimaging • Common activation in Left Inferior Frontal, Inferior Temporal, Angular gyrus and Temporal pole for semantic judgments to words and pictures (Vandenberghe et al 1996)• Left Inferior Temporal activations for animal and tool naming, Temporal Pole for people naming (Damasio et al., 1996)• Left Inferior Temporal activation for category- versus letter-fluency (Mummery et al 1996)• Left Middle Temporal and Premotor activations for tool vs animal naming, Left Middle Occipital for animal vs tool naming (Martin et al 1996)Distributed representations, with activations reflecting object’s interaction with world? E.g., tool naming activates motor regionsMcClelland and Rogers, 2003
64Basic Neuroanatomy of Memory A) Subcortical structuresBasal ganglia and cerebellum – Procedural memory. Caudate nucleus involved particularly with habit formation (unconscious learning)Thalamus – Temporal sequencing information. Also supplementary role to medial temporal lobes in new learningBasal forebrain – The binding together of different modal components in episodic memory
65B. Cortical structuresHippocampus – Acquisition of new factual knowledgePrimary association cortex – Visual, auditory and somatosensory dataNon-medial temporal – Retrieval of previously learned material e.g. autobiographical info, names, facesVentromedial frontal lobes – Memory traces linking facts and emotionDorsolateral frontal lobes – Recency and frequency memory. Working memory
66Memory Declarative Non-declarative Episodic Semantic Priming ProceduralConditioningWhat did I have for breakfast?What is the capital of France?Facilitated processingHow to ride a bicycleReflex response to new stimuliMany corticalregions…Basal GangliaCerebellumMotor cortexCerebellum/Amygdala(MTL?)LateralTemporal /Frontal lobesMedial temporalDiencephalonMammillary bodiesFrontal lobe
67Measuring MemoryTip-of-the Tongue (TOT): Feeling that a memory is available but not quite retrievableFeeling of Knowing: Feeling that allows people to predict beforehand if they will be able to remember something (typically seen on game shows like Jeopardy)Recall: Supply or reproduce facts or information with some external cues; direct retrieval of facts or informationHardest to recall items in the middle of a list; known as Serial Position EffectEasiest to remember last items in a list because they are still in STM
68Figure 7.7FIGURE 7.7 The serial position effect. The graph shows the percentage of subjects correctly recalling each item in a 15-item list. Recall is best for the first and last items.
69Measuring Memory (cont'd) Recognition Memory: Identifies correctly previously learned materialUsually superior to recallDistractors: False items included with a correct itemWrong choices on multiple-choice testsFalse Positive: False sense of recognition
70Figure 7.8FIGURE 7.8 (a) “Treasure map” similar to the one used by Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978) to study images in memory. (b) This graph shows how long it took subjects to move a visualized spot various distances on their mental images of the map.
71Eidetic Imagery (Somewhat Like Photographic Memory) Occurs when a person (usually a child) has visual images clear enough to be scanned or retained for at least 30 secondsUsually projected onto a “plain” surface, like a blank piece of paperUsually disappears during adolescence and is rare by adulthood
72Figure 7.9FIGURE 7.9 Test picture like that used to identify children with eidetic imagery. To test your eidetic imagery, look at the picture for 30 seconds. Then look at a blank surface and try to “project” the picture on it. If you have good eidetic imagery, you will be able to see the picture in detail. Return now to the text and try to answer the questions there. (Redrawn from an illustration in Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.)
73Relearning Learning again something that was previously learned Used to measure memory of prior learningSavings Score: Amount of time saved when relearning information
74ForgettingNonsense Syllables: Meaningless three-letter words (fej, quf) that test learning and forgettingCurve of Forgetting: Graph that shows the amount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of timeEncoding Failure: When a memory was never formed in the first placeMemory Traces: Physical changes in nerve cells or brain activity that occur when memories are storedMemory Decay: When memory traces become weaker; fading or weakening of memoriesDisuse: Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not used or retrieved often
75Figure 7.10FIGURE 7.10 The curve of forgetting. This graph shows the amount remembered (measured by relearning) after varying lengths of time. Notice how rapidly forgetting occurs. The material learned was nonsense syllables. Forgetting curves for meaningful information also show early losses followed by a long gradual decline, but overall, forgetting occurs much more slowly.
77Additional Theories of Forgetting Memory Cues: Any stimulus associated with a memory; usually enhance retrieval of a memoryA person will forget if cues are missing at retrieval timeState-Dependent Learning: When memory retrieval is influenced by body state; if your body state is the same at the time of learning AND the time of retrieval, retrievals will be improvedIf Robert is drunk and forgets where his car is parked, it will be easier to recall the location if he gets drunk again!
78Figure 7.12FIGURE 7.12 The effect of mood on memory. Subjects best remembered a list of words when their mood during testing was the same as their mood was when they learned the list.
79Even More (!) Theories of Forgetting Interference: Tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and vice versaRetroactive Interference: Tendency for new memories to interfere with retrieval of old memoriesProactive Interference: Prior learning inhibits (interferes) with recall of later learning
80Figure 7.13FIGURE 7.13 The amount of forgetting after a period of sleep or of being awake. Notice that sleep causes less memory loss than activity that occurs while one is awake.
81Figure 7.14FIGURE 7.14 Effects of interference on memory. A graph of the approximate relationship between percentage recalled and number of different word lists memorized. (Adapted from Underwood, 1957.)
82Figure 7.15FIGURE 7.15 Retroactive and proactive interference. The order of learning and testing shows whether interference is retroactive (backward) or proactive (forward).
84More on ForgettingRepression: Unconsciously pushing painful, embarrassing or threatening memories out of awareness/consciousnessMotivated forgetting, according to some theoriesSuppression: Consciously putting something painful or threatening out of mind or trying to keep it from entering awareness
85Flashbulb MemoriesMemories created during times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant events that are especially vividWhere were you when you heard that the USA was attacked on September 11th, 2001?Includes both positive and negative eventsNot always accurateGreat confidence is placed in them even though they may be inaccurate
87Improve Your Memory Study repeatedly to boost recall Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the materialMake material personally meaningfulUse mnemonic devicesassociate with peg words--something already storedchunk information into acronymsStudy in spaced intervals
88Improve Your MemoryActivate retrieval cues--mentally recreate situation and moodMinimize interferenceTest your own knowledgeto rehearse itto determine what you do not yet know
91Scientific explanations Dual processing (2 cognitive processes momentarily out of synchrony)Neurological (seizure, disruption in neuronal transmission)Memory (Implicit familiarity of unrecognized stimuli) and attentional (unattended perception followed by attended perception)