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CHAPTER 6: Memory Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Memory An Information-Processing Model The Sensory Register Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Autobiographical Memory
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Information-Processing Model of Memory l A model of memory in which information must pass through discrete stages via the processes of attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Memory Types of Memory §Sensory Memory l Records information from the senses for up to three seconds l Examples are Iconic (Visual) Memory and Echoic (Auditory) Memory §Short-Term Memory l Holds about seven items for up to twenty seconds before the material is forgotten or transferred to long-term memory §Long-Term Memory l Relatively permanent, can hold vast amounts of information
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Sensory Register Testing for Iconic Memory §Invented by George Sperling §A letter array is shown briefly §After array is gone, tone signals which row to report §Subjects recalled more letters when signaled to recall only one row compared to trying to recall all the letters
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Sensory Register Duration of Iconic Memory
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity Memory-Span Test §Read the top row of digits, then look away and repeat them back in order. Continue until a mistake is made. The average capacity is seven items of information.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity Increased Memory Span §Two students practiced memory span tasks for an hour 3-4 days/week. §After six months, digit span had increased from 7 to 80 items.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity Chunking l Process of grouping distinct bits of information into larger wholes to increase short-term memory capacity. §Take 5 seconds to memorize as much as possible on the next slide. §Then, try to reproduce the arrangement of pieces.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity The Value of Chunking §Was the number correct around seven pieces? Or, was the information chunked?
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Duration of Short-Term Memory §Subjects memorized nonsense syllables, (e.g., MJK, ZRW). §To prevent rehearsal, they were given a distracter task during the waiting period. §When a cue was given, subjects tried to recall the letters. §Short-term memories vanish within twenty seconds.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Functions of Short-Term Memory Working Memory l Term used to describe short- term memory as an active workspace where information is accessible for current use. §Baddeleys model of working memory contains three elements: l A central executive l Auditory working memory l Visuo-spatial working memory §Material can enter conscious workspace from senses or from long-term memory
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory The Serial-Position Effect §Serial Position Curve l Indicates the tendency to recall more items from the beginning and end of a list than from the middle. §Both groups of subjects showed primacy effects, good recall of first items on list. §Only the no-delay group showed recency effects, good recall for last items.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory The Long-Term Serial-Position Effect §Can you name the U. S. Presidents? §Can you name them in the correct order? §Note that these subjects exhibited both primacy and recency effects.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Encoding Elaborative Rehearsal §Subjects were shown lists of words and asked to use one of three strategies: l Visual: Is the word printed in capital letters? l Acoustic: Does the word rhyme with _____? l Semantic: Does the word fit the sentence _________? §The more thought involved (elaborative rehearsal), the better was their memory.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Storage §Procedural Memory l Stored long-term knowledge of learned habits and skills. l Examples are how to drive, ride a bike, tie ones shoes, etc. §Declarative Memory l Stored long-term knowledge of facts about ourselves and the world. l Includes both semantic (nonpersonal) and episodic (personal) memories
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Storage Semantic Networks § Semantic Network r A complex web of semantic associations that link items in memory such that retrieving one item triggers the retrieval of others as well r Supported by research using the lexical decision making task
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Storage The Hippocampal Region §Hippocampus: Part of the limbic system that plays a key role in encoding and transferring new information into long-term memory. §Anterograde amnesia l Inability to store new information §Retrograde amnesia l Inability to retrieve memories from the past
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval §Explicit Memory l The types of memory elicited through the conscious retrieval of recollections in response to direct questions. l Conscious retention, direct tests, disrupted by amnesia, encoded in the hippocampus §Implicit Memory l A nonconscious recollection of a prior experience that is revealed indirectly, by its effects on performance. l Nonconscious retention, indirect tests, intact with amnesia, encoded elsewhere
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval Context-Dependent Memory §Russian-English bilinguals were prompted in English and in Russian to recall stories. §They recalled more Russian-experienced events when interviewed in Russian and more English-experienced events when interviewed in English.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval Retention Without Awareness §Amnesic patients and normal controls were tested for memory of words learned previously. §Amnesics performed poorly on explicit memory tasks. §However, performance on implicit memory tasks was similar to control subjects.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval Implicit Memory in Everyday Life §Déjà vu l A sense of familiarity but no real memory §The false-fame effect l Names presented only once, familiarity but no real memory, assume person is famous §Eyewitness transference l Face is familiar, but situation in which they remembering seeing face is incorrect §Unintentional plagiarism l Take credit for someone elses ideas without awareness
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting Long-Term Forgetting Curve §How much Spanish vocabulary is remembered over time? §Most forgetting occurs within the first three years. §After that, memory remains stable.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting Can You Recognize a Penny? § One reason people forget is due to lack of encoding.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting §Proactive Interference l The tendency for previously learned material to disrupt the recall of new information §Retroactive Interference l The tendency for new information to disrupt the memory of previously learned material
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting Interference and Forgetting
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Reconstruction Office Schema §Study this picture for 30 seconds.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall List as many objects as you can recall from the photograph you just saw.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall How to Improve Memory §Mnemonics l Memory aids designed to facilitate the recall of new information. §Increase Practice Time §Increase the Depth of Processing §Hierarchical Organization §Verbal Mnemonics §Method of Loci §Peg-Word Method §Minimize Interference §Utilize Context Effects
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Autobiographical Memory Memorable Transitions §Autobiographical Memory l The recollections people have of their own personal experiences and observations. §Peoples memories are most vivid for times of transition. §In college, these are memories from the beginning of the first year and end of the last year.
Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Autobiographical Memory §Flashbulb Memories l Highly vivid and enduring memories, typically for events that are dramatic and emotional §Childhood Amnesia l The inability of most people to recall events from before the age of three or four §Hindsight Bias l The tendency to think after an event that one knew in advance what was going to happen
Section 6: Memory Psychology in Modules by Saul Kassin.
CHAPTER 6: Memory Essentials of Psychology, by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Publishing.
TYPES OF MEMORY Sensory Memory – Records information from the senses for up to three seconds – Examples are Iconic (Visual) Memory and Echoic (Auditory)
Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Memory Chapter 6.
Persisted Learning: Memory Lecture 9 2/25/04. Memento Inspired by the condition of anterograde amnesia that he learned about in a Georgetown psychology.
Copyright McGraw-Hill, Inc Chapter 6 Memory.
Chapter 6 Memory. Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2 The Nature of Memory Memory –the retention of information over time –Psychologists.
Memory. What is memory? The persistence Information Processing Model of Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval.
Persistence of learning over time. With memory, mind like a computer Requires three steps:
Memory. What is Memory? Memory is a system that encodes, stores and retrieves information –Process by which information is taken in, converted to meaningful.
Memory unit 7a Memory. the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Definition Slides Unit 6: Memory. Definition Slides.
© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner.
Human Memory It is good to have an end to journey towards; but it is the journey that matters, in the end. Ursula K. Le Gui.
INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODEL 3-Stage Processing Model created by Atkinson & Shiffrin.
Chapter 7 Notes AP Tips. Be able to identify to three steps necessary to have memories. Encoding: the process of acquiring and entering information into.
Memory and Thought The Heart of Cognitive Psychology: Mental processes and their effect on behavior.
Memory. Information Processing Sensory Register Temporary storage Unlimited capacity Iconic memory Echoic memory.
Memory liudexiang. contents The sensory registers Short term memory Long term memory forgetting.
HOW DO WE RETAIN INFORMATION? HOW DO WE RECALL INFORMATION? WHAT IS SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM MEMORY? WHY DO WE FORGET? HOW CAN WE LEARN AND REMEMBER BETTER?
March 25, 2015 Objective: Differentiate between stages of memory Explain how a memory moves from sensory memory to long term memory Figure out.
Memory Chapter 4. Flashbulb Memories : are extremely vivid and apparently permanent memories. are typically of highly emotional and personal events. are.
Ch. 6 MEMORY. Memory The ability to remember things we have experienced, imagined, or learned Memory is often seen as steps in an information-processing.
M EMORY Chapter Review. Process by which we retain and recall something learned or experienced.
©Prentice Hall Understanding Psychology 6 th Edition Charles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto PowerPoint Presentation by H. Lynn Bradman Metropolitan.
Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Memory Chapter 7A.
Forgetting. Encoding Failure Encoding failure Encoding Failure Encoding failure.
Chapter 6 Memory. The mental processes that enable us to retain and sue information over time.
Chapter 7 MEMORY Section 1: Three Kinds of Memory Section 2: Three Processes of Memory Section 3: Three Stages of Memory Section 4: Forgetting and Memory.
THREE MEMORY PROCESSES Encoding – making a mental representation to be placed into memory (meaningful association) Storing – placing encoded information.
Introduction to Psychology Human Memory. Lecture Outline 1)Encoding 2)Storage 3)Retrieval and Forgetting 4)Multiple memory systems.
Module 11 Types of Memory. INTRODUCTION Definitions –Memory ability to retain information over time through three processes: encoding, storing, and retrieving.
Chapter 7 Memory. Objectives 7.1 Overview: What Is Memory? Explain how human memory differs from an objective video recording of events. 7.2 Constructing.
Chapter 7 Memory. Memory Process by which we recollect prior experiences, information, skills learned in the past.
Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst.
Chapter 10 Memory. The Evolution of Multiple Memory Systems The ability to store memories and memes is adaptive, although memories may or may not contribute.
Chapter 7 MEMORY. Media Assignment Questions 1. Does the media present psychology more as a science or more as a form of common sense? 2. Does the media.
Memory Chapter 7. What Is Memory?Memory Use for the Short TermLong-Term Memory: Encoding and RetrievalStructures in Long-Term MemoryBiological Aspects.
Memory Encoding - Getting information in Storage - Retaining Sensory Short-term Long-term Retrieval – Getting information out Forgetting Construction Improving.
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? “Memory is what makes our lives… Without it, we are nothing”.
Memory The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Chapter 7 Memory: Encoding & Storage. The Nature of Memory Memory: the mental process by which information is encoded and stored in the brain and later.
Memory: Information Processing. Information Processing Model 1. Encoding - getting information into the memory system 2. Storage - retaining the information.
Memory Cody Reardon Human Behavior. What is Memory and why is it Important? Memory- is the process by which we recollect prior experiences, information,
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 7: Memory.
HUMAN MEMORY stage theory: Long Term and Short Term Memory -(note: Short Term Memory = "Working Memory") duration Long Term Memory: relatively permanent.
PS Introduction to Psychology December 12, 2011 Memory.
Back to Board Welcome to Jeopardy!. Back to Board Today’s Categories~ ~ Stages and Types of Memory ~ How we Encode ~ What we Encode ~ Retaining & Storing.
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