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CHAPTER 6: Memory Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 6: Memory Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 6: Memory Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin

2 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Memory An Information-Processing Model The Sensory Register Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Autobiographical Memory

3 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Information-Processing Model of Memory l A model of memory in which information must pass through discrete stages via the processes of attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval.

4 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Memory Types of Memory §Sensory Memory l Records information from the senses for up to three seconds l Examples are Iconic (Visual) Memory and Echoic (Auditory) Memory §Short-Term Memory l Holds about seven items for up to twenty seconds before the material is forgotten or transferred to long-term memory §Long-Term Memory l Relatively permanent, can hold vast amounts of information

5 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Sensory Register Testing for Iconic Memory §Invented by George Sperling §A letter array is shown briefly §After array is gone, tone signals which row to report §Subjects recalled more letters when signaled to recall only one row compared to trying to recall all the letters

6 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Sensory Register Duration of Iconic Memory

7 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity Memory-Span Test §Read the top row of digits, then look away and repeat them back in order. Continue until a mistake is made. The average capacity is seven items of information.

8 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity Increased Memory Span §Two students practiced memory span tasks for an hour 3-4 days/week. §After six months, digit span had increased from 7 to 80 items.

9 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity Chunking l Process of grouping distinct bits of information into larger wholes to increase short-term memory capacity. §Take 5 seconds to memorize as much as possible on the next slide. §Then, try to reproduce the arrangement of pieces.

10 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Capacity The Value of Chunking §Was the number correct around seven pieces? Or, was the information chunked?

11 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Duration of Short-Term Memory §Subjects memorized nonsense syllables, (e.g., MJK, ZRW). §To prevent rehearsal, they were given a distracter task during the waiting period. §When a cue was given, subjects tried to recall the letters. §Short-term memories vanish within twenty seconds.

12 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory Functions of Short-Term Memory Working Memory l Term used to describe short- term memory as an active workspace where information is accessible for current use. §Baddeleys model of working memory contains three elements: l A central executive l Auditory working memory l Visuo-spatial working memory §Material can enter conscious workspace from senses or from long-term memory

13 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory The Serial-Position Effect §Serial Position Curve l Indicates the tendency to recall more items from the beginning and end of a list than from the middle. §Both groups of subjects showed primacy effects, good recall of first items on list. §Only the no-delay group showed recency effects, good recall for last items.

14 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Short-Term Memory The Long-Term Serial-Position Effect §Can you name the U. S. Presidents? §Can you name them in the correct order? §Note that these subjects exhibited both primacy and recency effects.

15 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Encoding Elaborative Rehearsal §Subjects were shown lists of words and asked to use one of three strategies: l Visual: Is the word printed in capital letters? l Acoustic: Does the word rhyme with _____? l Semantic: Does the word fit the sentence _________? §The more thought involved (elaborative rehearsal), the better was their memory.

16 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Storage §Procedural Memory l Stored long-term knowledge of learned habits and skills. l Examples are how to drive, ride a bike, tie ones shoes, etc. §Declarative Memory l Stored long-term knowledge of facts about ourselves and the world. l Includes both semantic (nonpersonal) and episodic (personal) memories

17 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Storage Semantic Networks § Semantic Network r A complex web of semantic associations that link items in memory such that retrieving one item triggers the retrieval of others as well r Supported by research using the lexical decision making task

18 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Storage The Hippocampal Region §Hippocampus: Part of the limbic system that plays a key role in encoding and transferring new information into long-term memory. §Anterograde amnesia l Inability to store new information §Retrograde amnesia l Inability to retrieve memories from the past

19 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval §Explicit Memory l The types of memory elicited through the conscious retrieval of recollections in response to direct questions. l Conscious retention, direct tests, disrupted by amnesia, encoded in the hippocampus §Implicit Memory l A nonconscious recollection of a prior experience that is revealed indirectly, by its effects on performance. l Nonconscious retention, indirect tests, intact with amnesia, encoded elsewhere

20 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval Context-Dependent Memory §Russian-English bilinguals were prompted in English and in Russian to recall stories. §They recalled more Russian-experienced events when interviewed in Russian and more English-experienced events when interviewed in English.

21 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval Retention Without Awareness §Amnesic patients and normal controls were tested for memory of words learned previously. §Amnesics performed poorly on explicit memory tasks. §However, performance on implicit memory tasks was similar to control subjects.

22 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Retrieval Implicit Memory in Everyday Life §Déjà vu l A sense of familiarity but no real memory §The false-fame effect l Names presented only once, familiarity but no real memory, assume person is famous §Eyewitness transference l Face is familiar, but situation in which they remembering seeing face is incorrect §Unintentional plagiarism l Take credit for someone elses ideas without awareness

23 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve

24 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting Long-Term Forgetting Curve §How much Spanish vocabulary is remembered over time? §Most forgetting occurs within the first three years. §After that, memory remains stable.

25 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting Can You Recognize a Penny? § One reason people forget is due to lack of encoding.

26 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting §Proactive Interference l The tendency for previously learned material to disrupt the recall of new information §Retroactive Interference l The tendency for new information to disrupt the memory of previously learned material

27 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Forgetting Interference and Forgetting

28 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Long-Term Memory Reconstruction Office Schema §Study this picture for 30 seconds.

29 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall List as many objects as you can recall from the photograph you just saw.

30 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall How to Improve Memory §Mnemonics l Memory aids designed to facilitate the recall of new information. §Increase Practice Time §Increase the Depth of Processing §Hierarchical Organization §Verbal Mnemonics §Method of Loci §Peg-Word Method §Minimize Interference §Utilize Context Effects

31 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Autobiographical Memory Memorable Transitions §Autobiographical Memory l The recollections people have of their own personal experiences and observations. §Peoples memories are most vivid for times of transition. §In college, these are memories from the beginning of the first year and end of the last year.

32 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Autobiographical Memory §Flashbulb Memories l Highly vivid and enduring memories, typically for events that are dramatic and emotional §Childhood Amnesia l The inability of most people to recall events from before the age of three or four §Hindsight Bias l The tendency to think after an event that one knew in advance what was going to happen

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