4OCI vs. OCI-Ideal OCI measures OCI-IDEAL (1) BEHAVIORAL NORMS members understand are EXPECTED of them to “FIT IN” and meet expectations in their current position at their organization(2) OUTCOMES: Individual, Group & OrganizationalOCI-IDEAL“DESIRED state”cultural benchmark:asks members to indicatethe extent to whichbehavioral norms SHOULD (in their opinion) be expected in order to maximize their organization’s effectivenessOCI vs.OCI-Ideal
5Constructive styles Constructive Cultures encourage members to interact with people andapproach tasksin ways that will help them to meet theirhigher-order satisfaction needs foraffiliation,esteem andself-actualizationEncourage communication, cooperation, flexibility, consultation, coordination
6ACHIEVEMENT Culture 11:00 Do things well Value members who set and accomplish their own goals.Members are expected to set challenging but realistic goals, establish plans to reach these goals, and pursue them with enthusiasm.(Pursue a standard of excellence;Openly show enthusiasm)Effective organizationsProblems are solved appropriatelyClients and customers are served well,Healthy orientation
7self-actualization Culture 12:00 Value creativity and quality over quantityValue both task accomplishment and individual growthMembers are encouraged to gain enjoyment from their work, develop themselves, and take on new and interesting activities.(Think in unique and independent ways;Do even simple tasks well)Innovative organizationsOffer high-quality products and/or services,Attract and develop outstanding employees
8Humanistic-Encouraging Culture 1:00 Managed in a participative wayPerson-centeredMembers are expected to be supportive, constructive and open to influence in their dealings with one another.(Help others to grow and develop;Take time with people)Effective organizational performanceProviding for the growth and active involvement of membersHigh satisfaction and commitment of members
9affiliative Culture 2:00Place a high priority on constructive interpersonal relationshipsMembers are expected to be friendly, open, and sensitive to the satisfaction of their work group.(Deal with others in a friendly, pleasant way;Share feelings and thoughts)Enhance organizational performancePromoting open communication, good cooperation, and the effective coordination of activities.Members are loyal to their work groups and feel they “fit in” comfortably.
10Passive / defensive styles Passive/Defensive Cultures are those in which members believe they mustinteract with people in ways that will not threaten their own securityconflicts are primarily resolved by either accommodation or withdrawalconsequences include unresolved conflicts, de-motivation, work avoidance and high turnover
11Approval Culture 3:00 Conflicts are avoided Interpersonal relationships are pleasant – at least superficiallyMembers feel that they shouldagree with others (Go along with others)gain the approval of othersbe liked by others (Be liked by everyone)Can limit organizational effectivenessMinimize constructive “differing”Inhibit the expression of ideas and opinions
12conventional Culture 4:00 Conservative, TraditionalBureaucratically controlledMembers are expected to conformFollow the rulesMake a good impression(Always follow policies;Fit into the “mold”)Can interfere with effectivenessSuppressing innovationPreventing the organization from adapting to changes in its environment
13dependent Culture 5:00 Hierarchically controlled Non-participative Do not empower their membersCentralized decision makingMembers do only what they are toldClear all decisions with superiors(Please those in positions of authority;Do what is expected)Poor performanceLack of individual initiative, spontaneity, flexibility, and timely decision making
14avoidance Culture 6:00 Fail to reward success Punish mistakes Negative reward systemMembers shift responsibilities to othersAvoid any possibility of being blamed for a mistake(Wait for others to act first;Take few chances)Survival of the organization is in questionMembers are unwilling to make decisions, take action, or accept risks
15Aggressive / defensive styles Aggressive/Defensive Cultures expect members toapproach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and securityvalue confrontation, criticism, coercion and overconfidenceconsequences include insecurity, disempowerment, disrespect, and punishment
16OPPOSITIONAL Culture 7:00 Confrontation prevailsNegativism is rewardedMembers gain status and influence by being criticalReinforced to oppose the ideas of others (Point out flaws;Be hard to impress)Make safe (but ineffectual) decisionsCan lead to unnecessary conflict, poor group problem solving and “watered- down” solutions to problems
17POWER Culture 8:00 Non-participative Organization structured on the basis of the authority inherent in members’ positionsMembers believe they will be rewarded for taking charge and controlling subordinatesResponsive to the demands of superiors(Build up one’s power base;Demand loyalty)Power-orientedLess effective than members thinkSubordinates resist control, hold back information, and reduce their contributions to the minimal acceptable level.
18COMPETITIVE Culture 9:00 Winning is valued Members are rewarded for out-performing one anotherMembers operate in a “win-lose” frameworkBelieve they must work against (rather than with) their peers to be noticed(Turn the job into a contest;Never appear to lose)Can inhibit effectiveness by reducing cooperation and promoting unrealistic standards of performance that are either too high or too low.
19PERFECTIONISTIC Culture 10:00 Perfectionism, persistence, and hard work are valuedMembers feel they must avoid any mistakes, keep track of everything, and work long hours to attain narrowly-defined objectives(Do things perfectly;Keep on top of everything)Can lead members to lose sight of the goal, get lost in detail, and develop symptoms of strain
20“High reliability” organizations MilitaryNuclear PlantEmergency Medical“life and death” nature of operationsConstructive norms are desired and important for success because they help people to understand the reasons why orders need to be followed, and the benefits of faithfully implementing best practices in performing critical duties.
22Not-for-profit, Public 38% 33% Organization Level OCIIdealFaculty/Professor40%45%Director24%12%Department Chair6%Associate. DeanDean11%9%Provost/Dean AA2%3%nd*18%EducationOCI IdealBachelor’s degree2%3%Master’s degree21%15%Doctorate degree52%58%MDMD/PhD19%18%Other-nd*Organization OCIIdealLess than 6 mo5%6%6 months to 1 yr3%0%1 to 2 years16%18%2 to 4 years17%24%4 to 6 years9%6 to 10 years13%10 to 15 yearsMore than 15 yrs22%15%nd*-Institutional Type OCIIdealFor-profit, Public17%12%For- profit, Private21%24%Not-for-profit, Public38%33%Not-for-profit, Private16%18%nd*8%Zeine et al. 2011
23Gap analysis for culture styles in hEds PERCENTILE SCORECLUSTERIDEALCURRENTGAPHUMANISTIC-ENCOURAGING9873-25CONSTRUCTIVEACHIEVEMENT67-31SELF-ACTUALIZING61-37AFFILIATIVE9255OPPOSITIONAL5710AGGRESSIVE/DEFENSIVECOMPETITIVE316332PERFECTIONISTIC235229POWER5027AVOIDANCE155944PASSIVE/DEFENSIVEDEPENDENT1441CONVENTIONAL54APPROVAL946
25SUBCULTURES CURRENT IDEAL OCI® NON-PROFIT FOR-PROFIT N=34 N=17 N=24
26SUBCULTURES in higher education Academic staffadministratorsDifferentiationDifferent Priorities & InterestsIndividualismIndependence, Autonomy, Individual GoalsFragmentationLack of Interaction & UnderstandingInteractionCollegiality, Interpersonal DynamicsDifferent Stakeholders & Work Styles‘ I ’ Emphasis & AnarchyBureaucracies & SkepticismProfessionalism & Open DialogueInterviews (n=18) about Perceptions(1) Professional, (2) Differential, (3) Fragmentary RELATIONSHIPSKuo, J. Higher Education Policy & Management. 31(1):43-54
27Students as Customers or Products: Pitman, T. (2000). Perceptions of Academics and Students as Customers: a Survey of Administrative Staff in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 22(2),Halbesleben, J.R.B., Becker, J.A.H. and Buckley, M.R. (2003).Considering the Labor Contributions of Students: An Alternative to the Student-as-Customer Metaphor. Journal of Education for Business, May-June, ppObermiller, C., Fleenor, P. and Raven, P. (2005).Students as Customers or Products:Perceptions and Preferences of Faculty and Students. Marketing Education Review, 15(2),Akinyele, S.T. (2010). Customers: Identifying the Needs in Higher Education. Educational Research, 1(7),
28LEADING CHANGE1) Use belief systems (vision, mission, core values) and performance measures to strike an effective balance between creativity and control. Become living symbols of the newly minted organizational culture and assist executives to fulfill this requirement by providing training and appropriate feedback systems.2) Plan for, create and celebrate progress and work accomplishments.3) Enlist people: highly talented, intelligent, energetic, tenacious, committed to placing the interests of the organization above their own self-interests.4) Empower change enthusiasts with communication and consultation skills.5) Establish effective conflict resolution processes.6) Convey a sense of urgency by increasing awareness of the need for change.
29LEADING CHANGE7) Identify, replace or eliminate rules and policies (i.e. compensation, performance-appraisal systems, organizational priorities) that are incompatible with the new vision. Implement open-door policy.8) Ensure inclusive involvement and participation in shaping the transformative process.9) Build trust by disseminating information to people in all roles and at all levels throughout the organization.10) Inspire imagination and creativity by safeguarding freedoms, encouraging risk-taking and protecting research time.11) Search constantly for newer and better ways.12) Developing a shared vision and ensuring congruency of action.13) Supporting one another, working together, encourage open-mindedness, innovation, problem-solving.
30Seven Practices of High Performing Organizations 1) Employment security, or employment opportunity alternatives (externships, internships, work-study, career development and placement services)2) Selective hiring, or selective admission alternatives3) Self-managed teams and decentralization of decision making, or participative cultural alternatives (feedback, communication, consultation)4) Comparatively high compensation contingent on organizational performance, or academic support alternatives (grants, fellowships, scholarships)5) Extensive training including leadership, management and communication skills6) Reduced status distinctions and barriers7) Extensive sharing of financial and performance information throughout the organizationPfeffer (1998). In The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First Boston, MA Harvard Business School Press.
31CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES 1) Ensure that all members are given the opportunity to work to their full potential2) Balance expectations for taking initiative and thinking independently with those for consensus, power sharing3) Expect participation without domination4) Elicit unique perspectives and concerns while working towards agreement5) Value quality over quantity6) Value creativity over conformity7) Judge effectiveness at the system level rather than the component level8) Practice empowerment and transformational leadership which are prescriptive (guide and direct) rather than restrictive (constrain and prohibit) practices
32CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES 9) Adopt approaches for continuous, system-wide, improvements including problem solving, strategic planning, innovation, and benchmarking10) Inspire innovation by allowing people to express themselves, experiment and learn from mistakes11) Increase accomplishments by encouraging people to set challenging goals, and by providing them with necessary resources12) Cultivate mentors by investing in training and development, and by providing opportunities for expansion13) Enhance cooperation by letting people communicate, get to know one another, contribute, share ideas14) Inculcate humanistic values of mutual encouragement and support
33CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES 15) Develop organizational mechanisms to collect and respond to feedback, implement good suggestions16) Remember that education institutions are “Learning Organizations” which emphasize creativity, individual development and systems thinking17) Treat all members of the organization with respect and dignity18) Provide equitable pathways for advancement (or alternative opportunities for placement elsewhere)Zeine et al. 2011