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KELLER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN SYNERGISTICS Inc. HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHING & LEARNING Rana ZEINE, MD, PhD Cheryl BOGLARSKY, PhD Patrick BLESSINGER,

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Presentation on theme: "KELLER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN SYNERGISTICS Inc. HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHING & LEARNING Rana ZEINE, MD, PhD Cheryl BOGLARSKY, PhD Patrick BLESSINGER,"— Presentation transcript:

1 KELLER GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN SYNERGISTICS Inc. HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHING & LEARNING Rana ZEINE, MD, PhD Cheryl BOGLARSKY, PhD Patrick BLESSINGER, MS Michael HAMLET, PhD

2 12 CULTURAL STYLES 12 CULTURAL STYLES CONSTRUCTIVE Achievement Self-Actualizing Humanistic – Encouraging Affiliative DEFENSIVE PASSIVE Approval Conventional Dependent Avoidance AGGRESSIVE Oppositional Power Competitive Perfectionistic From Organizational Culture Inventory by Robert A. Cooke and J. Clayton Lafferty, 1987, Plymouth, MI: Human Synergistics International. Copyright © 1987, 2011 by Human Synergistics, Inc.

3 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE INVENTORY® CIRCUMPLEX Research & Development by Cooke & Lafferty, Copyright © by Human Synergistics International. All rights reserved. SATISFACTION NEEDS SECURITY NEEDS

4 OCI measures (1) BEHAVIORAL NORMS members understand are EXPECTED of them to FIT IN and meet expectations in their current position at their organization (2) OUTCOMES: Individual, Group & Organizational OCI vs. OCI-Ideal OCI-IDEAL DESIRED state cultural benchmark: asks members to indicate the extent to which behavioral norms SHOULD (in their opinion) be expected in order to maximize their organizations effectiveness

5 CONSTRUCTIVE STYLES Constructive Cultures encourage members to interact with people and approach tasks in ways that will help them to meet their higher-order satisfaction needs for affiliation, esteem and self-actualization Encourage communication, cooperation, flexibility, consultation, coordination

6 ACHIEVEMENT CULTURE11:00 Do things well Value members who set and accomplish their own goals. Members are expected to set challenging but realistic goals, establish plans to reach these goals, and pursue them with enthusiasm. (Pursue a standard of excellence; Openly show enthusiasm) Effective organizations Problems are solved appropriately Clients and customers are served well, Healthy orientation

7 SELF-ACTUALIZATION CULTURE 12:00 Value creativity and quality over quantity Value both task accomplishment and individual growth Members are encouraged to gain enjoyment from their work, develop themselves, and take on new and interesting activities. (Think in unique and independent ways; Do even simple tasks well) Innovative organizations Offer high-quality products and/or services, Attract and develop outstanding employees

8 HUMANISTIC-ENCOURAGING CULTURE 1:00 Managed in a participative way Person-centered Members are expected to be supportive, constructive and open to influence in their dealings with one another. (Help others to grow and develop; Take time with people) Effective organizational performance Providing for the growth and active involvement of members High satisfaction and commitment of members

9 AFFILIATIVE CULTURE 2:00 Place a high priority on constructive interpersonal relationships Members are expected to be friendly, open, and sensitive to the satisfaction of their work group. (Deal with others in a friendly, pleasant way; Share feelings and thoughts) Enhance organizational performance Promoting open communication, good cooperation, and the effective coordination of activities. Members are loyal to their work groups and feel they fit in comfortably.

10 PASSIVE / DEFENSIVE STYLES Passive/Defensive Cultures are those in which members believe they must interact with people in ways that will not threaten their own security conflicts are primarily resolved by either accommodation or withdrawal consequences include unresolved conflicts, de-motivation, work avoidance and high turnover

11 APPROVAL CULTURE 3:00 Conflicts are avoided Interpersonal relationships are pleasant – at least superficially Members feel that they should agree with others (Go along with others) gain the approval of others be liked by others (Be liked by everyone) Can limit organizational effectiveness Minimize constructive differing Inhibit the expression of ideas and opinions

12 CONVENTIONAL CULTURE 4:00 Conservative, Traditional Bureaucratically controlled Members are expected to conform Follow the rules Make a good impression (Always follow policies; Fit into the mold) Can interfere with effectiveness Suppressing innovation Preventing the organization from adapting to changes in its environment

13 DEPENDENT CULTURE 5:00 Hierarchically controlled Non-participative Do not empower their members Centralized decision making Members do only what they are told Clear all decisions with superiors (Please those in positions of authority; Do what is expected) Poor performance Lack of individual initiative, spontaneity, flexibility, and timely decision making

14 AVOIDANCE CULTURE 6:00 Fail to reward success Punish mistakes Negative reward system Members shift responsibilities to others Avoid any possibility of being blamed for a mistake (Wait for others to act first; Take few chances) Survival of the organization is in question Members are unwilling to make decisions, take action, or accept risks

15 AGGRESSIVE / DEFENSIVE STYLES Aggressive/Defensive Cultures expect members to approach tasks in forceful ways to protect their status and security value confrontation, criticism, coercion and overconfidence consequences include insecurity, disempowerment, disrespect, and punishment

16 OPPOSITIONAL CULTURE 7:00 Confrontation prevails Negativism is rewarded Members gain status and influence by being critical Reinforced to oppose the ideas of others (Point out flaws; Be hard to impress) Make safe (but ineffectual) decisions Can lead to unnecessary conflict, poor group problem solving and watered- down solutions to problems

17 POWER CULTURE 8:00 Non-participative Organization structured on the basis of the authority inherent in members positions Members believe they will be rewarded for taking charge and controlling subordinates Responsive to the demands of superiors (Build up ones power base; Demand loyalty) Power-oriented Less effective than members think Subordinates resist control, hold back information, and reduce their contributions to the minimal acceptable level.

18 COMPETITIVE CULTURE 9:00 Winning is valued Members are rewarded for out-performing one another Members operate in a win-lose framework Believe they must work against (rather than with) their peers to be noticed (Turn the job into a contest; Never appear to lose) Can inhibit effectiveness by reducing cooperation and promoting unrealistic standards of performance that are either too high or too low.

19 PERFECTIONISTIC CULTURE 10:00 Perfectionism, persistence, and hard work are valued Members feel they must avoid any mistakes, keep track of everything, and work long hours to attain narrowly-defined objectives (Do things perfectly; Keep on top of everything) Can lead members to lose sight of the goal, get lost in detail, and develop symptoms of strain

20 HIGH RELIABILITY ORGANIZATIONS Military Nuclear Plant Emergency Medical life and death nature of operations Constructive norms are desired and important for success because they help people to understand the reasons why orders need to be followed, and the benefits of faithfully implementing best practices in performing critical duties.

21 CURRENT CULTURE IDEAL CULTURE Research & Development by Cooke & Lafferty, Copyright © by Human Synergistics International. All rights reserved. Zeine, Boglarsky, Blessinger & Hamlet (2011). Ch.3 In Kazeroony (Ed.), The Strategic Management of Higher Education Institutions: Serving Students as Customers for Institutional Growth. Business Expert Press, Williston, VT. OCI® RESULTS N=63N=33

22 Organization Level OCI Ideal Faculty/Professor 40%45% Director 24%12% Department Chair 6% Associate. Dean 6% Dean 11%9% Provost/Dean AA 2%3% nd* 11%18% EducationOCI Ideal Bachelors degree 2%3% Masters degree 21%15% Doctorate degree 52%58% MD 2%3% MD/PhD 19%18% Other 2%- nd* 3% Organization OCI Ideal Less than 6 mo 5%6% 6 months to 1 yr 3%0% 1 to 2 years 16%18% 2 to 4 years 17%24% 4 to 6 years 6%9% 6 to 10 years 13%18% 10 to 15 years 13%9% More than 15 yrs 22%15% nd* 5%- Institutional Type OCI Ideal For-profit, Public 17%12% For- profit, Private 21%24% Not-for-profit, Public 38%33% Not-for-profit, Private 16%18% nd* 8%12% Zeine et al. 2011

23 GAP ANALYSIS FOR CULTURE STYLES IN HEds STYLE PERCENTILE SCORE CLUSTER IDEALCURRENTGAP HUMANISTIC-ENCOURAGING CONSTRUCTIVE ACHIEVEMENT CONSTRUCTIVE SELF-ACTUALIZING CONSTRUCTIVE AFFILIATIVE CONSTRUCTIVE OPPOSITIONAL AGGRESSIVE/DEFENSIVE COMPETITIVE AGGRESSIVE/DEFENSIVE PERFECTIONISTIC AGGRESSIVE/DEFENSIVE POWER AGGRESSIVE/DEFENSIVE AVOIDANCE PASSIVE/DEFENSIVE DEPENDENT PASSIVE/DEFENSIVE CONVENTIONAL PASSIVE/DEFENSIVE APPROVAL PASSIVE/DEFENSIVE

24 Individual Outcomes Motivation, Performance, Satisfaction, Stress Group Outcomes Teamwork, Inter-Unit Coordination, Unit-level Quality Organizational Outcomes Organizational-level Quality Customer Service Quality External Adaptibility Cooke, 1987 ORGANIZATIONAL OUTCOMES

25 SUBCULTURES CURRENT IDEAL OCI® NON-PROFIT FOR-PROFIT N=34 N=24 N=17 N=12

26 SUBCULTURES in HIGHER EDUCATION ACADEMIC STAFF Differentiation Different Priorities & Interests Individualism Independence, Autonomy, Individual Goals Fragmentation Lack of Interaction & Understanding Interaction Collegiality, Interpersonal Dynamics ADMINISTRATORS Different Stakeholders & Work Styles I Emphasis & Anarchy Bureaucracies & Skepticism Professionalism & Open Dialogue Interviews (n=18) about Perceptions (1) Professional, (2) Differential, (3) Fragmentary RELATIONSHIPS Kuo, J. Higher Education Policy & Management. 31(1):43-54

27 Akinyele, S.T. (2010). Customers: Identifying the Needs in Higher Education. Educational Research, 1(7), Halbesleben, J.R.B., Becker, J.A.H. and Buckley, M.R. (2003). Considering the Labor Contributions of Students: An Alternative to the Student-as-Customer Metaphor. Journal of Education for Business, May-June, pp Obermiller, C., Fleenor, P. and Raven, P. (2005). Students as Customers or Products: Perceptions and Preferences of Faculty and Students. Marketing Education Review, 15(2), Pitman, T. (2000). Perceptions of Academics and Students as Customers: a Survey of Administrative Staff in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 22(2),

28 1) Use belief systems (vision, mission, core values) and performance measures to strike an effective balance between creativity and control. Become living symbols of the newly minted organizational culture and assist executives to fulfill this requirement by providing training and appropriate feedback systems. 2) Plan for, create and celebrate progress and work accomplishments. 3) Enlist people: highly talented, intelligent, energetic, tenacious, committed to placing the interests of the organization above their own self-interests. 4) Empower change enthusiasts with communication and consultation skills. 5) Establish effective conflict resolution processes. 6) Convey a sense of urgency by increasing awareness of the need for change. LEADING CHANGE

29 7) Identify, replace or eliminate rules and policies (i.e. compensation, performance-appraisal systems, organizational priorities) that are incompatible with the new vision. Implement open-door policy. 8) Ensure inclusive involvement and participation in shaping the transformative process. 9) Build trust by disseminating information to people in all roles and at all levels throughout the organization. 10) Inspire imagination and creativity by safeguarding freedoms, encouraging risk-taking and protecting research time. 11) Search constantly for newer and better ways. 12) Developing a shared vision and ensuring congruency of action. 13) Supporting one another, working together, encourage open-mindedness, innovation, problem-solving. LEADING CHANGE

30 Seven Practices of High Performing Organizations Pfeffer (1998). In The Human Equation: Building Profits by Putting People First Boston, MA Harvard Business School Press.

31 1) Ensure that all members are given the opportunity to work to their full potential 2) Balance expectations for taking initiative and thinking independently with those for consensus, power sharing 3) Expect participation without domination 4) Elicit unique perspectives and concerns while working towards agreement 5) Value quality over quantity 6) Value creativity over conformity 7) Judge effectiveness at the system level rather than the component level 8) Practice empowerment and transformational leadership which are prescriptive (guide and direct) rather than restrictive (constrain and prohibit) practices CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES

32 9) Adopt approaches for continuous, system-wide, improvements including problem solving, strategic planning, innovation, and benchmarking 10) Inspire innovation by allowing people to express themselves, experiment and learn from mistakes 11) Increase accomplishments by encouraging people to set challenging goals, and by providing them with necessary resources 12) Cultivate mentors by investing in training and development, and by providing opportunities for expansion 13) Enhance cooperation by letting people communicate, get to know one another, contribute, share ideas 14) Inculcate humanistic values of mutual encouragement and support CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES

33 15) Develop organizational mechanisms to collect and respond to feedback, implement good suggestions 16) Remember that education institutions are Learning Organizations which emphasize creativity, individual development and systems thinking 17) Treat all members of the organization with respect and dignity 18) Provide equitable pathways for advancement (or alternative opportunities for placement elsewhere) CULTIVATING CONSTRUCTIVE CULTURES Zeine et al. 2011


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