Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 11 Leadership Theories Leaders move things forward.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Leadership Theories Leaders move things forward."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Leadership Theories Leaders move things forward

2 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-2 Chapter 11 Study Questions What is leadership and how does it differ from management? What are situational contingency approaches to leadership ? What is implicit leadership? What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

3 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-3 What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Role of management is to promote stability or to enable the organization to run smoothly Role of leadership is to promote adaptive or useful changes

4 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-4 What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership –process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared efforts –Formal leadership –Informal leadership

5 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-5 What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Formal leadership –exerted by persons appointed to or elected to positions of formal authority in organizations Informal leadership –exerted by persons who become influential because they have special skills that meet the resource needs of others

6 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-6 What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Approaches to leadership –Trait and behavioral theory perspectives –Attributional and symbolic perspectives –Transformational and charismatic perspectives

7 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-7 Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Trait perspectives –assume that traits play a central role in differentiating between leaders and non-leaders or in predicting leader or organizational outcomes.

8 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-8 Figure 11.1

9 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11-9 What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Behavioral theories –assumes that leadership is central to performance and other outcomes –Focuses on leader behaviors rather than traits

10 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Michigan leadership studies –Employee-centered supervisors Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare –Production-centered supervisors Place strong emphasis on getting the work done

11 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Ohio State leadership studies –Consideration Sensitive to people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers –Initiating structure Concerned with spelling out the task requirements and clarifying other aspects of the work agenda

12 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid –Developed by Blake and Mouton –Built on dual emphasis of consideration and initiating structure –A 9 x 9 Grid (matrix) reflecting levels of concern for people and concern for task

13 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory –Focuses on the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers –LMX dimensions determine followers’ membership in leader’s “in group” or “out group”

14 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies

15 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Fiedler’s contingency model –Situational control - The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions.

16 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Least preferred co-worker (LPC) scale –measure of a person’s leadership style based on a description of the person with whom respondents have been able to work least well

17 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Figure 11.2

18 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Fiedler’s situational control variables –Leader-member relations (good/poor)— membership support for the leader –Task structure (high/low)—spelling out the leader’s task goals, procedures, and guidelines in the group –Position power (strong/weak)—the leader’s task expertise and reward or punishment authority

19 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory –A leader’s use of directive or nondirective behavior depends on: The leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency Stress Experience Group support of the leader

20 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? House’s path-goal theory of leadership –assumes that a leader’s key function is to adjust his or her behaviors to complement situational contingencies.

21 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Figure 11.3

22 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Directive leadership –spells out the what and how of subordinates’ tasks Supportive leadership –focuses on subordinate needs, well-being, and promotion of a friendly work climate.

23 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Achievement oriented leadership –emphasizes setting challenging goals, stressing excellence in performance and showing confidence in people’s ability to achieve high standards of performance.

24 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Participative leadership –focuses on consulting with subordinates and seeking and taking their suggestions into account before making decisions.

25 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Figure 11.4

26 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Figure 11.5

27 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory –emphasizes the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers.

28 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Substitutes for leadership –make a leader’s influence either unnecessary or redundant in that they replace a leader’s influence Romance of leadership –is where people attribute romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership

29 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What is implicit leadership? Inference-based –Emphasizes leadership effectiveness as inferred by perceived group/organizational performance outcomes

30 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What is implicit leadership? Recognition-based –is leadership effectiveness based on how well a person fits characteristics of a good or effective leader

31 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are charismatic/transformational perspectives? Charismatic leaders –Leaders who by force of their personal abilities, are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers

32 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are charismatic/transformational perspectives? Conger and Kanungo’s three-stage charismatic leadership model Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status quo Stage 2: the leader formulates and articulates future goals and a idealized future vision. Stage 3: the leader shows how the goals and vision can be achieved.

33 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Figure 11.6

34 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Transactional leadership –Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers What are charismatic/transformational perspectives?

35 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are charismatic/transformational perspectives? Leader-follower exchanges involve: –Use of contingent rewards. –Active management by exception. –Passive management by exception. –Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions.

36 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are charismatic/transformational perspectives? Transformational leadership –Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests

37 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are charismatic/transformational perspectives? Dimensions of transformational leadership –Charisma –Inspiration –Intellectual stimulation –Individualized consideration

38 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are charismatic/transformational perspectives? Can people be trained in the new leadership? –People can be trained to adopt new leadership approaches. –Leaders can devise improvement programs to address their weaknesses and work with trainers to develop their leadership skills. –Leaders can be trained in charismatic skills.

39 Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc What are charismatic/transformational perspectives? Is new leadership always good? –Not always good –Dark-side charismatics can have negative effects on followers –Not always needed


Download ppt "Chapter 11 Leadership Theories Leaders move things forward."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google