Presentation on theme: "Flowers Are modified twigs adapted primarily for reproduction, which ultimately forms the fruit and the seed."— Presentation transcript:
1FlowersAre modified twigs adapted primarily for reproduction, which ultimately forms the fruit and the seed.
2Floral envelope or Perianth: Parts of a Complete FlowerPistil:Stamen:StigmaAntherStyleFilamentOvaryFloral envelope or Perianth:Floral stalk:Petal (corolla)Receptacle(torus)Sepal (calyx)Peduncle
3Stigma – slightly enlarged tip of the style on which pollen is deposited at pollination Style – a long and thin filament that serves as a passageway for pollen grains to move from the stigma to the ovaryOvary – a swollen basal part of a pistil which carries the ovule or eggs (yellow); where fertilized eggs developCARPEL (Gynoecium)The female reproductive part of a flower. It is collectively known as the Pistil.
4Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) Avocado (Persea sp.)If a gynoecium has a single carpel, it is calledMonocarpous or Unicarpellate Gynoecium
5Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) Unfused CarpelsStrawberry (Fragaria sp.)If a gynoecium has multiple, distinct (free, unfused) carpels, it is apocarpous.
6Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) Fused CarpelsTulip (Tulipa sp.)If a gynoecium has multiple carpels fused (connate) into a single structure, it is syncarpous.
7The male reproductive part of a flower Anther – where pollens are formedFilament – a stalk holding the pollen at its tipSTAMEN (Androecium)The male reproductive part of a flower
8FLORAL ENVELOPE or PERIANTH Petal (corolla) – the innermost whorl surrounding the flowers reproductive parts. It is usually brightly colored to attract pollinatorsSepal (calyx ) – usually a green leaf-like structure that forms the outermost floral whorl; it protects the inner parts of the flower before it opens.FLORAL ENVELOPE or PERIANTH
9FLORAL STALKReceptacle (torus) – thickened part of a stem from which the flower growsPeduncle – a stalk supporting the flower
11Color Day-blooming flowers are generally brightly colored Gerbera daisies (Gerbera sp.)Dutchman's Pipe (Epiphyllum oxypetalum)Day-blooming flowers are generally brightly coloredNight-blooming flowers are usually white, creamy or yellowish
12Odor Flower with fragrant odor Flower with stinky odor Ilang-ilang (Cananga odorata)Corpse flower (Amorphophallus titanum)Flower with fragrant odorFlower with stinky odor
13Parts Present Complete Flowers flowers are said to be complete when the four main parts (petal, sepal, stamen and carpel) are presentIncomplete Flowerflowers are incomplete when one or more of the main parts are not present
14SexualityFlowers with both stamen and carpel are called Perfect Flowers. These flowers can also be called bisexual or hermaphroditic flowers.Flowers that have only either stamen or carpel are called Imperfect Flowers. This flowers can also be called Unisexual flowers. An imperfect flower with only the carpel or pistil is called Pistillate flower. One with the stamen only is a Staminate flower.
16Imperfect Flower - Monoecious Both male and female flowers are found on the same plant.Corn (Zea mays)Pistillate flowerStaminate flower
17Imperfect Flower - Dioecious Imperfect flowers are borne on separate plantsPapaya (Carica papaya)Staminate flowerPistillate flower
18Imperfect Flower - Polygamous Perfect and imperfect flowers are found in a single plant.Canadian Burnet (Sanguisorba sp.)
19Nature of flowersFlowers are Regular when the members of each set of organs (sepals, petals, stamen and carpels) are of the same size and shapeFlowers are Irregular when some members of one or more sets of organs are different in size or shape or both.Bleeding heart (Dicentra Spectabilis)
20Members of each set of organs are of the same size and shape Regular flowerMembers of each set of organs are of the same size and shapeRose (Rosa sp.)Cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus )
21Irregular flower - Papilionaceous Standard petal or BannerOutermost and the largest part of the flowerWings or AlaeTwo lateral petalsKeels or CarinaeTwo innermost and smallest petal.Chicharo (Pisum sativum)
24Irregular flower - Orchidaceous SepalsThree outermost whorlPetalsTwo innermost whorlLip or LabellumAlso a petal but with different shape and sizeCattleya (Cattleya sp.)
25Fusion of flowers Connation – when like parts are fused or united Fused petals forming a coneFused filamentsBlue eye grass(Sisyrinchium atlanticum)Morning Glory (Ipomea sp.)
26Stamen is adnate to petals Adnation – when unlike parts are fusedStamen is adnate to petalsLip is adnate to stamenAngels trumpet (Datura wrightii)Crucifix Orchid (Epidendrum secundum)
27Number of flowers parts MonocotFlower parts are in 3’s or in multiple of 3’sBenguet Lily(Liliaceae sp.)Giant Spiderwort(Tradescantia gigantea)
28Flower parts are in 4’s or 5’s or in multiple of 4’s or 5’s DicotFlower parts are in 4’s or 5’s or in multiple of 4’s or 5’sMonkey-flower (Mimulus lewisii)Rosal (Gardenia jasminoides)
29Symmetry Actinomorphic radial symmetry flowers can be divided into 2 equal halves along any planeZygomorphicbilateral symmetrydivided into 2 equal halves only by a medial cut through the central axis
30Actinomorphic Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa) Water Lily (Nymphaea sp.)
32Ovary Position Superior or Hypogynous ovary The sepals and petals are attached below the ovaryKalamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa)
33Half-Superior /Half-Inferior or Perigynous The sepals and petals are attached at the side of the ovaryGolasiman(Portulaca oleracea)ovary
34The sepals and petals are attached above the ovary Ground Orchid(Spathoglottis plicata)ovarySquash (Cucurbita sp.)Inferior or EpigynousovaryThe sepals and petals are attached above the ovary
35PlacentationThe places where the ovules are attached in the ovary are known as placentae. The arrangement of the placentae inside the ovary is called placentation
36The placentae are found at the central axis of a compound ovary AxileThe placentae are found at the central axis of a compound ovaryovaries with ovulesTomato (Solanum lycopersicum)
37The placentae are found on the wall of a compound ovary . ParietalThe placentae are found on the wall of a compound ovary .ovaries with ovulesCucumber (Cucumis sativus)
38MarginalThe placentae are located on the wall of a single ovary. A single ovary has one chamber or locule.ovary with ovulesString Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
39BasalThe placentae with a single ovule is found more or less at the base of the ovaryovaries with ovulesChrysanthemums(Chrysanthemums indicum)
40InflorescenceFlower clusters are called inflorescence. These may differ in the number of flowers borne, the sequence of flower maturation, the length of flower stalks, the number and arrangement of the floral branches or peduncles.
41SpikeAn inflorescence has an elongated axis with sessile (without pedicel) floretsBottle brush (Callistemon lanceolatus)Pancit-pancita (Peperomia pellucida)
42RacemeAloe vera(Aloe vera)Golden Shower(Laburnum anagyroides)The elongated axis is unbranched. The flowers are provided with stalks or pedicles of equal lengths and are called pedicellate flowers.
43PanicleThe elongated axis is branched. Flowers are pedicellate, opening all at the same timeTigbi(Coix lachryma-jobi)Rice(Oriza sativa)
44CorymbCaballero(Caesalpinia pulcherrima)Yarrow(Achillea millefolium)It has a more or less flat convex top because of the pedicels bearing the outer, older flowers are longer than the younger flowers at the center.
45UmbelThe axis is short so that all the pedicellate flowers radiate from the apex of the axis.SimpleJapanese bamboo (Dracaena surculosa)CompoundQueen Anne’s Lace (Daucus carota)
46CymeThis inflorescence is similar to a corymb except that the inner pedicelled flowers open firstSantan (Ixora sp.)Shanghai beauty (Jatropha pandurifolia)
47A fleshy spike (spadix) bearing both male and female flowers, surrounded by a petaloid bract called the spathe.SpadixspadixspatheAnthurium (Anthurium andreanum)Calla Lily (Zantedeschia sp.)
49Catkin/ AmentCopper plant(Acalypha wilkesiana)Cat’s Tail(Acalypha hispida)This inflorescence is a special type of spike which is hanging or drooping . The flowers are usually unisexual.
50The pedicelled or sessile flowers are crowded at one side of the stem Birds of Paradise (Strelitzia sp.)The pedicelled or sessile flowers are crowded at one side of the stemFascicleDeerweed (Lotus scoparius)
51It is similar to umbel but the flowers are sessile It is similar to umbel but the flowers are sessile. Usually the flowers are of two kinds: the disc flower at the center and the ray flowers at the marginHead/ Capitateray flowersdisc flowersSunflower (Helianthus annuus)Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)