Presentation on theme: "Are modified twigs adapted primarily for reproduction, which ultimately forms the fruit and the seed. Flowers."— Presentation transcript:
Are modified twigs adapted primarily for reproduction, which ultimately forms the fruit and the seed. Flowers
Parts of a Complete Flower Stigma Style Ovary Pistil: Stamen: Anther Filament Floral envelope or Perianth: Sepal (calyx) Petal (corolla) Receptacle (torus) Peduncle Floral stalk:
Stigma – slightly enlarged tip of the style on which pollen is deposited at pollination Style – a long and thin filament that serves as a passageway for pollen grains to move from the stigma to the ovary Ovary – a swollen basal part of a pistil which carries the ovule or eggs (yellow); where fertilized eggs develop CARPEL (Gynoecium) The female reproductive part of a flower. It is collectively known as the Pistil.
Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) If a gynoecium has a single carpel, it is called Monocarpous or Unicarpellate Gynoecium Avocado (Persea sp.)
Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) If a gynoecium has multiple, distinct (free, unfused) carpels, it is apocarpous. Unfused Carpels Strawberry (Fragaria sp.)
Types of Carpels (Gynoecium) If a gynoecium has multiple carpels fused (connate) into a single structure, it is syncarpous. Fused Carpels Tulip (Tulipa sp.)
Anther – where pollens are formed Filament – a stalk holding the pollen at its tip STAMEN (Androecium) The male reproductive part of a flower
Sepal (calyx ) – usually a green leaf-like structure that forms the outermost floral whorl; it protects the inner parts of the flower before it opens. Petal (corolla) – the innermost whorl surrounding the flowers reproductive parts. It is usually brightly colored to attract pollinators FLORAL ENVELOPE or PERIANTH
Receptacle (torus) – thickened part of a stem from which the flower grows Peduncle – a stalk supporting the flower FLORAL STALK
Variable Features and Structures of Flowers
Color Day-blooming flowers are generally brightly colored Night-blooming flowers are usually white, creamy or yellowish Gerbera daisies (Gerbera sp.)Dutchman's Pipe (Epiphyllum oxypetalum)
Odor Ilang-ilang (Cananga odorata) Corpse flower (Amorphophallus titanum) Flower with fragrant odor Flower with stinky odor
Complete Flowers flowers are said to be complete when the four main parts (petal, sepal, stamen and carpel) are present Incomplete Flower flowers are incomplete when one or more of the main parts are not present Parts Present
Sexuality Flowers with both stamen and carpel are called Perfect Flowers. These flowers can also be called bisexual or hermaphroditic flowers. Flowers that have only either stamen or carpel are called Imperfect Flowers. This flowers can also be called Unisexual flowers. An imperfect flower with only the carpel or pistil is called Pistillate flower. One with the stamen only is a Staminate flower.
Corn (Zea mays) Staminate flowerPistillate flower Imperfect Flower - Monoecious Both male and female flowers are found on the same plant.
Papaya (Carica papaya) Staminate flower Pistillate flower Imperfect Flower - Dioecious Imperfect flowers are borne on separate plants
Imperfect Flower - Polygamous Perfect and imperfect flowers are found in a single plant. Canadian Burnet (Sanguisorba sp.)
Nature of flowers Bleeding heart (Dicentra Spectabilis) Flowers are Regular when the members of each set of organs (sepals, petals, stamen and carpels) are of the same size and shape Flowers are Irregular when some members of one or more sets of organs are different in size or shape or both.
Regular flower Members of each set of organs are of the same size and shape Cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus )Rose (Rosa sp.)
Irregular flower - Papilionaceous Chicharo (Pisum sativum) Keels or Carinae Two innermost and smallest petal. Standard petal or Banner Outermost and the largest part of the flower Wings or Alae Two lateral petals
Irregular flower - Caesalpinaceous Caballero (Caesalpinia pulcherrima) Banner Innermost and smallest petal Wings Two upper lateral petals Keel Two lower lateral petals
Irregular flower - Orchidaceous Sepals Three outermost whorl Petals Two innermost whorl Lip or Labellum Also a petal but with different shape and size Cattleya (Cattleya sp.)
Fusion of flowers Morning Glory (Ipomea sp.) Blue eye grass (Sisyrinchium atlanticum) Connation – when like parts are fused or united Fused petals forming a cone Fused filaments
Angels trumpet (Datura wrightii) Crucifix Orchid (Epidendrum secundum) Adnation – when unlike parts are fused Stamen is adnate to petals Lip is adnate to stamen
Number of flowers parts Giant Spiderwort (Tradescantia gigantea ) Benguet Lily (Liliaceae sp.) Monocot Flower parts are in 3s or in multiple of 3s
Monkey-flower (Mimulus lewisii)Rosal (Gardenia jasminoides) Dicot Flower parts are in 4s or 5s or in multiple of 4s or 5s
Symmetry Actinomorphic radial symmetry flowers can be divided into 2 equal halves along any plane Zygomorphic bilateral symmetry divided into 2 equal halves only by a medial cut through the central axis
Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa) Actinomorphic Water Lily (Nymphaea sp.)
Ovary Position Kalamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) The sepals and petals are attached below the ovary Superior or Hypogynous ovary
Golasiman (Portulaca oleracea) Half-Superior /Half-Inferior or Perigynous The sepals and petals are attached at the side of the ovary ovary
Ground Orchid (Spathoglottis plicata) Squash (Cucurbita sp.) Inferior or Epigynous The sepals and petals are attached above the ovary ovary
Placentation The places where the ovules are attached in the ovary are known as placentae. The arrangement of the placentae inside the ovary is called placentation
Axile Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) The placentae are found at the central axis of a compound ovary ovaries with ovules
Parietal The placentae are found on the wall of a compound ovary. ovaries with ovules Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
Marginal The placentae are located on the wall of a single ovary. A single ovary has one chamber or locule. ovary with ovules String Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Basal The placentae with a single ovule is found more or less at the base of the ovary Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemums indicum) ovaries with ovules
Inflorescence Flower clusters are called inflorescence. These may differ in the number of flowers borne, the sequence of flower maturation, the length of flower stalks, the number and arrangement of the floral branches or peduncles.
Bottle brush (Callistemon lanceolatus) Pancit-pancita (Peperomia pellucida) Spike An inflorescence has an elongated axis with sessile (without pedicel) florets
Golden Shower (Laburnum anagyroides) Raceme The elongated axis is unbranched. The flowers are provided with stalks or pedicles of equal lengths and are called pedicellate flowers. Aloe vera (Aloe vera)
Panicle The elongated axis is branched. Flowers are pedicellate, opening all at the same time Rice ( Oriza sativa ) Tigbi ( Coix lachryma-jobi )
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Corymb It has a more or less flat convex top because of the pedicels bearing the outer, older flowers are longer than the younger flowers at the center. Caballero (Caesalpinia pulcherrima)
Japanese bamboo (Dracaena surculosa) Queen Annes Lace (Daucus carota) Umbel Simple Compound The axis is short so that all the pedicellate flowers radiate from the apex of the axis.
Cyme This inflorescence is similar to a corymb except that the inner pedicelled flowers open first Santan (Ixora sp.) Shanghai beauty (Jatropha pandurifolia)
Calla Lily (Zantedeschia sp.)Anthurium (Anthurium andreanum) Spadix A fleshy spike (spadix) bearing both male and female flowers, surrounded by a petaloid bract called the spathe. spadix spathe
Cats Tail (Acalypha hispida) Copper plant (Acalypha wilkesiana) Catkin/ Ament This inflorescence is a special type of spike which is hanging or drooping. The flowers are usually unisexual.
Deerweed (Lotus scoparius) Birds of Paradise ( Strelitzia sp. ) The pedicelled or sessile flowers are crowded at one side of the stem Fascicle
Head/ Capitate It is similar to umbel but the flowers are sessile. Usually the flowers are of two kinds: the disc flower at the center and the ray flowers at the margin ray flowers disc flowers Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii)