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Flowers and Fruit.

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Presentation on theme: "Flowers and Fruit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flowers and Fruit

2 Flower Structure Generalized flowers - 2 outer sets of sterile parts, 2 inner sets of fertile parts Outer sterile part - sepals, collectively the calyx - may do photosynthesis, protect flower, usually like leaves in texture, protect bud - form outer covering of bud Next sterile part - petals - not like leaves in texture, usually not green, collectively called corolla - petalloid - petal like in appearance Both sepals and petals can be fused - so sepals joined together, petals joined together Perianth - calyx and corolla together - used when the two cannot be distinguished - sometimes sepals and petals are called tepals for perianth if very similar in appearance – like in Tulips If only one set of sterile parts, they are always called sepals; sometimes whole perianth is missing First fertile parts - stamens - male – androecium - Can be sterile and modified to look like petals Innermost fertile parts - pistils, female - gynoecium

3 Yellow rose – many “petals” are actually modified
sterile “petalloid” stamens

4 Carpels and Ovaries Flowering plants always have enclosed ovary wrapped in a carpel - nonflowering plants don't - this is the vessel of the angiosperm Carpel is highly modified leaf - a simple pistil is one ovary Pistil may be made up of one carpel or several fused carpels Often the bottom part called the ovary, with stigma at top to receive pollen, style connects them - fused carpels may have separate style and stigma or they may all be fused

5 Helleborus – five separate carpels

6 Malus – crab apple – typical flower structure

7 Plant Sexuality Monoecious - separate flowers for male and female both on one plant - corn Dioecious - male and female plants are separate - separate sexes - gingko Perfect flower - flower has stamens and carpels – bisexual flowers Imperfect flower - lacks either stamens or carpels - will be staminate or carpellate (pistillate) Complete - has sepals, petals, stamens and carpels Incomplete - lacking one of the 4 main flower parts

8 Complete and Incomplete Flowers

9 Jatropha – monoecious but insect pollinated
Female left, male right

10 Dioecious - Holly Female flower Male flower Berries on female

11 Inflorescence terms Often flowers, especially small flowers, are gathered into a structure known as an inflorescence – an aggregation of flowers on a single flowering branch bract - more or less modified leaf that subtends flower or flower groups - bract can look like normal leaf bract can also look like petal - petalous - dogwoods have big white "petals" that are really petaloid bracts peduncle - stalk of cluster of flowers pedicel - stalk of individual flower petiole - leaf stalk

12 Dogwood with petalloid leafy bracts

13 Types of Inflorescence
1. indeterminant - youngest flower at apex - in theory could produce flowers forever - some may by fruiting while apex still flowering - include - racemes, panicle, spike, corymb, head, umbel, catkin 2. determinant - oldest flowers at apex - moving down younger flowers - cyme, scorpiod cyme

14 Raceme Larkspur

15 Panicle Panicum - switchgrass

16 Spike – prairie blazing star

17 Corymb

18 Umbel Wild parsnip Queen Anne’s Lace

19 Sunflower – Composite head inflorescence

20 Catkin Alder catkin

21 Scorpoid Cyme Onosmodium

22 Skunk cabbage inflorescence – a spathe and spadix


24 Pollination syndromes
among the phloxes

25 Magnolia – beetle pollinated

26 Honeybee covered with pollen

27 Scotch broom – bee pollinated

28 Honeybee pollinating beebalm – Monarda sp.

29 With visible light with UV light
Nectar guides for honeybees

30 Cyrtid fly pollinating a composite

31 Caralluma – carrion fly pollinated

32 Erysimum – butterfly pollinated

33 Episcia – moth pollinated

34 Hummingbird pollination

35 Ipomopsis aggregata – hummingbird pollinated

36 Greater double-collared sunbird

37 Proteus – pollinated by perching birds

38 Bat Pollination

39 Box elder – wind pollinated – female left, male right

40 Wild oats – Whole plant

41 Wild oat flower – close up




45 Fruit Types A fruit may be defined as a matured ovary
There are two basic fruit types – dry or fleshy. These types arise from the development of the pericarp The pericarp may become dry and these form dry fruits The pericarp may also become soft, thick and fleshy – and these form fleshy fruits



48 Apples and Pears


50 Violet flower types

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