4The Rise and Fall of Dinosaurs Dinosaurs are found in the fossil record starting about 230 million years ago.The last dinosaurs bcame extinct about 65 million years ago.Impact Hypothesis: A 10km-wide meteorite had smashed into the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico, causing worldwide forest fires, tsunamis several kilometres high, and an 'impact winter'
5The Rise and Fall of Dinosaurs Evidence prior to impact that diversity of dinosaur species was on the decline.Climate change?Rise of Angiosperms?Sometime in the Mid- Cretaceous Period; between 144 to 65 Million Years AgoCorresponds with a decline of the gymnosperms and rise of animal groups
6Why Dinosaurs Went Extinct! The Far Side by Gary Larson.
7Basic Flower Structure stigmacarpelgynoeciumloculeFlower is perfectFlower is monoeciousstylepollenovuleovaryantherfilamentstamenandroeciumpetalcorollasepalperianthreceptaclecalyxPerianth is completepedicel
8Some Example Stories:Perfect Flowers: Pea exclusively self-pollinatingHibiscus self-pollinating if not crossedCherry self-incompatible only outcrossesImperfect Flowers: Begonia unisexual but monoeciousHolly unisexual and dioeciousVariable: Cucumber male, perfect, female, parthenocarpic
9Basic Flower Structure stigmacarpelPistil is simplegynoeciumloculeFlower is perfectFlower is monoeciousstylepollenovuleovaryanthersuperiorfilamentstamenFlower is hypogynousandroeciumpetalcorollasepalperianthreceptaclecalyxPerianth is completepedicel
12This longitudinal section view does not allow us to consider symmetry Basic Flower StructurestigmacarpelPistil is simplegynoeciumloculeFlower is perfectFlower is monoeciousstylepollenovuleovaryanthersuperiorfilamentstamenFlower is hypogynousandroeciumpetalcorollasepalperianthreceptaclecalyxPerianth is completepedicelThis longitudinal section view does not allow us to consider symmetry
13Flower Formula: Symbol Sequence to Diagram Flower * 5, 5, , 5 * 5, Symmetry: *=radial †=bilateral* 5, 5, , 5* 5,* 5, 5,* 5, 5, ,*Number of Parts per Whorl:sepals in calyxpetals in corollastamens in androeciumcarpels in gynoeciumFusion within whorl:curved line over numberFusion between whorls:square bracket below numbersAttachment of flower parts relative to ovary:horizontal line