Presentation on theme: "Nutrient Management: Planning and Trends Erin Busscher Graduate Student: Environmental Science and Policy Biological Technician, NRCS."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrient Management: Planning and Trends Erin Busscher Graduate Student: Environmental Science and Policy Biological Technician, NRCS
What is Nutrient Management? Managing the amount, source, placement, form, and timing of the application of nutrients and soil amendments
Purposes of Nutrient Management To budget and supply nutrients for plant production To properly utilize manure or organic by- products as a plant nutrient source To minimize agricultural non-point source pollution of surface and ground water resources To maintain or improve the physical, chemical, and biological condition of soil
Why develop a nutrient management plan? Increase efficiency of all nutrient sources Reduce pollution and environmental risk Increase profit $$$$$ Optimize nutrient supply for maximum crop yields Less money spent on unnecessary fertilizers, and time/equipment to apply them
Who has a nutrient management plan? Large farms with a Wisconsin Pollution Discharge and Elimination System (WPDES) permit (administered by the DNR) Farms in counties with manure storage ordinances that require a plan Farms that are subject to other local ordinances requiring a plan Farms involved in voluntary programs (EQIP)
Nutrient Management in Kewaunee County Red=Areas under an EQIP 590 plan Blue=DNR or county permit farms
Components of a Nutrient Management Plan (1) Field Map (2) Soil Tests (3) Crop Sequence (4) Estimated Yield (5) Sources and Forms (6) Sensitive Areas (7) Recommended Rates (8) Recommended Timing (9) Recommended Methods (10) Annual Review and Update
Field Map Identify: Roads Streams Wetlands Residences # of Acres Soil Types
Soil Tests How much of each nutrient (N, P, K) is in the soil profile? What is the soil pH and organic matter content?
Crop Sequence Determine the past crop sequence Consult the existing conservation plan Talk to the producer Has a N-fixing crop such as alfalfa or soybeans been grown in the past? Determine the type of tillage used Mulch till and No till increase OM
Estimated Crop Yield Accurate yield estimates are crucial for determining nutrient budgets and can dramatically improve nutrient use efficiency. Yields can vary from field to field due to: Soil type, drainage, presence of insects, weeds or disease
Sources and Forms Questions to ask: What types of nutrient sources are added to fields? (N, P) What form are these nutrients in? (manure, fertilizer, N-fixing crops) What are the nutrient contents of these sources? (manure nutrient test results, N: P: K ratio)
Sensitive Areas: Manure Spreading Hazard Map Red=No spreading; bedrock within 10 inches Red hash marks= No winter spreading; must incorporate within 72 hours during the rest of year
Recommendations for Nutrient Application Rates of application (how much) Timing of application (time of year, before/during/after crop planting or harvest) Method of application (surface or injection)
How is Nutrient Management Planning Being Implemented to Respond to the Trends in Agricultural Practices?
Trends The structure of animal agriculture is changing Shift towards larger animal operations More livestock kept in confinement Animal feeding operations are more spatially concentrated
Confined animal units by farm size, 1982 and 1997
Number of counties with county-level excess nutrients
Wisconsin Trends Updated by KJF 12/2006
Locations of Permitted Operations in WI
Implications of Current Trends Increased problems with utilization and disposal of waste Amount of nutrients produced exceed the lands capacity to assimilate them This type of problem is becoming more pronounced
Reactions Federal government EPA: New regulation affecting Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on February 12, 2003 Ensures proper management of manure that is generated on site by requiring the development and implementation of a site-specific nutrient management plan as a part of the application process for a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit.
Reactions Federal government USDA-NRCS As part of the Farm Bill, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) provides cost- sharing and technical assistance for producers to develop nutrient management plans
Reactions State government: WI WDNR NR151: includes performance standards and prohibitions for farms ATCP 50 (DATCP): identifies conservation practices that farmers must follow; sets requirements for nutrient management plans NR 243 and WPDES Permitting system: ensures the proper management of farm operations
Conclusions Nutrient management plans are the smart way to manage nutrients. Plans can increase profits as well as protect the environment. Many farms do not have a plan to manage the nutrients produced or applied to their fields. Costs to develop a plan may be prohibitive for small producers.
Thanks to: Kewaunee County Land and Water Conservation Department Steve Hanson, Conservation Planner/ GIS Coordinator NRCS: Kewaunee Service Center John Malvitz, Soil Conservationist Joe Johnson, District Conservationist