Presentation on theme: "Integrated Manure Biogas Systems: Impacts on Farmers & Their Rural Communities Bruce T. Bowman Expert Committee on Manure Management Canadian Agri-Food."— Presentation transcript:
1Integrated Manure Biogas Systems: Impacts on Farmers & Their Rural Communities Bruce T. Bowman Expert Committee on Manure Management Canadian Agri-Food Research Council Presented to: Enhancing Biogas Opportunities in Alberta Edmonton, AB April 3, 2006
2Objective 1 To identify and discuss links between: Environmental issues,Economic issues, andSocietal issues …..…. challenging livestock farming that can be mediated by manure processing (e.g. treating the entire manure volume)
3Rural Society Benefits Objective 2To demonstrate the central role of manure processing & farm bio-energy systems for revitalizing rural economies- GHG’s- Odours - Pathogens- DeadstockEnvironmentalRemediationNutrient Issues- Conservation- Recycling- Nutrient availabilityA.D. Manure ProcessingBiogasFarmEconomic BenefitsFarm Bio-IndustriesRural Society Benefits
4Priority Issues for Manure Management Three primary issues to manage:NutrientsOdoursPathogensbut also …….Large water volumesCarbon (O.M.) - new useEnergy = $$$Soil Quality
5Conserving Nutrients: Gaseous Nitrogen losses from Manure Two major loss pathways:As volatile ammonia (NH3)Rapid losses can occur at any stage of handling with continued exposure to air.As nitrous oxide (N2O) (GHG – 310x effect of CO2)More prevalent under reducing/denitrifying conditions.
6Conserving Nutrients: Ammonia losses from Manure Ammonium (NH4+) - non-volatile; Ammonia (NH3) - volatilepH [NH3] / [NH4+] = (50.0%) @(20°C) pH 7.5 [NH3] / [NH4+] = ( 1.8%) pH 7.0 [NH3] / [NH4+] = ( 0.56%) Keep pH near 7 (neutrality) to minimize NH3 lossesAmmonia losses are rapid from bare floors; Remove manure when fresh to closed storage to minimize NH3 losses.
7Conserving Nutrients: Ammonia losses from Manure Why should we minimize these losses?Increasing replacement costs for commercial N = $$$ - Urea production energy intensive + GHG emissionsAmmonia emissions receiving more scrutiny from both animal and human health perspectives (smog potential – aerosols - lower Fraser Valley in BC)Ammonia - a toxic substance under CEPA (Canadian Environmental Protection Act)Secondary source for nitrous oxide (N2O) production.
8Trends in the Fertilizer Industry -- Post WWII (1945) -- Cheap & plentiful mineral fertilizers helped spur intensification and specialization in production agriculture after 1945.Cereal production (cash-cropping) is often separate from livestock production, relying only on mineral fertilizers.Has created some regional nutrient surpluses (Quebec, North Carolina, mid-west USA).Consequence: Nutrients in livestock manures originating from imported feeds - not recycled back to source for next cash-crop production cycle.
10Exporting Surplus Livestock Nutrients The need to export surplus nutrients will increase with continuing intensification of livestock operations.Conditions for exporting surplus manure nutrients:Odour-freePathogen-freeDried (dewatered) for transportationManure processing (anaerobic digestion) can remediate these issues. Composting also… BUT without renewable energy component.
11Anaerobic Digestion A Few Facts Mimicking fermentation in a ruminant stomach (no oxygen). (most digesters are mesophylic ~ 37°C – body temp.)Closed system – no nutrient or gaseous losses (e.g. N)closer N:P ratio than with raw manure – better for crop growth~ 50% of carbon biogas (CH4 + CO2, 65:35, tr. H2S)Labile fraction of carbon biogas (easily converted in soil)Biogas generate electricity by co-gen units or for thermal usesDigested nutrients in more plant available, predictable form~ 25% C blown off conventional slurries by bacterial decomposition
12Anaerobic Digestion …….. More Facts Certain antibiotics can STOP digestion processesProcessing Time: 20 – 35 37°COdour Reduction: ~ 90% or morePathogens Reduced to: ~ 1/1000 to 1/10,000 (37°C)Eliminate pathogens of concern by pasteurizing 70°C)
13Why Digest Manure? Potential Benefits EnvironmentalReduce odours & pathogens - flexibility to export surplus nutrientsConserve nutrients (N) - reduce mineral fertilizer useReduce gaseous emissions - GHGs, ammonia, hydrogen sulfideEconomicsRenewable energy generation - energy independenceExport surplus Livestock nutrientsEmission reduction trading creditsTipping fees – food-grade wastes – 30% energy boostSocietalReduce siting / zoning problems Regain public supportOpportunity for new rural partnerships
14Balancing Issues in a Sustainable Farming Operation 1. Yield/Productivity (Economics) 2. Environmental IssuesBoth are science-basedPre-1965 1-DYield / ProductivitySince 1970s 2-DSocietal ConcernsEnvironmental Issues3. Societal ConcernsPerception-based, emotionalCan over-ride other 2 factors.Opposition difficult to reverse once initiatedSince 1990s 3-D
16Co-Digestion of Livestock Manures Co-mingling of different manure sources (on-farm, off-farm) and / or the addition of other organic wastes to the on-farm manure stream. Purpose increase digester efficiency. – Safest option: food-grade wastes (beverage wastes, cooking oils, vegetable wastes, etc.)BenefitsIncreases biogas output at minimal cost (20 – 30%)Facilitates recycling of organic wastes from the food & beverage industry (tipping fees?)LimitationsCurrent regulations for importing off-farm manure or wastes require Certificate of Approvals – Ontario changes to allow up to 20% off-farm inputs.
17Co-Digestion of Livestock Manures Know your inputs – Keep them consistent. Sudden changes disrupt digester performance.Pre-mix + equilibrate input wastes before digestion.Digester bacteria are highly sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g. tetracyclines) and to some feed additives.Best to pasteurize inputs before digestion (70°C for 1hr).Minimizes competition with digester bacterial culture.Minimizes pathogens in digestate final product.
18Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Investment, Incentive & Payback IssuesManaging Regulatory IssuesDeveloping Reliability, Trust & ExpertiseManaging Complexity
19Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Investment, Incentive & Payback Issues$300K - >$5M, depending on scale of operation – Plant Life –- 20 – 30 yr before reconditioning – Payback –- <7 yr (electricity, solids sales, emission credits) – Breakeven –- 110 cow dairy; 1200 hog; 25,000 poultryPolicy Issues – Need complimentary policies & incentives across 3 levels of government - Environ. Loan Guarantees to manage risk (US. Farm Bill) - Standard Purchase Offers for green electricity (Ontario - 11¢/Kwh) - Business Energy Tax Credits (Oregon) – up to 35% of costFeasibility Assessment - value of odour & pathogen-free manure? A Switch” - Change from societal opposition Opportunities for new partnerships.
20Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology (cont’d) Payback - Establishing Revenue StreamsElectricity Purchase Agreements – Std. Purchase Offers – single most important long-term stable planning and ability borrow capitalSale of Processed Solids (Org. Fertilizers) – Surplus nutrients exported – promotes nutrient re-useEmission Trading System (currently developing) - sell credits for reducing emissions – 2 cases in USA (Jan. 2006) - recent value of e-CO2 in Europe ~ $10/tonneTipping Fees for Receiving Food-Grade Wastes – boost biogas output (20 – 30%) increases revenue
21Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Managing Regulatory IssuesElectrical generation – interconnects for net/dual metering Power Utilities starting to change policies for small renewable energy generators (up to 500 kw) (2-phase/3-phase lines)Off-farm biomass inputs (boost biogas production) can result in C. of A.’s – regulations being changed to allow up to 20% food-grade wastesManaging emissions / discharges Biogas flare, fugitive GHGs, liquid dischargesFertilizer/amendment products - quality assurance, certification; labeling requirements
22Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Developing Reliability, Trust & ExpertiseSmall number of installed Ag digesters in Canada (< 2 doz. in advanced design or already built)Limited knowledgeable Canadian design/build firms - very limited track recordDemonstration Program – AAFC/NRCAN - 3 yr - Energy Co-generation from Agricultural/Municipal Wastes (ECoAMu) 4 digesters (AB – Beef; SK – Hogs; ON – Beef; QC - Hogs)ECoAMu Program On ManureNet
23Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Managing ComplexityA.D. adds yet another new technology to be managed by farmer – Time; Skill-setsService agreementsCo-Generation – Power Utility – electricity exportRemote monitoring & process control in real-time – practical technology now available from several Canadian companies
26Components of Integrated Farm Energy System: Anaerobic Digester – Bio-Fuel Facility1 A.D. livestock manure processing systemBiogas electricity + excess thermal energy used in bio-fuel production facility – increases efficiencyBio-Fuel Plant (output ≤ 10 M L/yr alcohol/bio-diesel)Biomass sources – corn, sweet potato, switchgrass, etc. < 10,000 acres local inputs per facilityByproducts from alcohol plant – value-added animal feedLocal Bio-Fuel Refueling Centre Refueling NetworkDecreased transportation costsDecreased GHG emissions, air pollution1 Rentec Renewable Energy Technologies
27Lynn Cattle Turnkey Integrated Manure Processing Facility Indoor Beef Feedlot: ,500 head (11,000/yr throughput)Farm Owner/Operator: Mr. Phil Lynn & FamilyFarm Size: 4,500 ac Location: NW of Lucan, OntarioProject Start: Early 2003; Expected Startup: Spring 2006Design/Builder: Rentec Renewable Energy Technologies
28Lynn Cattle Integrated Manure Processing Facility Rentec Renewable Energy Technologies
29Lynn Cattle Integrated Manure Processing Facility Expected Outputs11,000 head/yr beef (2 cycles of 5,500)7,000 Mwhr/yr electricity surplus (=16009,000 tonnes/yr organic soil amendment/fertilizers10M L/yr alcohol productionDirect GHG emission reductions – 25,000 tonnes/yr e-CO2PartnershipsLocal Municipality – will purchase green electricity for municipal buildings, street lighting, sports complexes. A “Green Community”
31Comparison of Bio-Fuel Production Models Centralized Bio-Fuel Production (> 200 M L/yr)Controlled by large energy companies or large co-opsLarge source area for biomass inputs high transportation costs (GHG emissions & air pollution)Most benefits accrue corporate investorsDistributed Farm-based Bio-Fuel Production (<10 M L/yr)Large single farm operations or small farm co-opsLocal sources for biomass inputs (↓Transportation/GHG emissions)Increased local employment + Municipal tax baseDistributed production facilitates re-fueling centre networkMost benefits accrue local farms & rural communitiesOnce-in-lifetime transition from fossil bio-fuels happening NOW… Farmers & rural commmunities need to get involved to benefit.
32Examples of Manure-Powered Bio-fuel Production Panda Energy, Dallas, TX is building three, $120M 100 M gal/yr manure-powered ethanol plants in Texas, Colorado and Kansas.E3 Biofuels LLC, Omaha, NE is building a $45 M closed loop alcohol-from-manure facility at a Mead, NE 30,000 head feedlot (8 M bu. of corn/yr 24 M gal/yr) – to be in production Fall 2006.ManureNet Digester Compendium:
33In Summary - BenefitsFuture livestock operations will be structured around bio-energy energy independence & financial stability for farmers, using anaerobic digestion/co-generation technologies.Facilitates conservation and recycling of resources (nutrients, carbon = $$$)Income stabilization through diversification (New revenue streams independent from cyclic commodity prices, providing stable base for income!)
34In Summary - Benefits Reduces environmental footprint Reduced odours, pathogens diminished societal concernsFlexibility for applying/exporting processed manure productsKills weed seeds – reduces herbicide usageStrengthens rural economy using local inputs (employment, resource inputs – biomass crops)Municipality can be a partner (green wastes, buy energy)Farmer co-ops take increased control of rural businesses ADD value to products BEFORE leaving farm gateReduced transportation costs for manufacturing (bio-based)
35ConclusionsEconomics are rapidly improving, but policies, incentives & regulations need to be coordinated across 3 levels of government to facilitate adoption.Environ. Loan guarantees, long-term std. purchase offers, etcAccess to electrical grids for small renewable generatorsFarmland energy & conservation subsidies considered by WTO as legitimate “green box” programs – not subject to trade sanctions.Need to increase technical support and assistance to foster timely adoption of the technology.Agriculture sector needs to get involved in bio-fuels production at farm-scale – one-time transition from fossil sources benefits to rural communities.
36Micro CHP (Combined Heating and Power) Distributed Power Generation Electricity + Heat generated at each residenceSmall engine + generator replace furnace & water heater85 % EfficiencyGrid
38Micro CHP (Combined Heating and Power) Advantages Micro CHP units run on natural gas or biogasMore efficient use of resources (15% vs 60% loss) (39 vs 85 % efficiency)Excess electricity exported to grid (10 kw units - $$)Blackout & Terrorist proof (totally distributed generation)Significant GHG reductionsAlmost eliminate line losses (electricity used on-site)In Ontario – 2 million homes would produce 10,000 Mw – equivalent to several nuclear power plantsNo environmental assessments required – minor impactsSeveral thousand units being tested in Europe & Japan; USA senate holding hearings on technology potential
39Resource Information on 6,500 external web linksSeveral hundred digital technical/research reportsManure TreatmentDigester CompendiumNutrient RecoveryAmmonia EmissionsNutrient ManagementEnvironmental IssuesGHG EmissionsOdour ManagementLand ApplicationRenewable Energy SystemsStorage & HandlingHousing / FeedlotsFeeding StrategiesCodes, Acts, RegulationsHealth & SafetyDigital LibraryExpertiseEnvironmental Archive (200 digital reports)