Presentation on theme: "Integrated Manure Biogas Systems: Impacts on Farmers & Their Rural Communities Bruce T. Bowman Expert Committee on Manure Management Canadian Agri-Food."— Presentation transcript:
1 Integrated Manure Biogas Systems: Impacts on Farmers & Their Rural Communities Bruce T. Bowman Expert Committee on Manure Management Canadian Agri-Food Research Council Presented to: Enhancing Biogas Opportunities in Alberta Edmonton, AB April 3, 2006
2 Objective 1 To identify and discuss links between: Environmental issues,Economic issues, andSocietal issues …..…. challenging livestock farming that can be mediated by manure processing (e.g. treating the entire manure volume)
3 Rural Society Benefits Objective 2To demonstrate the central role of manure processing & farm bio-energy systems for revitalizing rural economies- GHG’s- Odours - Pathogens- DeadstockEnvironmentalRemediationNutrient Issues- Conservation- Recycling- Nutrient availabilityA.D. Manure ProcessingBiogasFarmEconomic BenefitsFarm Bio-IndustriesRural Society Benefits
4 Priority Issues for Manure Management Three primary issues to manage:NutrientsOdoursPathogensbut also …….Large water volumesCarbon (O.M.) - new useEnergy = $$$Soil Quality
5 Conserving Nutrients: Gaseous Nitrogen losses from Manure Two major loss pathways:As volatile ammonia (NH3)Rapid losses can occur at any stage of handling with continued exposure to air.As nitrous oxide (N2O) (GHG – 310x effect of CO2)More prevalent under reducing/denitrifying conditions.
6 Conserving Nutrients: Ammonia losses from Manure Ammonium (NH4+) - non-volatile; Ammonia (NH3) - volatilepH [NH3] / [NH4+] = (50.0%) @(20°C) pH 7.5 [NH3] / [NH4+] = ( 1.8%) pH 7.0 [NH3] / [NH4+] = ( 0.56%) Keep pH near 7 (neutrality) to minimize NH3 lossesAmmonia losses are rapid from bare floors; Remove manure when fresh to closed storage to minimize NH3 losses.
7 Conserving Nutrients: Ammonia losses from Manure Why should we minimize these losses?Increasing replacement costs for commercial N = $$$ - Urea production energy intensive + GHG emissionsAmmonia emissions receiving more scrutiny from both animal and human health perspectives (smog potential – aerosols - lower Fraser Valley in BC)Ammonia - a toxic substance under CEPA (Canadian Environmental Protection Act)Secondary source for nitrous oxide (N2O) production.
8 Trends in the Fertilizer Industry -- Post WWII (1945) -- Cheap & plentiful mineral fertilizers helped spur intensification and specialization in production agriculture after 1945.Cereal production (cash-cropping) is often separate from livestock production, relying only on mineral fertilizers.Has created some regional nutrient surpluses (Quebec, North Carolina, mid-west USA).Consequence: Nutrients in livestock manures originating from imported feeds - not recycled back to source for next cash-crop production cycle.
10 Exporting Surplus Livestock Nutrients The need to export surplus nutrients will increase with continuing intensification of livestock operations.Conditions for exporting surplus manure nutrients:Odour-freePathogen-freeDried (dewatered) for transportationManure processing (anaerobic digestion) can remediate these issues. Composting also… BUT without renewable energy component.
11 Anaerobic Digestion A Few Facts Mimicking fermentation in a ruminant stomach (no oxygen). (most digesters are mesophylic ~ 37°C – body temp.)Closed system – no nutrient or gaseous losses (e.g. N)closer N:P ratio than with raw manure – better for crop growth~ 50% of carbon biogas (CH4 + CO2, 65:35, tr. H2S)Labile fraction of carbon biogas (easily converted in soil)Biogas generate electricity by co-gen units or for thermal usesDigested nutrients in more plant available, predictable form~ 25% C blown off conventional slurries by bacterial decomposition
12 Anaerobic Digestion …….. More Facts Certain antibiotics can STOP digestion processesProcessing Time: 20 – 35 37°COdour Reduction: ~ 90% or morePathogens Reduced to: ~ 1/1000 to 1/10,000 (37°C)Eliminate pathogens of concern by pasteurizing 70°C)
13 Why Digest Manure? Potential Benefits EnvironmentalReduce odours & pathogens - flexibility to export surplus nutrientsConserve nutrients (N) - reduce mineral fertilizer useReduce gaseous emissions - GHGs, ammonia, hydrogen sulfideEconomicsRenewable energy generation - energy independenceExport surplus Livestock nutrientsEmission reduction trading creditsTipping fees – food-grade wastes – 30% energy boostSocietalReduce siting / zoning problems Regain public supportOpportunity for new rural partnerships
14 Balancing Issues in a Sustainable Farming Operation 1. Yield/Productivity (Economics) 2. Environmental IssuesBoth are science-basedPre-1965 1-DYield / ProductivitySince 1970s 2-DSocietal ConcernsEnvironmental Issues3. Societal ConcernsPerception-based, emotionalCan over-ride other 2 factors.Opposition difficult to reverse once initiatedSince 1990s 3-D
16 Co-Digestion of Livestock Manures Co-mingling of different manure sources (on-farm, off-farm) and / or the addition of other organic wastes to the on-farm manure stream. Purpose increase digester efficiency. – Safest option: food-grade wastes (beverage wastes, cooking oils, vegetable wastes, etc.)BenefitsIncreases biogas output at minimal cost (20 – 30%)Facilitates recycling of organic wastes from the food & beverage industry (tipping fees?)LimitationsCurrent regulations for importing off-farm manure or wastes require Certificate of Approvals – Ontario changes to allow up to 20% off-farm inputs.
17 Co-Digestion of Livestock Manures Know your inputs – Keep them consistent. Sudden changes disrupt digester performance.Pre-mix + equilibrate input wastes before digestion.Digester bacteria are highly sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g. tetracyclines) and to some feed additives.Best to pasteurize inputs before digestion (70°C for 1hr).Minimizes competition with digester bacterial culture.Minimizes pathogens in digestate final product.
18 Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Investment, Incentive & Payback IssuesManaging Regulatory IssuesDeveloping Reliability, Trust & ExpertiseManaging Complexity
19 Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Investment, Incentive & Payback Issues$300K - >$5M, depending on scale of operation – Plant Life –- 20 – 30 yr before reconditioning – Payback –- <7 yr (electricity, solids sales, emission credits) – Breakeven –- 110 cow dairy; 1200 hog; 25,000 poultryPolicy Issues – Need complimentary policies & incentives across 3 levels of government - Environ. Loan Guarantees to manage risk (US. Farm Bill) - Standard Purchase Offers for green electricity (Ontario - 11¢/Kwh) - Business Energy Tax Credits (Oregon) – up to 35% of costFeasibility Assessment - value of odour & pathogen-free manure? A Switch” - Change from societal opposition Opportunities for new partnerships.
20 Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology (cont’d) Payback - Establishing Revenue StreamsElectricity Purchase Agreements – Std. Purchase Offers – single most important long-term stable planning and ability borrow capitalSale of Processed Solids (Org. Fertilizers) – Surplus nutrients exported – promotes nutrient re-useEmission Trading System (currently developing) - sell credits for reducing emissions – 2 cases in USA (Jan. 2006) - recent value of e-CO2 in Europe ~ $10/tonneTipping Fees for Receiving Food-Grade Wastes – boost biogas output (20 – 30%) increases revenue
21 Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Managing Regulatory IssuesElectrical generation – interconnects for net/dual metering Power Utilities starting to change policies for small renewable energy generators (up to 500 kw) (2-phase/3-phase lines)Off-farm biomass inputs (boost biogas production) can result in C. of A.’s – regulations being changed to allow up to 20% food-grade wastesManaging emissions / discharges Biogas flare, fugitive GHGs, liquid dischargesFertilizer/amendment products - quality assurance, certification; labeling requirements
22 Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Developing Reliability, Trust & ExpertiseSmall number of installed Ag digesters in Canada (< 2 doz. in advanced design or already built)Limited knowledgeable Canadian design/build firms - very limited track recordDemonstration Program – AAFC/NRCAN - 3 yr - Energy Co-generation from Agricultural/Municipal Wastes (ECoAMu) 4 digesters (AB – Beef; SK – Hogs; ON – Beef; QC - Hogs)ECoAMu Program On ManureNet
23 Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology Managing ComplexityA.D. adds yet another new technology to be managed by farmer – Time; Skill-setsService agreementsCo-Generation – Power Utility – electricity exportRemote monitoring & process control in real-time – practical technology now available from several Canadian companies
24 A Centralized Co-op Rural Energy System Potential ComponentsDewatered DigestateOrganicFertilizersLiquid DigestatewaterResource CentreElectricityClean WaterHeatCO2Co-genFood Grade OrganicsCo-LocatedIndustriesGreenhouses(Veg., Flowers)Fish FarmSlaughterhouseBio-ethanol plantLocalMunicipal OrganicsRendering,DeadstockWet Distillers Grain - 15% savings
26 Components of Integrated Farm Energy System: Anaerobic Digester – Bio-Fuel Facility1 A.D. livestock manure processing systemBiogas electricity + excess thermal energy used in bio-fuel production facility – increases efficiencyBio-Fuel Plant (output ≤ 10 M L/yr alcohol/bio-diesel)Biomass sources – corn, sweet potato, switchgrass, etc. < 10,000 acres local inputs per facilityByproducts from alcohol plant – value-added animal feedLocal Bio-Fuel Refueling Centre Refueling NetworkDecreased transportation costsDecreased GHG emissions, air pollution1 Rentec Renewable Energy Technologies
27 Lynn Cattle Turnkey Integrated Manure Processing Facility Indoor Beef Feedlot: ,500 head (11,000/yr throughput)Farm Owner/Operator: Mr. Phil Lynn & FamilyFarm Size: 4,500 ac Location: NW of Lucan, OntarioProject Start: Early 2003; Expected Startup: Spring 2006Design/Builder: Rentec Renewable Energy Technologies
31 Comparison of Bio-Fuel Production Models Centralized Bio-Fuel Production (> 200 M L/yr)Controlled by large energy companies or large co-opsLarge source area for biomass inputs high transportation costs (GHG emissions & air pollution)Most benefits accrue corporate investorsDistributed Farm-based Bio-Fuel Production (<10 M L/yr)Large single farm operations or small farm co-opsLocal sources for biomass inputs (↓Transportation/GHG emissions)Increased local employment + Municipal tax baseDistributed production facilitates re-fueling centre networkMost benefits accrue local farms & rural communitiesOnce-in-lifetime transition from fossil bio-fuels happening NOW… Farmers & rural commmunities need to get involved to benefit.
32 Examples of Manure-Powered Bio-fuel Production Panda Energy, Dallas, TX is building three, $120M 100 M gal/yr manure-powered ethanol plants in Texas, Colorado and Kansas.E3 Biofuels LLC, Omaha, NE is building a $45 M closed loop alcohol-from-manure facility at a Mead, NE 30,000 head feedlot (8 M bu. of corn/yr 24 M gal/yr) – to be in production Fall 2006.ManureNet Digester Compendium:
33 In Summary - BenefitsFuture livestock operations will be structured around bio-energy energy independence & financial stability for farmers, using anaerobic digestion/co-generation technologies.Facilitates conservation and recycling of resources (nutrients, carbon = $$$)Income stabilization through diversification (New revenue streams independent from cyclic commodity prices, providing stable base for income!)
34 In Summary - Benefits Reduces environmental footprint Reduced odours, pathogens diminished societal concernsFlexibility for applying/exporting processed manure productsKills weed seeds – reduces herbicide usageStrengthens rural economy using local inputs (employment, resource inputs – biomass crops)Municipality can be a partner (green wastes, buy energy)Farmer co-ops take increased control of rural businesses ADD value to products BEFORE leaving farm gateReduced transportation costs for manufacturing (bio-based)
35 ConclusionsEconomics are rapidly improving, but policies, incentives & regulations need to be coordinated across 3 levels of government to facilitate adoption.Environ. Loan guarantees, long-term std. purchase offers, etcAccess to electrical grids for small renewable generatorsFarmland energy & conservation subsidies considered by WTO as legitimate “green box” programs – not subject to trade sanctions.Need to increase technical support and assistance to foster timely adoption of the technology.Agriculture sector needs to get involved in bio-fuels production at farm-scale – one-time transition from fossil sources benefits to rural communities.
36 Micro CHP (Combined Heating and Power) Distributed Power Generation Electricity + Heat generated at each residenceSmall engine + generator replace furnace & water heater85 % EfficiencyGrid
38 Micro CHP (Combined Heating and Power) Advantages Micro CHP units run on natural gas or biogasMore efficient use of resources (15% vs 60% loss) (39 vs 85 % efficiency)Excess electricity exported to grid (10 kw units - $$)Blackout & Terrorist proof (totally distributed generation)Significant GHG reductionsAlmost eliminate line losses (electricity used on-site)In Ontario – 2 million homes would produce 10,000 Mw – equivalent to several nuclear power plantsNo environmental assessments required – minor impactsSeveral thousand units being tested in Europe & Japan; USA senate holding hearings on technology potential
39 Resource Information on 6,500 external web linksSeveral hundred digital technical/research reportsManure TreatmentDigester CompendiumNutrient RecoveryAmmonia EmissionsNutrient ManagementEnvironmental IssuesGHG EmissionsOdour ManagementLand ApplicationRenewable Energy SystemsStorage & HandlingHousing / FeedlotsFeeding StrategiesCodes, Acts, RegulationsHealth & SafetyDigital LibraryExpertiseEnvironmental Archive (200 digital reports)