Presentation on theme: "Integrated Manure Biogas Systems: Impacts on Farmers & Their Rural Communities Bruce T. Bowman Expert Committee on Manure Management Canadian Agri-Food."— Presentation transcript:
Integrated Manure Biogas Systems: Impacts on Farmers & Their Rural Communities Bruce T. Bowman Expert Committee on Manure Management Canadian Agri-Food Research Council Presented to: Enhancing Biogas Opportunities in Alberta Edmonton, AB April 3, 2006
Objective 1 To identify and discuss links between: Environmental issues, Economic issues, and Societal issues ….. …. challenging livestock farming that can be mediated by manure processing. (e.g. treating the entire manure volume)
Farm Bio-Industries A.D. Manure Processing Rural Society Benefits Farm Economic Benefits Objective 2 To demonstrate the central role of manure processing & farm bio-energy systems for revitalizing rural economies - GHG’s - Odours - Pathogens - Deadstock - Conservation - Recycling - Nutrient availability Environmental Remediation Nutrient Issues Biogas
Large water volumes Carbon (O.M.) - new use Three primary issues to manage: Nutrients Odours Pathogens Priority Issues for Manure Management but also ……. Energy = $$$ Soil Quality
Two major loss pathways: As volatile ammonia (NH 3 ) Rapid losses can occur at any stage of handling with continued exposure to air. As nitrous oxide (N 2 O) (GHG – 310x effect of CO 2 ) More prevalent under reducing/denitrifying conditions. Conserving Nutrients: Gaseous Nitrogen losses from Manure
pH 9.4 [NH3] / [NH4+] = 0.50 pH 7.5 [NH3] / [NH4+] = ( 1.8%) pH 7.0 [NH3] / [NH4+] = ( 0.56%) Keep pH near 7 (neutrality) to minimize NH 3 losses Conserving Nutrients: Ammonia losses from Manure Ammonium (NH 4 + ) - non-volatile; Ammonia (NH 3 ) - volatile Ammonia losses are rapid from bare floors; Remove manure when fresh to closed storage to minimize NH 3 losses.
Why should we minimize these losses? Increasing replacement costs for commercial N = $$$ - Urea production energy intensive + GHG emissions Ammonia emissions receiving more scrutiny from both animal and human health perspectives (smog potential – aerosols - lower Fraser Valley in BC) Ammonia - a toxic substance under CEPA (Canadian Environmental Protection Act) Secondary source for nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production. Conserving Nutrients: Ammonia losses from Manure
Trends in the Fertilizer Industry -- Post WWII (1945) -- Cheap & plentiful mineral fertilizers helped spur intensification and specialization in production agriculture after Cereal production (cash-cropping) is often separate from livestock production, relying only on mineral fertilizers. Has created some regional nutrient surpluses (Quebec, North Carolina, mid-west USA). Consequence: Nutrients in livestock manures originating from imported feeds - not recycled back to source for next cash-crop production cycle.
Food Products Human Consumption Cereal Production LARGE SCALE ONE-WAY NUTRIENT FLOWS Recycling Nutrients & Organic Matter Annual Mineral Fertilizer Additions Nutrients & O.M. NOT recycled Regional nutrient excesses Local Farm Manure Odour Pathogens Wastes Landfills Nutrient inputs
Conditions for exporting surplus manure nutrients: 1. Odour-free 2. Pathogen-free 3. Dried (dewatered) for transportation Manure processing (anaerobic digestion) can remediate these issues. Composting also… BUT without renewable energy component. Exporting Surplus Livestock Nutrients The need to export surplus nutrients will increase with continuing intensification of livestock operations.
Mimicking fermentation in a ruminant stomach (no oxygen). (most digesters are mesophylic ~ 37°C – body temp.) Closed system – no nutrient or gaseous losses (e.g. N) closer N:P ratio than with raw manure – better for crop growth ~ 50% of carbon biogas (CH 4 + CO 2, 65:35, tr. H 2 S) Labile fraction of carbon biogas (easily converted in soil) Biogas generate electricity by co-gen units or for thermal uses Digested nutrients in more plant available, predictable form ~ 25% C blown off conventional slurries by bacterial decomposition Anaerobic Digestion A Few Facts
Certain antibiotics can STOP digestion processes Processing Time: 20 – 35 37°C Odour Reduction: ~ 90% or more Pathogens Reduced to: ~ 1/1000 to 1/10,000 (37°C) Eliminate pathogens of concern by pasteurizing 70°C) Anaerobic Digestion …….. More Facts
Economics Renewable energy generation - energy independence Export surplus Livestock nutrients Emission reduction trading credits Tipping fees – food-grade wastes - 20 – 30% energy boost Environmental Reduce odours & pathogens - flexibility to export surplus nutrients Conserve nutrients (N) - reduce mineral fertilizer use Reduce gaseous emissions - GHGs, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide Societal Reduce siting / zoning problems Regain public support Opportunity for new rural partnerships Why Digest Manure? Potential Benefits
Yield / Productivity Environmental Issues Societal Concerns Balancing Issues in a Sustainable Farming Operation 1. Yield/Productivity (Economics) 2. Environmental Issues Both are science-based 3. Societal Concerns Perception-based, emotional Can over-ride other 2 factors. Opposition difficult to reverse once initiated Pre-1965 1-D Since 1970s 2-D Since 1990s 3-D
Challenges Facing Confined Livestock Operations Increasing price volatility (S.E. Asia demand) Less reliable supplies (Declining fossil reserves) Result Escalating N fertilizer & fuel costs Continuing vulnerability of farm incomes Increasing costs of compliance Global market competition Increasing regulations – nutrients, pathogens Municipal waste issues (biosolids) Rendering / deadstock – limited uses/value GHG emission reductions – Kyoto protocol Increasing livestock intensities – odour Energy Environment / Health Economics
Co-Digestion of Livestock Manures Co-mingling of different manure sources (on-farm, off-farm) and / or the addition of other organic wastes to the on- farm manure stream. Purpose increase digester efficiency. – Safest option: food-grade wastes (beverage wastes, cooking oils, vegetable wastes, etc.) Benefits Increases biogas output at minimal cost (20 – 30%) Facilitates recycling of organic wastes from the food & beverage industry (tipping fees?) Limitations Current regulations for importing off-farm manure or wastes require Certificate of Approvals – Ontario changes to allow up to 20% off-farm inputs.
Know your inputs – Keep them consistent. Sudden changes disrupt digester performance. Pre-mix + equilibrate input wastes before digestion. Digester bacteria are highly sensitive to some antibiotics (e.g. tetracyclines) and to some feed additives. Best to pasteurize inputs before digestion (70°C for 1hr). Minimizes competition with digester bacterial culture. Minimizes pathogens in digestate final product. Co-Digestion of Livestock Manures
1. Investment, Incentive & Payback Issues $300K - >$5M, depending on scale of operation – Plant Life –- 20 – 30 yr before reconditioning – Payback –- <7 yr (electricity, solids sales, emission credits) – Breakeven –- 110 cow dairy; 1200 hog; 25,000 poultry Policy Issues – Need complimentary policies & incentives across 3 levels of government - Environ. Loan Guarantees to manage risk (US. Farm Bill) - Standard Purchase Offers for green electricity (Ontario - 11¢/Kwh) - Business Energy Tax Credits (Oregon) – up to 35% of cost Feasibility Assessment - value of odour & pathogen-free manure? A Switch” - Change from societal opposition Opportunities for new partnerships. Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology
Sale of Processed Solids (Org. Fertilizers) – Surplus nutrients exported – promotes nutrient re-use Emission Trading System (currently developing) - sell credits for reducing emissions – 2 cases in USA (Jan. 2006) - recent value of e-CO2 in Europe ~ $10/tonne Tipping Fees for Receiving Food-Grade Wastes – boost biogas output (20 – 30%) increases revenue 1. (cont’d) Payback - Establishing Revenue Streams Electricity Purchase Agreements – Std. Purchase Offers – single most important long-term stable planning and ability borrow capital Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology
2. Managing Regulatory Issues Electrical generation – interconnects for net/dual metering Power Utilities starting to change policies for small renewable energy generators (up to 500 kw) (2-phase/3-phase lines) Off-farm biomass inputs (boost biogas production) can result in C. of A.’s – regulations being changed to allow up to 20% food-grade wastes Managing emissions / discharges Biogas flare, fugitive GHGs, liquid discharges Fertilizer/amendment products - quality assurance, certification; labeling requirements Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology
3. Developing Reliability, Trust & Expertise Small number of installed Ag digesters in Canada (< 2 doz. in advanced design or already built) Limited knowledgeable Canadian design/build firms - very limited track record Demonstration Program – AAFC/NRCAN - 3 yr - Energy Co-generation from Agricultural/Municipal Wastes (ECoAMu) 4 digesters (AB – Beef; SK – Hogs; ON – Beef; QC - Hogs) ECoAMu Program On ManureNet Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology
4. Managing Complexity A.D. adds yet another new technology to be managed by farmer – Time; Skill-sets Service agreements Co-Generation – Power Utility – electricity export Remote monitoring & process control in real- time – practical technology now available from several Canadian companies Overcoming Barriers to Adoption of Anaerobic Digestion Technology
Resource Centre Electricity Clean Water HeatCO 2 Co-Located Industries Greenhouses (Veg., Flowers) Fish Farm Slaughterhouse Bio-ethanol plant A Centralized Co-op Rural Energy System Potential Components Liquid Digestate Dewatered Digestate Food Grade Organics Local Municipal Organics Rendering, Deadstock Organic Fertilizers water Co-gen Wet Distillers Grain - 15% savings
Farm Bio-Energy Systems: The Concept Electricity Manure solids Emission credits Tipping fees Heat Electricity Clean water CO2 Municipal Organic wastes Co-located industries Local biomass inputs Odours Pathogens Nutrient export & Recycling Reduce herbicide use GHG reductions Deadstock Environmental Solutions Income Stabilization Rural Revitalization Farm Bio-Energy Energy Independence Independen t of Livestock prices
1. A.D. livestock manure processing system Biogas electricity + excess thermal energy used in bio- fuel production facility – increases efficiency 2. Bio-Fuel Plant ( output ≤ 10 M L/yr alcohol/bio-diesel) Biomass sources – corn, sweet potato, switchgrass, etc. < 10,000 acres local inputs per facility Byproducts from alcohol plant – value-added animal feed 3. Local Bio-Fuel Refueling Centre Refueling Network Decreased transportation costs Decreased GHG emissions, air pollution 1 Rentec Renewable Energy Technologies Components of Integrated Farm Energy System: Anaerobic Digester – Bio-Fuel Facility 1
Lynn Cattle Turnkey Integrated Manure Processing Facility Indoor Beef Feedlot: 5,500 head (11,000/yr throughput) Farm Owner/Operator: Mr. Phil Lynn & Family Farm Size: 4,500 ac Location: NW of Lucan, Ontario Project Start: Early 2003; Expected Startup: Spring 2006 Design/Builder: Rentec Renewable Energy Technologies
1. Centralized Bio-Fuel Production (> 200 M L/yr) Controlled by large energy companies or large co-ops Large source area for biomass inputs high transportation costs (GHG emissions & air pollution) Most benefits accrue corporate investors 2. Distributed Farm-based Bio-Fuel Production (<10 M L/yr) Large single farm operations or small farm co-ops Local sources for biomass inputs (↓Transportation/GHG emissions) Increased local employment + Municipal tax base Distributed production facilitates re-fueling centre network Most benefits accrue local farms & rural communities Comparison of Bio-Fuel Production Models Once-in-lifetime transition from fossil bio-fuels happening NOW…. Farmers & rural commmunities need to get involved to benefit.
Examples of Manure-Powered Bio-fuel Production Panda Energy, Dallas, TX is building three, $120M 100 M gal/yr manure-powered ethanol plants in Texas, Colorado and Kansas. E3 Biofuels LLC, Omaha, NE is building a $45 M closed loop alcohol-from-manure facility at a Mead, NE 30,000 head feedlot (8 M bu. of corn/yr 24 M gal/yr) – to be in production Fall ManureNet Digester Compendium:
Future livestock operations will be structured around bio-energy energy independence & financial stability for farmers, using anaerobic digestion/co-generation technologies. 1.Facilitates conservation and recycling of resources (nutrients, carbon = $$$) 2.Income stabilization through diversification (New revenue streams independent from cyclic commodity prices, providing stable base for income!) In Summary - Benefits
3.Reduces environmental footprint Reduced odours, pathogens diminished societal concerns Flexibility for applying/exporting processed manure products Kills weed seeds – reduces herbicide usage 4.Strengthens rural economy using local inputs (employment, resource inputs – biomass crops) Municipality can be a partner (green wastes, buy energy) Farmer co-ops take increased control of rural businesses ADD value to products BEFORE leaving farm gate Reduced transportation costs for manufacturing (bio-based) In Summary - Benefits
Conclusions Economics are rapidly improving, but policies, incentives & regulations need to be coordinated across 3 levels of government to facilitate adoption. Environ. Loan guarantees, long-term std. purchase offers, etc Access to electrical grids for small renewable generators Farmland energy & conservation subsidies considered by WTO as legitimate “green box” programs – not subject to trade sanctions. Need to increase technical support and assistance to foster timely adoption of the technology. Agriculture sector needs to get involved in bio-fuels production at farm-scale – one-time transition from fossil sources benefits to rural communities.
Micro CHP (Combined Heating and Power) Distributed Power Generation Electricity + Heat generated at each residence Small engine + generator replace furnace & water heater Grid 85 % Efficiency
Centralized Gas- Fired Plant Micro CHP INPUT 100 Waste Energy 57<15 Line Losses Electricity 3920 Useful Heat Energy 0>65 Net Useful Energy Micro CHP (Combined Heating and Power) Distributed Power Generation
Micro CHP units run on natural gas or biogas More efficient use of resources (15% vs 60% loss) (39 vs 85 % efficiency) Excess electricity exported to grid (10 kw units - $$) Blackout & Terrorist proof (totally distributed generation) Significant GHG reductions Almost eliminate line losses (electricity used on-site) In Ontario – 2 million homes would produce 10,000 Mw – equivalent to several nuclear power plants No environmental assessments required – minor impacts Several thousand units being tested in Europe & Japan; USA senate holding hearings on technology potential Micro CHP (Combined Heating and Power) Advantages
Resource Information on 6,500 external web links Several hundred digital technical/research reports Manure Treatment Digester Compendium Nutrient Recovery Ammonia Emissions Nutrient Management Environmental Issues GHG Emissions Odour Management Land Application Renewable Energy Systems Storage & Handling Housing / Feedlots Feeding Strategies Codes, Acts, Regulations Health & Safety Digital Library Expertise Environmental Archive (200 digital reports)