Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Martin Luther was a German theologian who challenged papal authority due to widespread dissatisfaction with the Church, especially objecting to the sale.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Martin Luther was a German theologian who challenged papal authority due to widespread dissatisfaction with the Church, especially objecting to the sale."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Martin Luther was a German theologian who challenged papal authority due to widespread dissatisfaction with the Church, especially objecting to the sale of indulgences.

3

4

5 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (closed) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel center panel, 9 ft. 9 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 9 in.

6 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (Crucifixion) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel center panel, 9 ft. 9 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 9 in. Three characteristics of the Grünewald s style; Deals specifically and grotesquely with the themes of dire illness and miraculous healing. Used color to intensify the effect of horror and hope by means of soft harmonies and subtle tones against shocking dissonance of color. Iconography carefully selected to have meaning to viewers: Christs body becomes amputated as parts of the altar are slid away.

7 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (Crucifixion) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel center panel, 9 ft. 9 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 9 in. The subject is depicted on the center panel is a crucified Christ.

8 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (closed) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel center panel, 9 ft. 9 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 9 in.

9 On the exterior wings; Crucifixion, Saint Sebastian on the left, Saint Anthony on the right, and Lamentation in the predella. They were associated with diseases such as the plague and with miraculous cures; Anthony was the orders patron saint and his legend encompassed his role as both vengeful dispenser of justice (by inflicting disease) and benevolent healer.

10 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (Resurrection) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel wing, 8 ft. 2 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 1/2 in.

11 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (fully open) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel center panel, 9 ft. 9 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 9 in. On the interior wings; Annunciation, Angelic Concert, Madonna and Child, and Resurrection.

12 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (Meeting of Saints Anthony and Paul) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel wing, 8 ft. 2 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 1/2 in. The images served as warnings, encouraging increased devotion from monks and hospital patients. They also functioned therapeutically by offering some hope to the afflicted.

13 Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (Temptation of Saint Anthony) ca. 1510-15 oil on panel wing, 8 ft. 2 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 1/2 in.

14

15 Protestant Germanic Art

16 Pieter Saenredam Interior of the Choir of Saint Bavos Church at Haarlem 1660 oil on panel 27 11/16 in. x 21 9/16 in.

17 Lucas Cranach the Elder Allegory of Law and Grace ca. 1530 woodcut 10 5/8 x 12 3/4 in. Low-key images were viewed as useful devotional aids. Prints provided a prime vehicle for educating the masses because artists could print them easily, permitting wide circulation and the sale of numerous copies. They were the least expensive of art forms, making them more accessible to a wider audience than traditionally commissioned art.

18 Cranach used Moses holding the Tablets of the Law to describe Catholic Doctrine

19 To describe Protestant doctrine, Cranach used Gods grace, in the form of blood streaming from a crucified Christ.

20

21 Albrecht Dürer Self-Portrait 1498 oil on board 20 1/2 in. x 16 1/8 in.

22 Albrecht Dürer Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse ca. 1498 woodcut 15 1/4 x 11 in. First, he produced the work without commission. Saint Peter (as representative of the pope in Rome) is relegated to a secondary role by being placed behind John the Evangelist, who focused on Christs reason in his Gospel. Peter and John both read from the Bible, the single authoritative source of religious truth, according to Luther. Dürer emphasizes the Bibles centrality by depicting it open to the legible passage In the beginning was the Word… At the bottom of the painting, Dürer includes quotations from each of the four apostles books, warning against the coming of perilous times and the preaching of false prophets who will distort Gods word.

23 Albrecht Dürer Saint Michael 1498 woodcut 15 x 11 1/8 in.

24 Albrecht Dürer Last Supper 1523 woodcut 8 3/8 x 11 13/16 in. Durers representaton of the Last Suupper reflected Luthers position on the sacrament of Transubstantiation in that the bread and wine appear prominently in the prints corner, and the empty plate in the foreground refers to the commemorative, rather than literal, nature of Christs sacrifice in the Mass. Transfiguration would traditionally have been represented by a slaughtered lamb on the plate. Luther insisted that Communion was commemorative, not a reenactment.

25 Albrecht Dürer Four Apostles 1526 oil on panel each panel 7 ft. 1 in. x 2 ft. 6 in.

26 Albrecht Dürer Philipp Melanchthon 1526 engraving 6 7/8 x 5 1/16 in.

27 Albrecht Dürer The Fall of Man 1504 engraving 9 7/8 x 7 5/8 in. Two elements of Durer's Adam and Eve that reflect his study of Italian models: The figures stand in poses reminiscent of classical statues. He made geometric sketches beforehand to perfect the ideal proportions, but balanced this idealization with naturalism in both the figures and the vegetation. The poses of Adam and Eve are similar to the figures of contrapposto kouroi and korai. List one element that demonstrates his Northern commitment to Naturalism: The gnarled bark of the trees and the feathery leaves. Symbolism With his right hand, Adam grasps a mountain ash, signifying the Tree of Life; this is contrasted with the Tree of Knowledge, represented by the fig tree at the center of the composition. The diabolical and seductive serpent depositing the forbidden fruit in Eve's hand is opposed by the parrot, which symbolizes both wisdom and discernment, and the virgin birth of Christ The cat and mouse in the foreground-- predator and innocent prey-- summarize the relationship between the two human protagonists. Perched on a distant cliff at the upper right is an ibex, or goat, a traditional symbol for the unbelieving, and an apt metaphor for the first humans to break a divine commandment. The elk, bull, rabbit, and cat embody the four humors, or temperaments: the melancholic, the phlegmatic, the sanguine, and the choleric.

28 Sanguine The sanguine temperament is fundamentally impulsive and pleasure-seeking; sanguine people are sociable and charismatic. They tend to enjoy social gatherings, making new friends and tend to be boisterous. They are usually quite creative and often daydream. Choleric The choleric temperament is fundamentally ambitious and leader-like. They have a lot of aggression, energy, and/or passion, and try to instill it in others. Melancholic The melancholic temperament is fundamentally introverted and thoughtful. Melancholic people often were perceived as very (or overly) pondering and considerate, getting rather worried when they could not be on time for events. Phlegmatic The phlegmatic temperament is fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warmly attentive to lazily sluggish. Phlegmatics tend to be content with themselves and are kind.

29

30 Albrecht Dürer The Great Piece of Turf 1503 watercolor 16 x 12 1/2 in.

31 Albrecht Dürer The Hare 1502 watercolor and gouache on paper 25 x 23 cm

32 Albrecht Dürer Knight, Death and the Devil 1513 engraving 9 5/8 x 7 3/8 in. Two tendencies that Durer fuses in Knight Death and the Devil Idealization. Naturalism.

33 Albrecht Altdorfer The Battle of Issus 1529 oil on panel 4 ft. 4 1/4 in. x 3 ft. 11 1/4 in. As he began a campaign against the Turks, the Duke of Bavaria hired the artist Albrecht Altdorfer to paint the historic conflict between Alexander the Great and Darius (leading the Persians). Altdorfer emphasized the connection between the ancient battle and contemporary times as the figures are attired in contemporary armor and are engaged in contemporary military alignments. Stylistic effects he utilized to emphasize the violence of the battle; The landscape contains craggy mountains, swirling clouds, and a blazing sun.

34 Albrecht Altdorfer The Battle of Issus 1529 oil on panel 4 ft. 4 1/4 in. x 3 ft. 11 1/4 in.

35 Albrecht Altdorfer The Battle of Issus 1529 oil on panel 4 ft. 4 1/4 in. x 3 ft. 11 1/4 in.

36

37 Hans Holbein the Younger The French Ambassadors 1533 oil and tempera on panel 6 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 9 1/2 in. Three Italian elements that Holbein integrated into his painting: Monumental composition. Bodily structure. Sculpturesque form. Elements that reflect his Northern training: Close realism. His detail is exact and exquisitely drawn.

38 Hans Holbein the Younger The French Ambassadors 1533 oil and tempera on panel 6 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 9 1/2 in. anamorphic A distorted image recognizable when viewed with a special device, such as a cylindrical mirror, or by viewing the image at an acute angle.

39 Hans Holbein the Younger The French Ambassadors 1533 oil and tempera on panel 6 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 9 1/2 in.

40

41

42 Jean Clouet Francis I 1525-30 oil and tempera on panel 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 5 in.

43 Jean Clouet Francis I 1525-30 oil and tempera on panel 3 ft. 2 in. x 2 ft. 5 in.

44

45 Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio Gallery of King Francis I Fontainebleau, France ca. 1530-40 Three Manneristic characteristics that are seen in the decoration of the Gallery of Francis I at Fontainbleau: Abrupt changes in scale. The texture of the figurative elements. Elongated grace and formalized elegance.

46

47 Château de Chambord Chambord, France begun 1519 Three Italian Renaissance features of the Chateau of Chambord: The plan includes a square block with four corridors, in the shape of a cross. At each of the four corners, a round tower punctuates the plan. The exterior is a carefully contrived horizontal accent on three levels, windows aligned precisely one above another, a motif based on the Italian palazzo. Two French Gothic features: Above the third story the structures line breaks chaotically into a jumble of light dormers, chimneys, and lanterns. The silhouette is soaring and ragged like Gothic buildings.

48 Château de Chambord Chambord, France begun 1519

49

50 Pierre Lescot and Jean Goujon west façade of the Square Court Louvre Paris, France begun 1546 The architect who designed the Square Court of the Louvre was Pierre Lescot and the sculptor who ornamented the facade was Jean Goujon.

51 Pierre Lescot and Jean Goujon west façade of the Square Court Louvre Paris, France begun 1546 Features of the facade of the Louvre courtyard that are derived from the Italian Renaissance and those that are essentially French. Italian: Each of the stories forms a complete order. The cornices project enough to create a strong horizontal accent. The arcading on the ground floor resembles the ancient Roman use of arches. French: The decreased height of the stories. The scale of the windows (proportionately much larger than in Renaissance buildings). The steep roof.

52 Jean Goujon Nymphs from the dismantled Fountain of the Innocents Paris, France 1548-1549 marble reliefs each 6 ft. 4 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 4 3/4 in. Three characteristics of Goujons Nymphs from the Fountain of the Innocents, noting which seem to be related to Italian Mannerism: Figura serpentina poses. They are in a confined, unspecified space. They appear to make one continuous motion, an illusion produced by reversing the gestures, as they might be seen in a mirror.

53 Jean Goujon Nymphs from the reconstructed Fountain of the Innocents Paris, France 1548-1549 marble reliefs each 6 ft. 4 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 4 3/4 in.

54

55 Jan Gossaert (Mabuse) Neptune and Amphitrite ca. 1516 oil on panel 7 ft. 2 in. x 4 ft. 1 in. Features of Jan Gossaert Neptune and Amphitrite are classical: Neptune is shown with his aspect, the trident, and wearing a laurel wreath and an ornate conch shell. The figures both stand in a contrapposto stance. Which are not: The poses are derived from Dürers Fall of Man. The painting is executed with Netherlandish polish.

56 Quentin Massys Money-Changer and His Wife 1514 oil on panel 7 ft. 3 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 3/8 in. Economic Life: A professional man is shown transacting business, with the setting and objects suggesting a fidelity to observable fact. Religious life: References to the spiritual world in the prayer book, the carafe with water, and the candlestick. There are two small vignettes referring to the balance this couple must establish between their worldly existence and their spiritual commitment: two men gossiping, and the reflection of a man reading a prayer book in front of a church steeple.

57 Quentin Massys Money-Changer and His Wife 1514 oil on panel 7 ft. 3 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 2 3/8 in.

58 Pieter Aertsen Meat Still-Life 1551 oil on panel 4 ft. 3/8 in. x 6 ft. 5 3/4 in.

59 Pieter Aertsen Meat Still-Life 1551 oil on panel 4 ft. 3/8 in. x 6 ft. 5 3/4 in. Three religious features found in Aertsens Meat Still Life: In the background, Joseph leads a donkey carrying Mary and the Holy Child. The crossed fishes, pretzels, and wine all refer to spiritual food. They are contrasted to symbols of gluttony and lust in the oysters and mussel shells, which are shown just under an outdoor scene of people carousing.

60 Caterina van Hemessen Self-Portrait 1548 oil on panel 12 3/4 x 9 7/8 in. The Self-Portrait by Caterina van Hemessen is purportedly the first known self-portrait by a European woman.

61 Levina Teerlinc Elizabeth I as a Princess ca. 1559 oil on oak panel 3 ft. 6 3/4 x 2 ft. 8 1/4 in. Lavina Teerlinc worked as a royal portraitist in England.

62 Pieter Breugel the Elder Hunters in the Snow 1565 oil on panel 3 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 4 in. Three characteristics of Bruegel's landscape paintings: Human activities remain the dominant theme. He did not include classical elements in his paintings. The landscape is recorded in an optically accurate manner.

63

64

65 Pieter Breugel the Elder Netherlandish Proverbs 1559 oil on panel 3 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 4 1/8 in.

66 Pieter Breughel the Elder The Triumph of Death ca. 1562 oil on board 46 x 63 3/4 in.

67

68 Pieter Breughel the Elder The Triumph of Death ca. 1562 oil on board 46 x 63 3/4 in.

69

70

71 Colegio de San Gregorio Valladolid, Spain ca. 1498

72

73 Pedro Machucha courtyard of the palace of Charles V Alhambra, Granada, Spain ca. 1526-1568

74

75 Juan de Herrera Escorial near Madrid, Spain ca. 1563-1584 The style of the building: It has a gridlike plan, classical Doric severity, simplicity of form and majesty without ostentation. Only the three entrances break the long sweep of the severely plain walls. Massive square towers punctuate the four corners. The stress is on the central axis and the granite used for the building conveys a feeling of starkness and gravity. The effect is of overwhelming strength and weight.

76 Juan de Herrera Escorial near Madrid, Spain ca. 1563-1584

77 Juan de Herrera Escorial near Madrid, Spain ca. 1563-1584

78

79 El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulous) The Burial of Count Orgaz 1586 oil on canvas 16 x 12 ft. Describe two elements of El Greco's style that seem to be related to Italian Mannerism. Intense emotionalism. Great reliance on color. Describe two purely personal stylistic traits that are found in El Greco's work. Elongated undulating figures matched with abstractions and distortions to show the immaterial nature of the Heavenly realm. The figures are bathed in a cool light of uncertain origin and float in an undefined space. Describe two elements that point toward the Baroque. His strong sense of movement. His use of light.

80 El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulous) View of Toledo 1586 oil on canvas 47 3/4 x 42 3/4 in.

81 El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulous) Mary Magdalene in Penitence 1577 oil on canvas 42 1/2 x 39 7/8 in.

82


Download ppt "Martin Luther was a German theologian who challenged papal authority due to widespread dissatisfaction with the Church, especially objecting to the sale."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google