Presentation on theme: "AIRFIELD DRIVER TRAINING"— Presentation transcript:
1 AIRFIELD DRIVER TRAINING First background where the program came from.Sarasota, Birmingham, Teterboro, Fort Lauderdale, Vero Beach, Charlotte CountyLloyd M. Tillmann, Assistant DirectorLakeland Linder Regional Airport
2 Why Driver Training? Runways are for aircraft highways are for cars how would you like to see this in your mirror?
3 Standardized Airfield Driver Training Program Overview/PurposeAirfield MarkingsAirfield LightingAirfield SignageRadio CommunicationLight Gun SignalsRunway IncursionsConstructionConclusionAcronymsWe’ll review the handbook and some of the video we just saw
4 Purpose of TrainingTo establish a standardized airfield driver training program and make airport operators and vehicle operators aware of the resources available, to maintain the highest possible level of safety within the airport environment. To ensure that the number of runway incursions is reduced, along with the potential for aircraft incidents or accidents.
5 DefinitionsRunway – A defined rectangular surface on an airport prepared or suitable for the landing or take off of aircraft.Taxiway – A defined path established for the taxiing of aircraft from one part of an airport to another.Movement Area – Runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport which are used for taxiing, or hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and aircraft parking areas.Please consult your handbook for a detailed list of definitions.
6 DefinitionsRunway Incursion – Any occurrence at an airport involving an:aircraftvehiclepersonor object on the groundthat creates a collision hazard or results in a loss of separation with an aircraft taking off, landing, intending to take off, or intending to land.Occurrence at an airportinvolves any combination of the followingLoss of separation is the key factor!
7 Rules & RegulationsFederal Aviation Regulation Part (e) states that a certificate holder shall “ensure that each employee, tenant, or contractor who operates a ground vehicle on any portion of the airport which has access to the movement area is familiar and complies with the airport’s rules and procedures for the operation of ground vehicles”.We received a letter from FAA mandating driver training
8 Vehicle Driving RulesAIRCRAFT SHALL HAVE THE RIGHT OF WAY OVER ALL VEHICLES.No person operating a vehicle on the Airport shall fail to observe the directions of posted signs or Air Traffic Control.Only vehicles with an operational need may drive on the movement area of the airport. Runways and taxiways should not be used as a throughway.No vehicle shall enter a movement area without prior clearance from Air Traffic Control Tower.Drivers operating on the movement areas shall be in continuous two-way communications with Air Traffic Control.--AIRCRAFT SHALL HAVE THE RIGHT OF WAY OVER VEHICLES.--No person shall operate a vehicle of any kind on the Airport in a reckless or negligent manner, or in excess of the speed limits prescribed.--No person operating a vehicle on the Airport shall fail to observe the directions of posted signs or Air Traffic Control.--No person under the influence of alcohol or narcotic drugs shall operate any vehicle or aircraft on the Airport.--No person shall operate any vehicle on the Airport, that is overloaded or carrying more passengers than vehicle was designed to carry. Passengers may not ride in any trailer, or cart.--Vehicles shall keep a safe distance from any wing or tail section of a parked aircraft.--Vehicles shall yield the right of way to emergency equipment responding to emergencies.--The maximum number of carts, equipment, or other pulled by a vehicle shall not exceed four (4) when pulled in a single train.--Only vehicles with an operational need! RY and TWY are not a throughway.--No vehicle shall enter a movement area without prior clearance from ATC Tower.--continuous two-way communications with Air Traffic Control.--Unauthorized vehicles must be escorted by a properly authorized and equipped vehicle.
9 Vehicle RequirementsPersonal vehicles are not permitted on the movement area, unless used in conjunction of business purposes.Vehicles operating on the movement area shall display a company name and/or logo.Must have an operating yellow rotating beacon or strobe light.Sunset to sunrise shall have headlights and taillights.Equipped with a two-way radio, and must be in continuous communication with the Control Tower.All vehicles must meet the minimum insurance coverage stipulations as required by Airport Administration.The use of any unsafe or malfunctioning vehicles/ground equipment is unauthorized.--Personal vehicles are not permitted on the movement area, unless used in conjunction of business purposes.--Vehicles operating on the movement area shall display a company name and/or logo. Company name shall be in at least 1.5” tall letters.--Vehicles that are authorized to operate on the movement area must be equipped with an operating yellow rotating beacon or strobe light visible from 360 degrees. An approved orange and white checkered flag may be allowable for temporary situations. Emergency vehicles may use beacons required for that vehicle per Florida State Statue.--Vehicles used from sunset to sunrise shall have headlights and taillights.--Vehicles operating in the movement area must be equipped with a two-way radio, and must be in continuous communication with the Control Tower. The two-way radio must be capable of transmitting and receiving on ATC ground control frequency, or common traffic advisory frequency, when ATC is closed. Vehicles not so equipped must be escorted by an authorized escort vehicle which is so equipped.--All vehicles must meet the minimum insurance coverage stipulations as required by Airport Administration.--The use of any unsafe or malfunctioning vehicles/ground equipment is unauthorized. It is the responsibility of the user to ensure that his/her equipment is in safe operating condition: Brakes, Lights, Glass, Steering, Tires, Hitches.
10 Speed LimitsSpeeds, at all times, shall be no greater than is reasonable and prudent under existing traffic, safety, and weather conditions.Speed limit on the AOA is 15 miles per hour (mph).Speed limit within the wingtip radius of aircraft is 5 mph.Speed limit of airport perimeter roads is 25 mph.Use judgement. I don’t have a radar gun, but if I need to get LAL police out here I will.Use judgement Reasonable and Prudent
11 General Safety Rules Be Smart! Use Common Sense! No smoking is allowed on the Apron fuel storage areas/vehicles.A pilot’s view form the cockpit is limited, when possible, always approach aircraft from a direction where a pilot can see you.No tenant or employee may repair, dismantle, or service equipment, including vehicles, in other than areas designated by the AirportNo person shall refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction given by Airport Administration Personnel or Police.All accidents shall be immediately reported to Airport Administration, and City of Lakeland Police.All vehicle damage to airport property (gates, buildings, signs, etc.) shall be immediately reported to Airport Administration. The responsible airport tenant may be liable for monetary damage incurred.--In addition to these Rules and Regulations, vehicles operated on all portions of airport property are subject to the same rules as those imposed on public roads.
12 ViolationsAirport Administration personnel are authorized to cite violations on any violation of Airport Rules and Regulations. Penalties for such violations are as follows:1st Violation - Driver’s Primary Tenant will be subject to a $ fine, and driver’s privileges revoked until he/she successfully re-completes the Driver Training Course.
13 Violations, con’t2nd Violation - Driver’s Primary Tenant will be subject to a $ fine. Driver will receive a 30-day suspension of privileges, and the driver must successfully re-complete the Driver Training Course.Note: Fine for second violation is imposed on Primary Tenant whether violation is committed by same employee who committed previous violation or another employee.3rd Violation - Driver’s Primary Tenant will be subject to a $ fine. Driver will receive a one-year suspension of privileges, and driver must successfully re-complete the Driver Training Course.Note: Fine for third violation is imposed on Primary Tenant whether violation is committed by same employee who committed previous violation(s) or another employee.
14 Violations, con’t4th Violation - Driver’s Primary Tenant will be subject to a $1, fine, and Driver’s privileges will be suspended indefinitely.Note: Fine for fourth violation is imposed on Primary Tenant whether violation is committed by same employee who committed previous violation(s) or another employee.If a violation is received, the Primary Tenant that granted privileges to drive on the Movement Area must issue the payment covering stated fine. The airport will not accept payment in any form other than from the Primary Tenant.
15 Movement AreaMovement areas are those portions of the AOA for which ATC exercises control.The movement areas include: Runways, Taxiways (except portions), Safety areas--No vehicles shall enter a movement area without prior clearance from ATC.--Vehicles operating on the movement area shall be in continuous two-way radio communications with ATC or under escort by a authorized and equipped vehicle.--Just because you have a two-way radios shall not be construed as license to operate any vehicle on the movement area without authorization.--Any person operating a vehicle on a movement area shall be required to know and comply with the Air Traffic Control Light Gun Signals in case of radio failure.ATC will issue a route of travel based on the current traffic situations, and ATC internal standard operating procedures.--ATC authorization must be received by a ground vehicle prior to crossing runway safety areas or extended runway safety areas.
16 Airfield Markings Hold Bars ILS Hold Bars Movement/Non-Movement Area BoundarySurface Painted Holding PositionSurface Painted LocationTaxiway Edge (Full and Dashed)Vehicle Roadways
17 Hold BarsIdentifies the location where a pilot or vehicle is to stop when clearance has not been granted onto a runway.Never cross without permission.Hold on the solid line side.Used in conjunction with hold position sign(s).Hold This Side
18 ILS Hold BarTo identify the location where a pilot or vehicle is to stop when he/she does not have clearance to enter the ILS/MLS area.Located at the perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical area.Unauthorized penetration could disrupt NAVAIDS.Used in conjunction with an ILS critical area sign.
19 Movement/Non-Movement Area Boundary Defines the boundary of the movement area and non-movement area.Must have permission from ATC to enter movement area.Hold on the solid line side.Hold This Side
20 Surface Painted Holding Position Used where pilots had difficulty discerning the location of the holding position and to supplement signs located at holding positions.Required where the width of holding position on the taxiway is greater than 200’.Used in conjunction with the hold bar, and sign(s).None currently on the field, will be getting one with the current TWY A construction
21 Taxiway Edge StripesUsed to delineate the edge of a taxiway, primarily when the edge of the useable taxiway does not correspond to the edge of the pavement. (Example, taxiway shoulders).Continuous – Paved surface other than full strength taxiway not intended for use by aircraft.Dashed – Operational need to identify taxiway edge where abutting paved surface is intended for use by aircraft.Solid marks the edge of pavement for aircraftDashed indicates aircraft could go on that pavement.
22 Vehicle Roadway Markings Defines route that vehicles should use when the same area is used in conjunction with aircraft.Markings can be solid or zipper style for greater visibility.Vehicles should use these routes to the greatest extent practicable.
23 Airport LightingRunway LightingTaxiway LightingRunway End Lights
24 Runway Edge LightingDesigned to identify the edge of the usable runway surface at night and during periods of low visibility.Clear (or white) except the last 2000’ of a precision or non-precision instrument runway, lights are amber.
25 Taxiway Edge LightingDesigned to identify the edge of the usable taxiway surface at night and during periods of low visibility.Taxiway edge lighting is blue.
26 Runway End LightsUsed to depict the end of the useable runway to aircraft.Arranged in two sets of four lights.
27 Airfield Signs Hold Position Signs ILS/MLS Critical Area Signs Runway Approach SignsTaxiway Location SignsDistance Remaining SignsNo EntryTaxiway Ending MarkerInbound Destination SignsArray of Multiple Signs
28 Hold Position SignsUsed to denote the entrance to a runway or critical area, in conjunction with hold bars.Have white inscriptions with red backgrounds.Must not be passed unless permission is granted by ATC.Should be NOTAMed when unavailable or unlit.
29 ILS Critical Area SignUsed in conjunction with ILS/MLS Critical area hold markings to identify the outer boundary of the critical area.White inscription with Red background.Penetration into area without permission could disrupt NAVAIDs.
30 Taxiway Location Signs Identify the taxiway on which the aircraft or vehicle is located.The inscription is yellow with a black background.Can also be used to designate a runway in which an aircraft or vehicle is located.
31 Distance Remaining Signs Used to identify the distance remaining on a runway, during take off and landing.White inscription with black background.Located at 1000’ increments.
32 No Entry SignsIndicates that entry into a particular area is prohibited to aircraft.White dash and circle with red background.
33 Taxiway Ending MarkerUsed to indicate that a taxiway does not continue.Retro-reflective sign or barriers with alternating yellow and black angled stripes.
34 Inbound Destination Sign Used to designate a location on the airport such as an FBO, ramp parking area, military operation, or fuel.Black inscription with yellow background.Denotes generally non-movement area facilities.Destination signsMention informational signs
35 Radio Communication Ground Control Tower Control/CTAF Phonetic AlphabetProper PhraseologyLight Gun Signals
36 Ground Control Frequency Responsible for the control of aircraft, vehicles, and pedestrians on controlled airport surfaces, except runways. (Movement Areas)The Ground Control frequency for this airport is MHZ.
37 Tower Frequency/CTAFControls the movement of aircraft on runways and airport airspace.Local controller has jurisdiction over runways.The tower frequency for this airport is MHZ.
38 CTAF Common Traffic Advisory Frequency Movement of aircraft & vehicles on runways and airport airspace when tower is closed.Driver self announces intentions/movements .The CTAF frequency for this airport is MHZ.Announce using “Lakeland Traffic…”The Control Tower at Lakeland Linder Regional Airport is open between the hours of 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. After these hours, aircraft using the Airport and Vehicles entering movement areas will communicate on the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF), which at this Airport is Mhz.Before entering/crossing any taxiway or runway, a vehicle will announce on the CTAF: 1. "Lakeland Traffic..."2. Vehicle Identification (call sign)3. Intentions (crossing 5-23, entering Taxiway Golf…)A vehicle will also announce when it is clear of the runway/taxiway.An escort vehicle will make announcements for those vehicles without radios.Vehicles must have headlights and a flashing beacon light or be escorted by a vehicle so equipped.Aircraft have right-of-way and drivers will exercise extreme caution and vigilance while on any movement area.
39 Phonetic Alphabet A- Alpha J- Juliet S- Sierra B- Bravo K-Kilo T- TangoC- Charlie L- Lima U- UniformD- Delta M-Mike V- VictorE- Echo N- November W-WhiskeyF- Foxtrot O-Oscar X- X-rayG-Golf P- Papa Y- YankeeH-Hotel Q-Quebec Z- ZuluI - India R- Romeo
40 Proper Phraseology Listen before you transmit. Think about what you want to say.Avoid using slang (no “CB” radio, no police “10” codes)Use aviation related phraseology.Roger (I understand)Wilco (Will comply)AcknowledgeAffirmative (Yes)Negative (No)
41 Proper Phraseology Identify who you are calling/name of facility. Vehicle – “LAL Ground… Tenant 1”.
42 Proper Phraseology Identify who you are calling/name of facility. Vehicle – “LAL Ground… Tenant 1”.Wait for a response.Tower – “Tenant 1 .. LAL Ground.”
43 Proper Phraseology Identify who you are calling/name of facility. Vehicle – “LAL Ground… Tenant 1”.Wait for a response.Tower – “Tenant 1 .. LAL Ground.”Identify your intentions.Vehicle – “Tenant 1 on the terminal Ramp and would like to cross Runway 9 to the South Ramp”.
44 Proper Phraseology Identify who you are calling/name of facility. Vehicle – “LAL Ground… Tenant 1”.Wait for a response.Tower – “Tenant 1 .. LAL Ground.”Identify your intentions.Vehicle – “Tenant 1 on the terminal Ramp and would like to cross Runway 9 to the South Ramp”.Tower – “Tenant 1, Proceed up to and hold short of Runway 9 at Taxiway Bravo.”
45 Proper Phraseology Identify who you are calling/name of facility. Vehicle – “LAL Ground… Tenant 1”.Wait for a response.Tower – “Tenant 1 .. LAL Ground.”Identify your intentions.Vehicle – “Tenant 1 on the terminal Ramp and would like to cross Runway 9 to the South Ramp”.Tower – “Tenant 1, Proceed up to and hold short of Runway 9 at Taxiway Bravo.”Always repeat the instructions back to the tower.Vehicle – “Roger, Tenant 1, Proceed up to and hold short of Runway 9 at Taxiway Bravo.”
46 Light Gun SignalsUsed when a two way radio system between the air traffic control facility and aircraft or vehicle is unavailable or inoperative.Cleared to cross, proceed, or, go.Cleared to taxi (aircraft only).Stop.Clear runway or taxiway.Return to starting point on airport.Use extreme caution.Steady GreenFlashing GreenSteady RedFlashing RedFlashing WhiteAlternating Green/Red
47 Runway IncursionsThe worst disaster in civil aviation history resulted from a runway incursion (543 dead!).Runway incursions have increased from 186 to 431 nationally in the last seven (7) years.Haze and fog increase the risk of runway accidents by a factor of twelve(12).Runway incursions represent 6% of total aviation fatalities.60%-80% of runway incursion result from human error.Nationally, runway incursions average 1 per every 200,000 aircraft operations.
48 Runway Incursion Data On the rise! Year Number of Incursions 1994 200 On the rise!
49 Runway Incursion Data (cont’d) Types of IncursionsOperational Error (OE) = 20% of occurrencesPilot Deviations (PD) = 61% of occurrencesVehicle/Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD) = 19% of occurrencesLAL has no pilot deviations only Vehicle we are a special case when compared to other airports.
50 Ways to Prevent Runway Incursions See the Big Picture – Watch for aircraft approaching to land or take off.Transmit Clearly – Make your instructions and read backs complete and easy to understand.Listen Carefully – Listen to your clearance. Do not let communications become automatic.Situational Awareness – Know your location. Know what is going on around you, in all directions.Admit When Help is Needed – Ask ATC for help. Better to damage your pride than property.
51 Ways to Prevent Runway Incursions Understand Signs, Lights, and Markings – Keep current with airport signs, lights, and markings. Know what they mean and what action to take.Never Assume – Do not take clearances for granted. Look both ways before entering or crossing taxiways and runways.Follow Procedures – Establish safe procedures for airport operations. Then follow them.Right of Way - When giving way to aircraft, ensure personnel and vehicles are outside of the Obstacle Free Area (OFA)
52 Airport ConstructionEnsure that contractors are briefed on airport surroundings.Keep construction areas well guarded and lit.Establish haul routes away from runways and taxiways. (If possible)Ensure that NOTAMS are current.Coordinate construction activities with your air traffic control tower.Advisory Circular C provides information.
53 Review Runways White Markings White or Amber lights Hold Lines Hold SignsTaxiwaysYellow MarkingsBlue LightsMovement Area Lines
57 ConclusionTo ensure safe operations are conducted at airports, it takes a cooperative effort from all who are involved. This includes pilots, controllers, airport operators, vehicle operators, and contractors.Together, we can make a difference to reduce incidents and make runway incursions, a thing of the past.
58 Acronyms ATC – Air Traffic Control FBO – Fixed Based Operator ILS – Instrument Landing SystemMLS – Microwave Landing SystemNAVAID – Navigational AidNOTAM – Notices to AirmenSMGCS (Smigs) – Surface Movement Guidance and Control System
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