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T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e ARC 101 Roman Archaeology On-Site Session 1 Roman Archaeology & History An Introduction

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1 T h e A m e r i c a n U n i v e r s i t y o f R o m e ARC 101 Roman Archaeology On-Site Session 1 Roman Archaeology & History An Introduction





6 Forum Student 1: Ritual Markers in the Forum and Palatine. Student 2: The Roman Basilicas. Colosseum Student 3: The Roman Monarchy & Republic. Student 4: Entertainment and Sports in Rome. Capitoline Museums Student 5: The evolution from Etruscan/Latin art to Greco-Roman art. Student 6: Roman religion & the Capitoline Triad.

7 Celio Student 7: The Imperial Palace: General features. Student 8: Urban living in Rome: The Insula. Terme di Diocleziano Student 9: The Patricians, the plebs and their power. Student 10: Roman religious rituals. Palazzo Massimo Student 11: Incidents in the Roman Republic towards the empire. Student 12: Mural painting in Rome (includes Pompei).

8 Campus Martius I Student 13: Mystery religions: The Cult of Mithras and other Asian cults. Student 14: Temples and priests in Rome. Campus Martius II Student 15: The Theaters of Rome. Student 16: The Jewish and Christian faiths in Rome. Palazzo Valentini Student 19: Commerce in the city of Rome. Student 20: The Start of the empire: Transition from Julius Caesar to Augustus

9 Imperial Fora Student 21: The evolution of the Forum…from Roman to Imperial Student 22: Rome after Trajan and beyond, urban planning. Terme di Caracalla Student 23: Water management in Rome. Student 24: The Baths and Waterworks in Rome. The Arches Student 25: Constantines politics & the fate of Rome. Student 26: Evolution from Roman to Christian Architecture and Art.

10 Early Christian Churches Student 25: Santa Maria Maggiore and the Christian basilica. Student 26: The evolution of Rome as seen in San Clemente

11 Recommended extra-curricular visits Centrale Montemartini (with museum ticket) Palazzo Altemps (with museum ticket) Via Appia and Villa dei Quintili (with Caracalla ticket) Sala Octogona – Terme di Diocleziano (free) Tivoli: Palace of Hadrian Prenestina Ostia Antica

12 The Roman World I: Expansion in Italy, B.C. Source: From Coffin & Stacey. Western Civilizations. Vol ; p.172.

13 The Roman World II: The Expansion of Rome B.C. Source: From Coffin & Stacey. Western Civilizations. Vol ; p.177..

14 The RW III: The Empire at its greatest extent, A.D. Source: From Coffin & Stacey. Western Civilizations. Vol ; p.187..

15 The RW IV: Diocletians Division of the Empire, A.D. Source: From Coffin & Stacey. Western Civilizations. Vol ; p.187..

16 Rome and its vertical scale: stratigraphy Up to 45ft

17 Horti Sallustani


19 Horizontal stratigraphy

20 The numbers in (perhaps) the greatest city in antiquity The regional catalogues indicate a number of insulae & 1797 domus. A population of 1.2 million by A.D & a size of 2000 ha 46 lupanar, 28 libraries, 42 arches, 9 bridges, 37 gates, 19 aqueducts, 1352 fountains, 2 amphitheaters, 5 circuses, 2 naumachia, 3 theaters, 1 odeon, 1 stadium, 204 ovens-bakeries, 2300 oil depots, 44 latrines, 355 storage areas or horreas, 22 caserns

21 Lines of evidence to understand Roman society The map



24 The archaeology of Rome: Five centuries of discoveries

25 Roman archaeology and archaeological process > Mound formation: > natural deposition, dust & organic matter > abandonment... Varying size of the city, II century vs. X century … Loss of political, administrative and artistic importance … Constantine and the new directions of the empire … Barbarians and Western empire

26 A block of Rome evolving through time: Imperial age

27 The Late Antiquity Period: VI century

28 The Middle Ages: X century

29 The Middle Ages: XIV century

30 Roman archaeology and sources of evidence > Dating Roman structures: coins > Documents, literature & daily life accounts: Cicero, Julius Caesar, Pliny, Horace, Virgil, Seneca, Sallust, Suetonius > Forma urbis > Archaeology : sculptures, art and beyond > Epigraphy on buildings and monuments

31 TIMELINE Source:





36 > Foundation of the city and 753 BC establishment of the monarchy > Roman Republic establishedca 500 > Establishment of the Latin Right493 > Law of the 12 tables 450 > Equestrian order establishedca 300 > Concilium Plebis gains power287 > Empire established 27 > Golden Age of Rome AD > Diocletian partitions the empire 285 AD > Constantine and the decline320 AD > Fall of the Western Empire476 AD Chronology: General Political Evolution


38 > Against its neighbors, initial expansion, monarchy > 1 st Samnite war > The Latin War, > 2 nd & 3 rd Samnite wars > The Punic Wars: Carthage 1 st / 2 nd / 3 rd Delenda est Cartago as the Cato the Great repeated constantly…Carthage must be destroyed Chronology: Wars and Expansion

39 Chronology: Social issues of the Republic > Slaves revolt In Sicily > Gracchian reforms > Rule of Marius , 86 > Marsian War, revolts, rights91-87 > Sulla dictator, aristocracy82 > Spartacus leads slave revolt73-71 > 1 st Triumvirate, JC P C60 > Pompey becomes sole consul52 > Caesar becomes sole consul48 > Caesar becomes sole dictator46 > J.C., Dictator, assassinated44 > 2 nd Triumvirate, O MA L > Octavian becomes sole consul27

40 Hierarchical system Patricians Plebeians Equestrian class, commercial Freedmen / Libertos Foreigners Slaves

41 On site classes and handouts > Museums > Archaeological sites (in the city, in parks, in museums, or under churches) Handouts Evidence in the field will be handled in four steps, 4 Keywords: Historical context – Evaluation Appraisal - Comparison

42 Compare in a broader scale Evaluate idea & object Appraise & register Historical context

43 3 themes: History: event, place in the timeline Art: movable-portable artifacts or objects Architecture: buildings and evidence for the Classical city of Rome We will conclude by locating the evidence the saw in class in the Timeline

44 Rome on the Web

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