2Private Applicator Certification Current Cycle expires 12/31/13Next Cycle will expire 12/31/2018Open Book TestAnswer all 50 questions on score sheetOnly mark one correct answer on score sheetMail score sheet along with License Application and $20 to the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry (ODAFF) in the provided envelope.If a minimum score of 70% is achieved then you should receive Private Applicator Card in 1 to 2 weeks
3Section I Pest & Pest Control IPMTypes of Pest ControlInsectsPlant DiseasesWeedsVertebrate PestsPesticides
4Pests A pest is anything that: • competes with humans, domestic animals, or crops for food, feed, or water,• injures humans, animals, crops, structures, or possessions,• spreads disease to humans, domestic animals or crops.• annoys humans or domestic animals.Pests can be placed in four main categories:• insects (and related animals),• plant disease agents,• weeds, and• vertebrates.
5Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Integrated pest management (IPM) has evolved to develop management strategies that incorporate all aspects of the crop and pest ecosystem to economically manage the crop. In the integrated management approach, management strategies such as resistant varieties, crop rotation, cultural practices and use of beneficial organisms need to be considered before considering chemical control.
6Economic Thresholds & Economic Injury Level The economic injury level is defined as the point at which a pest population begins to cause economic damageThe point that induced control measures must be applied to prevent the pest from reaching the economic injury level is call the economic threshold or action level.
7Types of Pest Control Methods Host ResistanceBiological ControlCultural ControlMechanical ControlSanitationChemical Control
8InsectsAll insects in the adult stage have two physical characteristics in common. They have three pairs of jointed legs, and they have three body regions - the head, thorax, and abdomen.
9Insect Like PestsMites, ticks, spiders, sowbugs, pillbugs, centipedes, and millipedes resemble insects in size, shape, life cycle, and habits, but are not insects. Pest species usually can be controlled with the same techniques and materials used to control insects.
10Plant DiseasesA plant disease is any harmful condition that makes a plant different from a normal plant in its appearance or function. Plant diseases caused by biological agents (pathogens) are of primary interest to pesticide applicators because they often can be controlled with fungicides or bactericides. Pathogens include:• fungi,• bacteria,• virusesmycoplasmas• nematodes.Wheat Leaf RustSclerotinia Blight
11Plant DiseasesPathogens that cause plant disease are parasites that live and feed on or in host plants. They can be passed from one plant to another. Three factors are required before a pathogenic disease can develop—a susceptible host plant, a pathogenic agent, and an environment favorable for development of the pathogen. This is called the disease triangleFrog EyeLeafspotSoybeansTake-all of Wheat
12WeedsAny plant can be considered a weed when it is growing where it is not wanted. Weeds are a problem because they reduce crop yields, increase costs of production, and they reduce the quality of crop and livestock products. In addition, some cause skin irritation and hay fever, and some are poisonous to man and livestock. Weeds also can spoil the beauty of turf and landscape plants. Some weeds are host to insect pests and plant diseases.
13Life Cycles of Weeds Annuals winter and summer Biennials Perennials Simple, bulbous, and creepingWinter AnnualSummer Annual
15Vertebrate PestsAs in insect pest control, techniques for control of vertebrate pests depend on whether the pest problem is indoors or outdoors.Indoor vertebrate pest control usually is aimed at preventing pest entrance and eradicating pest infestations. Nearly all indoor vertebrate pests are rodents, but others, such as bats, birds, and raccoons, also may require control.Outdoors, the strategy usually is to suppress the pest population to a level where the damage or injury is economically acceptable.
16PesticidesPesticides are chemicals used to destroy, prevent, or control pests. They also include chemicals used to attract or repel pests, and chemicals used to regulate plant growth or remove or coat leaves.
17Types of PesticidesInsecticide: controls insects and other related pests such as ticks and spiders.Miticide: controls mites.Acaricide: controls mites, ticks, and spiders.Nematicide: controls nematodes.Fungicide: controls fungi/plant diseases.Bactericide: controls bacteria.Herbicide: controls weeds.Rodenticide: controls rodents.Avicide: controls birds.Piscicide: controls fish.Molluscicide: controls mollusks, such as slugs and snails.Predacide: controls vertebrate pests.Repellent: keeps pests away.Attractant: lures pests.Plant Growth Regulator: stops, speeds up, or otherwise changes normal plant processes.Defoliant: removes unwanted plant growth without killing the whole plant immediately.Desiccant: dries up plant leaves and stems and insects.Antitranspirant: coats the leaves of plants to reduce unwanted water loss (transpiration).
18How Pesticides WorkProtectants: applied to plants, animals, structures, and products to prevent entry or damage by a pest.Sterilants: makes pests unable to reproduce.Contacts: kills pests simply by contacting them.Stomach poisons: kill when swallowed.Systemics: taken into the blood of an animal or sap of a plant. They kill the pest without harming the host.Translocated herbicides: kill plants by being absorbed by leaves, stems, or roots and moving throughout the plant.Fumigants: gases that kill when they are inhaled or otherwise absorbed by the pest.Anticoagulants: prevent normal clotting of blood.Selective: more toxic to some kinds of plants or animals than to others.Nonselective: toxic to most plants or animals.Pheromones: affect pests by changing their behavior.
19Factors That Affect Pesticide Activity Soil FactorsClimatic FactorsResistance
21Section II Pesticide Formulations Types of FormulationsAdjuvantsCompatibility
22FormulationsThe active ingredients in a pesticide are the chemicals that control the target pest. The pesticide product you purchase is rarely made up only of active ingredients. Usually the pesticide is diluted in water or a petroleum solvent, and other chemicals are added before the product is offered for sale. These other chemicals may include wetting agents, spreaders, stickers, extenders, or diluents. They usually make the product safer, easier to apply, more convenient to handle, and more accurate to measure. This mixture of active and inert (inactive) ingredients is called a pesticide formulation. Some formulations are ready for use. Others must be further diluted with water, a petroleum solvent, or air by the user before they are applied.
23Liquid Formulations Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC or E) Ultra Low Volume Concentrate Solutions (ULV)Low Concentrate Solutions (S)Flowables (F or L)
25AdjuvantsAn adjuvant is an inert material added to a pesticide formulation or tank mix to increase the effectiveness of the active ingredient. Most pesticide formulations contain at least a small percentage of additives. Some applicators add additional adjuvants while mixing for special applications. Some product labels may caution the user against adding adjuvants.
26AdjuvantsWetting agents—allow wettable powders to mix with water and stick on plant or animal surfaces.Emulsifiers—allow petroleum-based pesticides (EC's) to mix with water.Invert emulsifiers—allow water-based pesticides to mix with petroleum carrier.Spreaders—allow pesticide to form a uniform coating layer over the treated surface.Stickers—allow pesticide to stay on the treated surface.Penetrants—allow the pesticide to get through the outer surface to the inside of the treated area.Foaming agents—reduce drift.Thickeners—reduce drift by increasing droplet size.Safeners—reduce phytotoxicity of pesticide to protected crop.Compatibility agents—aid in combining pesticides effectively.Buffers—allow mixing of pesticides of different acidity or alkalinity.Anti-foaming agents—reduce foaming of spray mixtures that require vigorous agitation.
27CompatibilityTwo or more pesticides that can be mixed together to control a wider range of pests with a single application are said to be compatible with each other. Sometimes the pesticides are formulated together by the manufacturer, but the applicator often must mix separate formulations in the tank. It is important to remember that not all pesticides work well in combination. Pesticides that are not compatible can cause:• loss of effectiveness against the target pest,• injury to the treated surface (phytotoxicity in plants, toxicity in treated animals, stains or corrosion on treated surfaces),• separation of ingredients into layers or settling out of solids.Some pesticide labels list other pesticides with which the product is compatible. Pesticide publications, land grant universities, and independent experts can supply information based on local experience.
28Tank Mix Compatibility Some Labels may have precautions about mixing certain types of pesticides together. Mixing certain herbicides together may reduce activity or mixing certain insecticides and herbicides together could cause crop injury under the right conditions.
30Section III Labels & Labeling EPA Approval of Pesticide LabelingParts of the LabelReading the Label
31EPA ApprovalNo pesticide may be sold in the United States until the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has reviewed the manufacturer’s application for registration and determined that the use of the product will not present an unreasonable risk to humans or the environment. As part of this product registration process, EPA has certain labeling information requirements and must approve all language that the manufacturer proposes to include in the product labeling.. Pesticide users are required by law to comply with all the instructions and directions for use in pesticide labeling. When pesticides are not being uses according to label directions, they are being used illegally.
32Types of Registrations & Labels Federal EPA registrations are the most common. Most pesticide uses are registered this way. Look for the official EPA registration number (which must appear on the label) to be sure you are buying an approved product.Special local needs registrations (known as SLN or 24(c) registrations) allow States to further control how the pesticide is used in their jurisdiction, including registering additional uses or adding limitations for a federally registered pesticideEmergency exemptions from registration are used when an emergency pest situation arises for which no pesticide is registered. If both Federal and SLN registrations would take too long to enact, an emergency registration can be used. Known as “Section 18 exemptions,” these registrations are handled by the highest governing official involved -- usually a State governor or Federal agency head. This provision allows a pesticide product to be sold and used for a nonregistered purpose for a specified period of time.
33Classification Restricted Use Pesticide General Use Pesticide EPA registers every use of every pesticide as either “restricted use” of not restricted use. Many times all the uses of a particular formulation are registered as restricted use or all are unclassified. Sometimes, however, certain uses of a formulation are restricted use and other uses of the same product are not registered as restricted use. In these cases, the directions for use for the two registrations must be clearly separate from one another by each product having entirely different packaging and labeling.
34Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) A pesticide, or some of its uses, is registered as restricted if it could cause harm to humans (pesticide handlers or other persons) or to the environment unless it is applied by certified applicators who have the knowledge to use these pesticides safely and effectively. The word “use” un this phrase is a general term -- it refers to such activities as:application,mixing and loading,transporting, storing, or handling pesticides after the manufacturer’s seal is broken,care and maintenance of application and handling equipment,disposal of pesticides and their containers.
35Brand, Trade, or Product Names Usually trademarked name for Pesticide ProductsSome Product names may be very similar but contain a different pesticide.
36Ingredient Statement, Chemical Name, Common Name The ingredient statement must list the official chemical names and/or common names for the active ingredients.The chemical name is a complex name which identifies the chemical components and structure of the pesticide. This name is almost always listed in the ingredient statement on the labelBecause pesticides have complex chemical names, many are given a shorter "common" name. Only common names which are officially accepted by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency may be used in the ingredient statement on the pesticide label.
38Label InformationType of Pesticide (Insecticide, Herbicide, Fungicide, etc.)Net Contents (Size of container and may also include pounds of active ingredient in container)Name & Address of Manufacturer
39Registration & Establishment Numbers Registration Number-This indicates that the pesticide label has been approved by the federal government (EPA). This number is for the most part unique to the product and can be used to look up information on pesticide products.Establishment Number-It identifies the facility that produced the product.Registration NumberEstablishment Number
40Signal Words & SymbolsThe signal word must appear in large letters on the front panel of the pesticide label. It immediately follows the statement, "Keep Out of Reach of Children," which must appear on every pesticide label. The signal word is based not on the active ingredient alone, but on the contents of the formulated product. It reflects the hazard of any active ingredients, carriers, solvents, or inert ingredients. The signal word indicates the risk of acute effects from the four routes of exposure to a pesticide product (oral, dermal, inhalation, eye) and is based on the one that is greatest. The signal word does not indicate the risk of delayed effects or allergic effects.
41DANGER - This word signals you that the pesticide is highly toxic DANGER - This word signals you that the pesticide is highly toxic. A taste to a teaspoonful taken by mouth could kill an average sized adult. Any product which is highly toxic orally, dermally, or through inhalation or causes severe eye and skin burning will be labeled "DANGER".All pesticides which are highly toxic orally, dermally, or through inhalation will also carry the word POISON printed in red and the skull and crossbones symbol.WARNING - This word signals you that the product is moderately toxic. As little as a teaspoonful to a tablespoonful by mouth could kill the average sized adult. Any product which is moderately toxic orally, dermally, or through inhalation or causes moderate eye and skin irritation will be labeled WARNING.CAUTION - This word signals you that the product is slightly toxic. An ounce to more than a pint taken by mouth could kill the average adult. Any product which is slightly toxic orally, dermally, or through inhalation or causes slight eye and skin irritation will be labeled CAUTION.
42Precautionary Statements All pesticide labels contain additional statements to help you decide the proper precautions to take to protect yourself, your helpers, and other persons (or domestic animals) which may be exposed. Sometimes these statements are listed under the heading, "Hazardous to Humans and Domestic Animals." They are composed of several sections.Route of Entry StatementsSpecific Action StatementsDelayed Effects StatementAllergic Effects StatementProtective Clothing andEquipment Statements
43Statement of Practical Treatment These statements tell you the first aid treatments recommended in case of poisoning.
44Environmental Hazards Pesticides may be harmful to the environment. Some products are classified RESTRICTED USE because of environmental hazards alone. Watch for special warning statements on the label concerning hazards to the environment. It is the applicators responsibility to prevent environmental hazards when using a pesticide. The applicator is also responsible for knowing of endangered species, groundwater depth, etc. in the treated area.
45Physical or Chemical Hazards This section of the label will tell you of any special fire, explosion, or chemical hazards the product may pose.
46Classification Statement Every use of every pesticide will be classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency as either "general" or "restricted." EPA has never registered a pesticide for general use, thus the words "General Classification" do not appear immediately below the heading "Directions for Use” for non-restricted pesticides. Every pesticide product which has been restricted must carry this statement in a prominent place at the top of the front panel of the pesticide label
47Reentry StatementThis is the time that must pass before entry to an area that has been sprayed and will be listed most of the time in the Ag Use Box
48Storage & DisposalAll pesticide labels contain general instructions for the appropriate storage and disposal of the pesticide and its container. State and local laws vary considerably, so specific instructions usually are not included.
49Directions For UseInstructions on how to use the pesticide are an important part of the label for you. This is the best way you can find out the right way to apply the product. It is illegal to use a pesticide in any way not permitted by the labeling. A pesticide may be used only on the plants, animals, or sites named in the directions for use. You may not use higher dosages, higher concentrations, or more frequent applications. You must follow all directions for use, including directions concerning safety, mixing, diluting, storage, and disposal. You must wear the specified personal protective equipment even though you may be risking only your own safety by not wearing it. The use directions and instructions are not advice, they are requirements.
50Directions for Use The use instructions will tell you: the pests which the manufacturer claims the product will control. (You may legally apply a pesticide against a pest not specified on the labeling if the application is to a crop, animal, or site which the labeling approves.)the crop, animal, or site the product is intended to protect,in what form the product should be applied,the proper equipment to be used,how much to use,mixing directions,compatibility with other often-used products,phytotoxicity and other possible injury or staining problems, where the material should be applied,when it should be applied, andcrop rotations.
51CarriersWater is the only carrier that can be used unless otherwise stated on the label.Some other carriers used are liquid fertilizer and diesel.
52Directions for Use by Reference Some directions for use that pesticide users must obey are contained in documents that are only referred to on the product labeling.This reference to other documents is a new practice. It is necessary because there is no longer room on the traditional pesticide label to explain the requirements of all laws and regulations that may apply to the user. For example, EPA has adopted or is considering new requirements concerning:ground water protection,endangered species protection,pesticide transportation, storage, and disposal, andworker protection.
53References to Endangered Species on the label will require applicators to consult an EPA webpage or call EPA at no more than six months before application to check on any Endangered Species bulletins for the areas they will be spraying.
54Plant Back & Harvest Restrictions Time listed on the label before planting another crop.Must be followed or carryover from the application can cause crop injury to the following crop.Harvest Restrictions must be followed to avoid any illegal residues on harvested crops.Maximum use rates are listed to avoid illegal residues also.
57Grazing RestrictionsWhat type of animal is allowed and any time period that may have to lapse before grazing is allowed.
58Worker Protection Standard (WPS) The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) has special requirements. WPS applies only to crop agriculture, forestry, greenhouse and nursery production systems.Specific label information for WPS appears in the Agriculture Use box. Within this box is information on the types of personal protective equipment, worker notification(s), REI, etc. Applicators under WPS are to utilize the Agriculture Use box to comply with WPS.For More Specific information on WPS see the EPA Publication How to Comply With the Worker Protection Standard.
60Resistance Management Guidelines Some Labels are now listing group numbers which shows what mode of action the pesticide has.These are to help in rotation of pesticides to different modes of action to avoid resistance.Some labels will direct you to rotate to a pesticide with a different mode of action after so many sprays to avoid resistance.
62Reading the LabelBefore you buy a pesticide, read the label to determine:whether it is the pesticide you need for the job, whether the pesticide can be used safely under the application conditions.Before you mix the pesticide, read the label to determine:what protective equipment you should use, what the pesticide can be mixed with (compatibility), how much pesticide to use, the mixing procedure.Before you apply the pesticide, read the label to determine:what safety measures you should follow, where the pesticide can be used (livestock, crops, structures, etc.), when to apply the pesticide (including the waiting period for crops and animals), how to apply the pesticide,whether there are any restrictions for use of the pesticide.Before you store or dispose of the pesticide or pesticide container, read the label to determine: where and how to store the pesticide, how to decontaminate and dispose of the pesticide container, where to dispose of surplus pesticides.
64Section IV Protecting the Environment Direct Kill of Nontarget Plants & AnimalsPesticides & Honey BeesLong Term EffectsPesticide MovementContamination of Soil, Air and WaterGood Application PracticesChemical, Soil, & Geological FactorsPotential Benefits
65Non-target Injury of Plants & Animals Non-Target can occur by drift.Poor timing of application can kill beneficial insects or bees.Runoff from treated areas can cause fish kill in pondsCareless tank filling or rinsing of containers that contaminate aquatic areas can cause problems for aquatic life.
66Non-Target Injury to Crops Insert Drift Pictures
67Pesticide MovementMovement off-target of a pesticide can contaminate soils, water, and air if applied incorrectly and allowed to move off target.Movement of pesticides occurs not only by wind movement but also by runoff of water and transportation of soil particles.
68Preventing Off-Target Movement Do Not allow Back –Siphoning Oklahoma applicators by law are required to prevent back siphoning by a mechanical back flow prevention or an air gap when filling.
70Proper DisposalTriple Rinse or Pressure Rinse Containers before either recycling or land filling the containers. It is against State Law to burn Pesticide Containers!Properly dispose of rinsate by applying on a labeled site or collecting and disposing the rinsate in a disposal program.
72Pesticide DisposalFor Unwanted Pesticides that will not be used anymore dispose of properly in a disposal program or with a Hazardous Waste Company.Oklahoma Applicators can take advantage of the Oklahoma Unwanted Pesticide Disposal Program which collects unwanted pesticides from applicators for free and disposes of those pesticides properly.
74Environmental effects due to chemical, soil, and geological factors. Chemical-Solubility, Soil adsorption, and persistence are factors that factors in protection of groundwater and the environment.Soil- texture, permeability, and organic matter content greatly factor into a pesticides potential for movement of pesticides in the environment.Geology-Distance to groundwater and permeability of geological layers.
76Section V Spray Equipment Preparation of Spray EquipmentCalibrating Low Pressure SprayerReducing Drift
77Spray Equipment Preparation Select an operating speed that can be maintained to suit the field surface and crop condition.Select nozzle sizes that deliver the desired flow rate at the selected ground speed.Select tips that deliver the desired droplet size range. To reduce drift to sensitive plants, apply herbicides with low pressure (under 40 psi) and larger droplet size. PSI is pounds per square inch as read from a pressure gauge. Use high pressure (60 psi or more) for small drops to get penetration and more complete coverage of crop foliage with herbicides, insecticides and fungicides.Check nozzles to be sure they are providing uniform coverage. This can be done making sure the nozzles are facing the same direction.Remove and clean all nozzle tips and screens. Use an old toothbrush or a wood toothpick as they will not damage shape or size of orifice. Do not use a pocket knife or wire on tips. Remove and clean suction strainer screen.Add clean water to the supply tank; start pump and flush hoses and boom.Reassemble all screens and tips. Make sure that all tips are the correct size and type for the desired spray pattern. Check all connections for leaks. Check the sprayer at field pressure for uniform flow from all nozzles, using a calibrated cup or flow meter.Adjust the pressure relief valve to about 15 PSI above the spraying pressure. Slowly open the agitation line control valve until the gauge pressure drops to the desired spraying level. All pump output that is not discharged through the spray nozzle recirculates through the venturi jet agitators or the relief valve. One jet agitator is usually sufficient for tanks up to 100-gallon capacity; use two in larger tanks.
78Sprayer Components Pumps- Roller, Centrifugal, Piston Tanks-Size, Tank Material, Markings, and drains are tank factors.Agitation-Mechanical or HydraulicHoses-Flexible, Pressure rated, proper sizeStrainers-Proper size and regular cleaning to ensure proper flow rate.
79NozzlesCorrect type for type of application-Flat fan, cone, flood, etc.Proper pattern and mounting.Droplet size-fine, medium, courseMaterial-brass, polyacetal, PVDF, stainless steel, CeramicBrass wear out fastest and ceramic the most wear resistantNew Air Induction nozzles can help minimize drift by producing larger droplets
81Factors Affecting the Risk of Injury from Contaminated Tanks Herbicide Mode of ActionCertain chemicals present a greater potential than others for crop injury.Insecticides- If using repellent and non repellent insecticides tank cleaning can become important to get full benefit of non-repellent insecticides.Application MethodPost applications on foliage provide a higher risk for crop injury than soil applications in most cases.Sprayer ComponentsFiberglass and Polyethylene tanks and rubber hoses require more extensive cleaning than stainless steel.Screen, strainers and pumps must also be cleaned.
82Tank cleaning agentsCommercial tank cleaners such as All Clear, Wipeout, Protank Cleaner and Tank CleanerThe old standby - AmmoniaRecommended for 2,4-d, Remedy, Reclaim, Tordon, Banvel, Grazon P+D, Cimarron Max, and other hormone type herbicidesGood for loosening deposits and residues which can form in the tank.Use 1 gallon of ammonia per 100 gallons of tank capacity.Ammonia can corrode aluminum parts.
83Tank cleaning agents Chlorine bleach (1/2%) Detergent Can decompose residues of sulfonylurea herbicides into inactive compounds.Not recommended if you are using ammonia or liquid fertilizers containing ammonia.Bleach is typically less effective at loosening residue.DetergentRate of 1 cup/20 gallons is recommended on a few herbicide labels. (Aim, atrazine, Sencor, Poast)Kerosene or fuel oilA solvent for oil-soluble herbicides such as 2,4-d esters.After an oil rinse, rinse with detergent or ammonia.
84General Cleaning Guidelines Clean as soon as possible after use – dried material is difficult to remove.Drain the tank of ALL herbicide solution. Rinse down the inside and outside walls of the tank and flush out the booms. Apply this rinsate to the field originally sprayed.Fill the tank with water. Circulate it through the entire spray system including bypass, pump, hoses and boom.
85General Cleaning Guidelines Drain the entire system completely, including the low spots.Remove all strainers and nozzle screen and clean them separately in the cleaning solution.Partially refill the tank and the chosen tank cleaner.Finish filling the spray tank to insure the solution contacts the internal surface of the tank.
86General Cleaning Guidelines Circulate the solution through the entire system.Allow the solution to stand in the tank for the period of time recommended on the herbicide label (overnight is desirable).The next day, circulate it again through the entire system, remove end caps on the boom, and then drain completely.Rinse out twice with clean water, recirculating and draining each time.Other TipsUse of surfactants and fertilizer additives such as 28% UAN in subsequent tank fillings are more apt to pull the previously used herbicides out of fiberglass/poly tanks, rubber hoses and strainers.Be especially thorough in your tank cleaning procedures before applying any herbicide (i.e. glyphosate) that recommends using ammonium sulfate in the solution.
87Injury from Tank Contamination Crop Injury can occur from tank contamination of leftover residue.
88Sprayer CalibrationCalibration consists of knowing three essential variables.TimeAreaVolumeThese are used for any calibration no matter what type of sprayer you are using.
89WHY CALIBRATE? IF YOU UNDER APPLY… POOR CONTROL MAY NEED SECOND APPLICATIONWASTE MONEYIF YOU OVER APPLY…CROP DAMAGERESIDUES IN CROP OR SOILAGAINST THE LAW
90BEFORE CALIBRATING… FLUSH SYSTEM WITH WATER CLEAN STRAINERS AND SCREENSCLEAN & CHECK NOZZLESCHECK FOR LEAKSFILL TANK WITH WATER
91Calibration Variables Nozzle flow rate.Ground speed of sprayer.Effective sprayed width per nozzle.Changing any one of these will change application rate
92Nozzles Control the: Volume of Pesticide Applied Uniformity of ApplicationCoverage obtain on soil or plantAmount of Drift
93Nozzle Flow RateThe flow rate through a nozzle varies with size of the nozzle tip and the nozzle pressure. Increasing the orifice size or the pressure will increase the nozzle flow rate.
94Doubling the pressure will not double the flow rate; to double the nozzle flow rate, pressure must increase four (4) times.Changing the pressure is NOT a good way to change Flow rate.
95Ground Speed of the Sprayer If the output remains the same and the travel speed is doubled the gallons applied per acre decreases by one-half.
96Sprayed width per Nozzle If the number of nozzles on the boom are decreased by one-half then the gallons per acre are decreased by one-half.Doubling the sprayed width per nozzle decreases the gallons per acre by one-half.
97Application Adjustments: If nozzle output is 20% greater or less than calculated, change nozzle.Replace worn nozzles having output 10% higher than a new nozzle at a set pressure.Make minor adjustments to output by adjusting tractor speed or spray pressure. Major adjustments by replacing nozzles.Observe nozzle spray for correct pattern, replace if needed.
98SPRAYER CALIBRATION MEASURE GROUND SPEED (MPH) DETERMINE SPRAYER OUTPUT (GPA)STATIONARY CATCH METHODTANK VOLUME METHOD3. MEASURE AREA TO BE TREATED4. DETERMINE AMOUNT TO MIX5. KEEP RECORDS!
991. MEASURE GROUND SPEED (MPH) MARK OFF 200 FT.TIME THE NUMBER OF SECONDS IT TAKES TO TRAVEL THIS DISTANCEMPH = DISTANCE (FT.) X 60TIME (SEC.) X 88
100EXAMPLE: DISTANCE = 200 FT. TIME = 45 SEC. WHAT IS YOUR GROUND SPEED? MPH = 200 X 6045 X 88MPH =3960MPH = 3.0
1012. DETERMINE SPRAYER OUTPUT (GPA) “STATIONARY CATCH METHOD” FILL TANK WITH WATERCATCH SPRAY OUTPUT FOR 1 MINUTEGPM = OUTPUT IN OZ.128 0Z/GAL.GPA = GPM X or GPM X 495MPH X W MPH X SWATH (FT)MPH = GROUND SPEEDW = WIDTH OF APPLICATION IN INCHESThis is the type of calibration problem asked on the private applicator test.Remember that the width (W) is in inches.
102EXAMPLE: SPRAYER DELIVERED 19 OZ. IN 1 MINUTE FROM A FLAT FAN NOZZLE WITH 12 IN. SPRAY WIDTH.GROUND SPEED IS 3 MPHWHAT IS YOUR GPA?GPM = 19/ 128 = 0.148GPA = (0.148 X 5940)/ (3 X 12) =
103EXAMPLE : SURFLANNEED TO TREAT 10 ACRES FOR PREPLANT PREPARTION USING SURFLAN AT 4 QTS./ACREYOUR SPRAYER HAS A TANK CAPACITY OF 100 GAL. AND IS CALIBRATED TO DELIVER 25 GPA AT 3 MPH.
1041. HOW MUCH SURFLAN WILL YOU NEED? HOW MUCH WATER WILL THE JOB REQUIRE?3. HOW MANY TANK LOADS WILL YOU USE?4. HOW MUCH SURFLAN PER GALLON OF WATER WILL YOU NEED?
105EXAMPLE: SURFLAN (CONT.) 1. HOW MUCH SURFLAN WILL YOU NEED?4 QTS. SURFLAN/ACRE X 10 ACRES = ___QTS.40 QTS. OR 10 GAL. SURFLAN2. HOW MUCH WATER WILL THE JOB REQUIRE?WATER AT 25 GPA X 10 ACRES = ___ GAL250 GALLONS
1063. HOW MANY TANK LOADS WILL YOU USE? TANK CAPACITY = 100 GAL.AMOUNT OF WATER REQUIRED FOR TREATING AREA = 250 GAL.250 GAL./100 GAL. CAPACITY = ___ LOADS = 2.5 LOADS
1074. HOW MUCH SURFLAN/GAL. OF WATER WILL YOU NEED? SURFLAN/GAL. WATER = 10 GAL. SURFLAN250 GAL. WATERSURFLAN PER GAL. WATER = 0.040.04 GAL. X 128 OZ PER GAL. = ___ 0Z.5.12 OZ. SURFLAN PER GAL. WATER
108DriftSpray drift is that portion of the spray material that moves off the target area. Drift can be either liquid or vapor. Liquid particle drift is easier to understand as you can see swirls of mist moved by the wind as a sprayer crosses a field. Some herbicide vapors drift great distances from the target area and damage susceptible species.
110Drift Control Measures 1) Select a nozzle that produces coarser (larger) droplets2) Use lower pressure on the sprayer and larger nozzles when possible3) Lower boom height4) Spray when wind speeds are low to avoid off target movement.5) Spray when wind is moving away from sensitive crops6)Use Buffer Zones of 50 to 100 feet in width around sensitive areas. Spray buffer area when wind direction is away from the sensitive area.
111ODAFF Sensitive Crop Viewer Website maintained by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry to identify pesticide sensitive crops for applicators.Lists location sensitive crops such as cotton, grapes, bee hives, and organic farms.Can be very useful in identifying sensitive crops in your area.
117Section VI Laws & Regulations FederalFIFRAResidues & TolerancesTransportationWPSStateOklahoma Combined Pesticide Law & Rules
118Federal Law & Regulations Federal Law that Pesticides are covered under is The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and is administered by EPA.Covers classification of Pesticides (Restricted Use or not)Certification of Applicators to apply Restricted Use Pesticides (Private and Commercial)
119Federal Laws & Regulations Residues & Tolerances-EPA sets residue tolerances for all crop and animal products intended for food or feed. Only by following label instructions exactly can you be sure that treated products will have residues well below tolerance level when marketed. Especially important are instructions on correct dosages and on minimum days to harvest, slaughter, or grazing.
120WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD IS an EPA regulation that covers pesticides used in production of agricultural plants onfarmsforestsgreenhousesand nurseries
121Referenced on the label... “Use this product only in accordance with its labeling and with the Worker Protection Standard, 40 CFR, Part 170”
122WPS requires...the employer on an agricultural establishment to provide his employees withinformation about pesticide exposureprotections against exposure to pesticidesways to mitigate exposure to pesticidesFollow all Restricted Entry Intervals (REI’s) on labels for workers
123Employees defined as: Agricultural worker: Handler (applicator) do hand labor such as weeding, planting, cultivation, or harvestingdo related tasks, such as moving or operating irrigation equipmentHandler (applicator)mix, load, or applymix, load, or apply pesticidesdo other tasks involving direct contact with pesticides
124Family farm exemption: owners of agricultural establishments and members of their immediate family are exempt from WPS requirements for training, decontamination and display at central area
125Pesticide safety training... EPA approved training for workers and handlersBefore any handling taskFor workers , basic pesticide safety information before entering a treated areaComplete training before the 5th day of entryRe-train every five years
126Trained by a certified applicator or trained WPS trainer Use EPA approved materialsvideotraining work booksflip chart
127Notify workers about treated areas so they can avoid inadvertent exposures Some labels require notifying BOTH orally and with signs posted at entrances to treated area“Notify workers of the application by warning them orallyand by posting warning signs at entrances to treated areas.”
128WPS Training & Recordkeeping Being certified as a private applicator you are qualified to do WPS worker and handler training.WPS requires some recordkeeping on all pesticide applications under WPS. These requirements differ slightly from recordkeeping requirements for Restricted Use Pesticide Applications.
129Water & Endangered Species FIFRA is the main regulation regarding pesticides and clean water. FIFRA prohibits the use of pesticides in a manner which will result in contamination of either ground or surface waters.Endangered Species-EPA has developed label instructions for applicators to follow and allow applicators to comply with the Endangered Species Act. The applicator will be informed on the label if the pesticide may impact an endangered species and to consult a web page or number to determine if the area will have a Endangered Species Protection Bulletin to consult before application.
130StateState regulations are found in the Oklahoma Combined Pesticide Law & Rules.Oklahoma does not allow the use of a pesticide less than the labeled rate.State regulations are enforced by the Consumer Protection Services of the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry (ODAFF).
131Buying Restricted Use Pesticides You must be a certified applicator to be able to purchase Restricted Use Pesticides.General use pesticides can be bought by anyone.
132TYPES of CERTIFIED APPLICATORS Private Applicator - Applies RUP on property owned or rented by for the purpose of producing an agricultural commodityCommercial Applicator - In the business of applying pesticides to property of another for hire.Private applicators can swap work. If a Private Applicator gets paid for an application, they are now considered a commercial applicator.
133RECERTIFICATIONThe Private Applicator category is on a staggered five (5) year rotation - not the applicator. Recertification is done by testing. The next cycle will end December 31, CEUs are not available for Private Applicators.
134Mist BlowersIn Oklahoma no person shall use a mist blower or other type of air blasting or misting equipment for the application of hormone type herbicides within the state except where the conditions below exist.Forest nursery and timber areas where any other types of ground application equipment cannot be used.Range, pasture, and crop areas where terrain feature such areas as a gully and will not allow the use of any other type of ground application equipment.
135FumigationPrivate Applicators Must be certified in the fumigation category along with their private applicator certification to use fumigants.After completing Private Applicator Exam the Fumigation closed book exam must be taken at a ODAFF testing location.After Completion of the Fumigation Exam applicators must attend the Fumigation Practical in Stillwater and complete the one day training and pass the Fumigation Practical Exam.Once the Practical Exam is passed a new Private Applicator card will be mailed with a Fumigation Endorsement which will allow for the purchase of fumigants such as Phosphine products.This means taking the Fumigation category exam and pratical. Category 7c. This is a change in the Pesticide laws and rules in Oklahoma. In previous years Private Applicators could by fumigates with just the Private Applicator certification.
136Recordkeeping Requirements for Restricted Use Pesticides (RUP) Under 1990 Farm Bill private certified applicators are required to keep records of applications of restricted use pesticides.Records must be kept for 2 years.Applicators have 14 days to record information after application.You can be inspected by USDA or State Pesticide regulatory representatives at any time.Farmers are required to keep records of RUP products. This is required by USDA Agricultural Marketing Service.Records should be kept for all pesticides for economic, efficacy, and other issues that may arise.
137Recordkeeping Requirements Brand Name/Product NameEPA Registration NumberTotal Amount of Pesticide UsedDate of ApplicationDescription/Location of Treated AreaCrop, Commodity, or Stored ProductSize of Area TreatedName of Certified ApplicatorCertification NumberUSDA AMS requirements for recordkeeping
138Recordkeeping Requirements RUP These recordkeeping requirements differ from Worker Protection Standard recordkeeping requirements.The USDA Recordkeeping Manual for Private Pesticide Applicators contains both RUP and WPS recordkeeping requirements for applications and each item is identified as either WPS or USDA or is a requirement of both.
139Restricted Herbicide Areas For Greer, Harmon, and Kiowa counties dicamba and 2,4-D ester herbicides are restricted from May 1 to October 15.For Jackson and Tillman Counties2,4-D, dicamba, picloram,triclopyr, or clopyralid are restricted from May 1 to October 15.This applies to all applications of these products to agriculture lands.Applications of these products can still be made during this time frame as long as notification is sent to ODAFF of application of these products during the time frame listed.Forms can be find at ODAFF’s web page atThis only applies to the counties listed above and 2,4-DB is exempt from these restrictions.
142Section VII Pesticide Safety Protecting Your BodyHandling Pesticides SafelyFirst Aid & Pesticide Poisoning Recognition
143Protecting Yourself from Pesticides Avoiding and reducing exposures to pesticides will reduce the harmful effects from pesticides.RISK = TOXICITY X EXPOSURE
144PesticidesLD50 = dose (oral or dermal) needed to kill 50% of a population of a lab test animal measure of toxicityLD = lethal doseLD50Oral DermalDangerWarning:Caution:
145Pesticides can enter the body in three major ways: through the mouth (orally),through the skin and eyes (dermally), andthrough the lungs (by inhalation).
146Exposure Routes I D O N E R H R A A M L L A L T O The next major important factor in determining the hazard of a substance are the conditions influencing the exposure. The first of these is the route of exposure. This figure shows the three main routes of exposure to pesticides for humans. These are:1. Inhalation - by breathing pesticide dust or fumes through your nose or mouth into the the lungs.2. Oral - by swallowing the chemical or its residue through your mouth.3. Dermal - by absorbing the chemical through your skin or eyes.
147Chemical Absorption by Human Skin Foot archPalmForearmBackScalp1ArmpitForeheadJawGenital Area26 X6 X43 X8 X93 XHowever, there are variables within each one of these main routes of exposure that further affect toxicity and the level of exposure. For example, with the dermal exposure route of exposure, some areas of the skin are more likely than others to absorb chemicals. As you can see by the values in this table of chemical absorption by human skin, absorption differs by skin location on the body. As we all know, the skin on the arch of our foot is very thick and tough. This makes it difficult for chemicals to penetrate through the skin. However, compared to the arch of your foot, skin on your forearm is 8 times more permeable to chemicals and this is an area that can be easily exposed when working with pesticides, if not properly protected.And if you are a male, you certainly know where you don’t want chemical exposure-- the skin on the scrotum is 300 times more permeable than the skin on the foot arch.Remember that dry, cracked skin provides a direct entry point into the body for pesticides and other chemicals. Also,note that children are more susceptible to being over-exposed via the skin since children have a greater surface area to body weight ratio than adults.*Data from Feldman R.J. and H.I. Maibach Absorption of some organic compounds through the skin in man. J. Invest. Dermatol., 54:12 X300 X25 X
148ACUTE POISONINGOccurs from oral intake, skin exposure, and breathing (inhalation). Usually occurs within 12 hours of exposure.
149CHRONIC POISONINGArises from repeated exposure to doses of pesticides. Usually from small doses over an extended time period.This is what we are concerned about today. For most pesticides, we do not know what they might do to us 5,10, or 30 years from now. This is like the straw that breaks the camel’s back. Little exposure over a long period of time can eventually be harmfull.
150Symptoms of Pesticide Poisoning for some classes of Insecticides Organophosphates - Headache, nausea, dizziness, muscle twitching, anxiety, cramps, sweating, diarrhea, constricted pupils.Carbamates - Similar to OP but it takes more exposure.Pyrethroids - stinging, burning, itching of skin.
151PESTICIDE POSIONING Call 911 Call Poison Control Center @ 800-222-1222 Take pesticide container to medical facility
152Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) MINIMUM RECOMENDED PPELong sleeved shirtLong legged pantsShoes & socksRefer to pesticide label for the specific PPE you must wear during application for each product being used.
153GlovesWearing gloves should be a standard practice when handling pesticides. Exposure studies show that when working with pesticides, the hands and forearms frequently receive the greatest amount of exposure.
154Mixing and loading exposure can be reduced by 99% simply by wearing chemical resistant glovesand a long-sleeve shirt.Note: The minimum amount of protective gear now specified on labels consists of: waterproof gloves, long-sleeve shirt, long pants, shoes and socks. Check the label to see if additional PPE is required!
155EPA Chemical Resistance Category Selection Chart Buctril - “G”Decis - “G”Di-Syston 8 - “F”Dual - “H”Poast Plus - “E”Stam M-4 - “B”Treflan - “G”Vydate L - “C”High: Highly chemical resistant. Clean or replace PPE at end of each day’s work. Rinse off at rest breaks.Moderate: Moderately chemical resistant. Clean or replace PPE within an hour or two of contact.Slight: Slightly chemical resistant. Clean or replace PPE within 10 min. of contact.None: No chemical resistance. Don’t use this type of material as PPE when contact is possible
156Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Gloves Waterproof or chemicalresistant gloves (readthe label to determinethe correct type) Neverwear leather!Natural Rubber
157If the label says “waterproof”, you may choose gloves made of rubber or synthetic materials. If the label says “chemical resistant”, use the selection chart or use barrier laminate, butyl, nitrile, neoprene, or Viton.PPE: GlovesBarrier laminateNeopreneNitrile RubberButyl RubberViton
158PPE: Boots Choose knee-high rubber or synthetic boots without holes. Wear cuff on outside of boot. Never wear leather.
159PPE: Coveralls“Coveralls” can be reusable types (cotton or blends) or disposable types such as Tyvek or Kleenguard.The label will specify if “chemical resistant coveralls" coated/waterproof material) are needed.
160PPE: Eye Protection Goggles or face shield are required if label calls for eye protection.Face shield offers moreprotection when mixingand loading. A chemicalresistant hat is sometimesspecified on the label.
161PPE: Respirators Must be made for the pesticide - see the label. Make sure it fits correctly - no air gapsChange cartridge frequentlyWash with soap and water after useStore in plastic bag after washing
162PPE: RespiratorsChemical cartridge - Most common. NIOSH or MSHA approved. Organic vapor cartridges TC-23C or TC-14G.
164Cleaning Contaminated Clothing Wash contaminated clothing daily.Do not attempt to clean clothing contaminated with undiluted pesticide - throw away.Prerinse, don’t crowd washer, use hot waterUse long cycle & heavy duty liquid detergentKeep separate from other clothing
166StorageThe storage area should be in a cool, dry, well-ventilated and well-lighted room or building that is insulated to prevent freezing or overheating. Be sure that the area is fireproof, with an impervious floor. Keep the area locked to prevent entry by children and other unauthorized persons and post warning signs on doors and windows.The storage building or area should be located away from where people and animals live. This will avoid or minimize harm to them in case of fire or flooding.Store all pesticides in the original containers. Do not store them near food, feed, seed, or animals.
167Transporting Pesticides Use back of truck - never in cabKeep tied down or bracedDo not transport pesticides with food or feedKeep dryDon’t leave unattended
168Transporting Pesticides Use tie-downs orbrace bars.
169Mixing and Loading Mix below eye level Work outdoors or in well ventilated areaDon’t work aloneStand upwind to avoid sprays and dustsDon’t leave filling tank unattendedUse backflow preventer or “air gap”
170Mixing and Loading The potential for human exposure is greatest during mixing/loadingWear the Correct PPE!
171Avoid Equipment Accidents Mixing and LoadingCheck out equipmentbefore adding pesticide.Mix where you won’t contaminate water supplies.If you spill pesticide on yourself, stop and cleanup and change clothing immediately.Avoid Equipment Accidents
172Spill CleanupBe prepared and keep on hand a spill kit or absorbent material and a shovel to contain a spill.Major spills must be reported to ODAFFCall Chemtrec for assistance on major spills at Chemtrec number is also listed on most labels for spill assistance.Keep any spill contained and from running off into any body of water or storm drains to avoid a larger contamination situation.
173Handling Pesticide Spills (a) All uncontained spills of more than ten (10) gallons liquid or twenty-five (25)pounds dry weight of pesticide concentrate or fifty (50) gallons of an applicationmixture (tank mix) shall be reported within 24 hours by telephone and by writtennotice within three (3) days to Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality,or , P.O. Box 1677, Oklahoma City, Oklahomaand Pesticide Section, Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Foodand Forestry , P.O. Box , Oklahoma City, Oklahoma8804.(b) Any person shall be responsible for all costs associated with cleanups resultingfrom pesticide spills in that person’s operation.
174Container ManagementRemember only two options of disposing empty pesticide containers in Oklahoma.You can dispose of empty containers in a landfill as long as the land fill will accept them.The other option is to recycle.There is no burning of containers in Oklahoma it is against State Law!
175RinsingPressure RinsingRemember when disposing of containers either by recycling or in a land fill they must be rinsed clean!They can be either tripled rinsed or pressure rinsed.Rinsate must not be poured down a drain or storm drain.Triple Rinsing
177Requirements for Recycling Containers Pressure or Triple RinsedLabels RemovedCaps DiscardedNo pesticide left in containerStained containers can be accepted if they have been rinsedWill take plastic containers up to 55 gallons drumsFree Service
178Requirements for Recycling ACCEPTABLENOT ACCEPTABLE
179Contact InformationLocal County Extension officeCharles Luper Pesticide Safety Education ProgramUS Ag Recycling
180Disposal of Excess Pesticides Use on a labeled siteTake to Household Hazardous Waste collection in your areaBring to Oklahoma Unwanted Pesticide Disposal Collection
181Oklahoma Unwanted Pesticide Disposal Program Because it may be complicated and expensive for individuals to dispose of pesticide waste, the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry is funding a program to collect and properly dispose of unwanted pesticides that farmers, commercial applicators, or dealers may have.
182Terms of ProgramOnly Pesticides can be taken. Only Fertilizer coated with pesticide can be taken. No other hazardous waste such as oil, paint, etc. only pesticides!Products are not waste until handed off to Clean Harbors the contractorClean Harbors becomes waste generatorWill take unknowns but you should at least know they are a pesticideThere is no cost for the first 2,500 pounds disposed of per entity
187Contact InformationRyan Williams Charles LuperOklahoma Department of Agriculture Oklahoma State UniversityConsumer Protection Services Pesticide Safety Education ProgramThis program was made possible with support from the Oklahoma Agribusiness Retailers Association
189Pesticide Statement The pesticide information presented in this publication was current with federal and state regulations at the time of printing. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label directions. The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied. Brand Disclaimer The information given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is implied.