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Applying Pesticides. Pesticide Management Identifying Common Pests Sites = infested areas Target = pest that pesticide is intended for Host = animal.

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Presentation on theme: "Applying Pesticides. Pesticide Management Identifying Common Pests Sites = infested areas Target = pest that pesticide is intended for Host = animal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Applying Pesticides

2 Pesticide Management

3 Identifying Common Pests Sites = infested areas Target = pest that pesticide is intended for Host = animal or plant that is to be protected

4 Classifications of Pesticides Insects Insecticide Mites Miticide Mites, ticks and spiders Acaricide Snails & Slugs Molluscicide Fungi Fungicide Nematodes Nematicide Bacteria Bactericide

5 Classifications of Pesticides Weeds Herbicide Predatory Animal Predacide Rodents Rodenticide Birds Avicide Fish Piscicide Plant Growth Plant Growth Regulators Leaves on Plants Defoliant, Dessicant

6 Pesticide Characteristics “Pesticide” = substance intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate any pest –also; plant regulator, defoliant, or dessicant

7 Pesticide Characteristics Chemical Basis of Pesticides Synthetic Organic Pesticides are man made –Malathion, 2,4-D Plant Derived Organic Pesticides are made from parts of plants Inorganic Pesticides are made from minerals –Lead Arsenate

8 Pesticide Characteristics Toxicity of Pesticides Refers to how poisonous a pesticide is to warm blooded animals Danger = Highly Toxic –Skull & Crossbones and “Poison” Warning = Moderately Toxic Caution = Slightly Toxic

9 Pesticide Characteristics Use of Pesticide Specific uses

10 Effect of Pesticides on Pests Stomach Poison = kills when swallowed Contact Poison = sprayed directly on pest Fumigants = gas inhaled or absorbed Translocated Herbicides = kills plants by being absorbed by roots Systemics = will kill pest when it eats the host, but doesn’t harm host

11 Effect of Pesticides on Pests Sterilants = pests are unable to reproduce Anticoagulants = prevents normal blood clotting Pheromones = change the normal behavior of pests Protectants = prevent pest entry

12 Effect of Pesticides on Pests Plant Growth Regulators = control the rate of growth of plants Defoliants and Dessicants = cause plants to shed their leaves

13 Pesticide Characteristics Persistence of Pesticides refers to how long the Pesticide remains in the environment Pesticide must break down to a harmless residue before harvest May be a time delay for safe consumption

14 Formulation of Pesticides Form in which chemical is available Liquid Formulations: Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC or E) mix with water Solution (S) is ready to use Flowable (F) Thick liquid, mix with water to form a suspension

15 Formulation of Pesticides: Liquid Fumigant, pressurized container turns to gas Aerosol (A) applied from a pressurized can or special sprayer

16 Formulation of Pesticides: Dry Dusts (D) must be used dry Granules (G) larger than dust, must be used dry Wettable Powder (WP or W) looks like dust, must be mixed with water, aggitate Soluble Powder (SP) dissolves in water Baits: pesticide mixed with attractant

17 Selectivity of Pesticides A selective pesticide kills some pests and not others Ex: kills only broadleaf plants or only grasses Non-selectives kill many pests Ex: Roundup kills all plants

18 Reading the Label The label is a “Legal Document” Read and follow directions on the label What you will find on the label: Use Classification: –“General Use” can be applied by anyone –“Restricted Use” certified applicators or under their direct supervision

19 Reading the Label Brand Name: Roundup Common Name: made up name for the active ingredient (not all have one) Chemical Name: words that you can’t pronounce to identify chemicals in product Formulation: Dry, Soluble, WP Ingredients: must be identified by chemical and common name except inert ingredients

20 Reading the Label Signal Words: “Danger” “Warning” “Caution” Child Hazard Statement: “Keep out of reach of children” Statement of Practical Treatment: first aid Reentry Statement: if applicable, time to wait before reentering field treated

21 Reading the Label Precautionary Statements: possible hazards to humans, environment etc Name & Address of manufacturer EPA registration number EPA establishment number Net Contents

22 Reading the Label Directions for Use: –Misuse statement –pests it will control (target) –where it may be applied (sites) –types of equipment to use –restrictions for protection of environment –frequency and timing of application –storage and disposal of pesticide and container

23 Who can use pesticides? Anyone can buy & use pesticides classified for General Use Restricted Use pesticides can only be used by Certified Applicators and employees Private Applicators: use on your own crops Commercial Applicators: for hire

24 Liabilities Involved Follow all directions for use on the label Never leave pesticides where children or animals me be exposed Never apply where rain or irrigation runoff may cause pollution Minimize probability of drift –low wind –coolest part of day –largest practical nozzle size

25 Pesticides enter the body via: Dermal: through the skin Ingestion: swallowing Inhalation: breathing

26 Liabilities Involved Check label for re-entry period Keep records of all injuries –medical treatment –loss of consciousness –loss of work –transfer to another job –death

27 Pesticide Records What pesticide purchased application dates name of applicator target (pest), site (crop) severity of infestation equipment used amounts of pesticide used

28 Transporting Pesticides Pesticides must be in original packages Vehicle must have correct warning sign Must not be hauled in same vehicle as food Notify DOT if someone is killed, seriously injured, or serious damage Report spillage on a public road

29 What Pesticide to Use Identify Pest Become familiar with many methods of control Estimate level of infestation Compare methods of application Remember all hazards Select pesticide for best control & least hazard

30 Methods of Application Spraying: most popular method Granular Application: on plowed soil, grass Dusting: for dusts Fogging: insect control Dipping: livestock, lumber

31 Protective Clothing Coveralls or long sleeved shirt and long pants Raincoat or liquid proof apron Hard hat or other water proof hat Unlined neoprene boots Unlined neoprene gloves (above wrists) Goggles or face shield Respirator

32 Types of Respirators Cartridge: chemical filter for low level pesticide concentrations Chemical Canister: higher levels Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus: compressed air bottle

33 First Aid Immediately, notify a doctor Remove contaminated clothes Wash skin with water and detergent Flush eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes (low pressure) If swallowed, check label for treatment (only induce vomiting if recommended) Inhaled, get fresh air, lie down

34 Signs and Symptoms Mild Poisoning: Irritation of: skin, eyes, nose & throat Headache Weakness Nausea Diarrhea Dizziness

35 Signs and Symptoms: Moderate Poisoning Blurred vision, difficult breathing Poor muscle coordination, rapid pulse Flushed skin, constriction of pupils Stomach cramps, vomiting Muscle twitches

36 Signs and Symptoms: Severe Poisoning Convulsions, inability to breath Loss of consciousness Secretions from the mouth and nose Possible fever May be fatal

37 Storing Pesticides Store in original containers is a safe, dry, locked and well ventilated place

38 Disposing of Empty Containers After emptying containers, rinse 3 times and pour rinse water in sprayer Dispose of container as directed

39 Group I Containers Burn in special incinerators Burn in small numbers in the open Bury in special landfill or singly at least 18 inches deep in open field Exception: containers which held lead, mercury, cadmium or arsenic

40 Group II Containers Containers won’t burn Crush and bury as in Group I Deliver to scrap metal dealer If reusable, rinse and return to supplier

41 Group III Containers Held mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic or inorganic pesticides Rinse tree times Bury in sanitary landfill

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