2Eugene Stoner- known as the inventor/developer of the M-16A1 Rifle. Armalite Company- First manufacturer of AR-10 and AR-15.- Subsidiary of Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing Company.Colt Manufacturing Company, Hartford Connecticut, USA- The present manufacturer of M16A1 and its other versions.AR 15- First name of M16A1 rifle and improved versions of AR 10.AR 10- The parent design of the M16A1.
3XM 16- Another name for AR15 and is used to tag it during experimental stages. M-16A1- The first rifle of its kind and is the best rifle during that time.M-16A2- improved version of M-16A1.RO 635- The 9mm version of the M-16A1 rifle.XM-177EA1/A2- Submachine gun version of M16A1. It is often called the Baby Armalite.M-16A2 M4- Carbine version of M-16A2.M-16A3 M4- aka M-14A1. Latest version of the M-16A1 and its carbine version.
53 Main Parts of the M16 Rifle: 3 Types of Weapons:1. Hand Weapon2. Shoulder Weapon3. Crewsive Weapon3 Main Parts of the M16 Rifle:1. Upper Receiver Group2. Lower Receiver Group3. Bolt Carrier Assembly
6General Characteristics: Characteristics of a rifle that permits the marksman to use the rifle while its butt is rested on the shoulder or thigh.Characteristics of a rifle wherein a loaded magazine can be inserted.Characteristics of a rifle wherein you need air to cool it.Magazine FedShoulder WeaponAir CooledCharacteristics of a rifle wherein the gas cylinder allows the gas to enter the bolt.Gas OperatedThe firer can make the rifle deliver either semi or fully automatic fire.Semi - Fully Automatic
8UPPER RECEIVER GROUP- Directs the projectile upon firing. Flash Suppressor- located in front or at the mouth of the barrel.Barrel- a straight cylindrical metal tube.Hand Guard- a heat resistant material made up of fiber glass.Gas Tube- replaces the gas cylinder commonly used in conventional rifles.Carrying Handle- has windage knob and elevating mechanism.Forward Assist assembly- it permits the closing of the bolt manually if feeding is not done by the force of action of the buffer spring alone.Ejection Port- part of the rifle where the empty cartridge shell is thrown out from the receiver.
9Ejection Port Cover or Dust Cover- is provided to prevent dirt, mud, or sand from getting into the ejection port.Charging Handle- is used to load or unload ammunition into or from the chamber.Slip Ring- holds the Hand Guard in place.Bayonet Stud- Part of the rifle where the bayonet is fixed.Bayonet Knife- it is being attached to the rifle when it comes to hand to hand combat.Sling- provides the means for shoulder carrying the rifle.Clamp Type Bipod- is used by the automatic rifleman while firing inside a foxhole.Rear Sight Drum- is used for windage adjustments, zeroes the weapon and engages target to 460 meters.Front Sight Assembly- is the adjustable click type post used for the elevation adjustment.
102 types of Range Settings: 1. Normal Range Setting- (7mm) the unmarked aperture for targets from meters.2. Long Range Setting- (2 mm) the aperture marked L for targets from meters.
11Lower Receiver Group- Provides firing control for the weapon and storage of basic cleaning materials.Buffer- holds the buffer spring in place.Buffer Spring- helps bringing back the bolt assembly to its initial position and lessens the effect of the recoil.Butt Compartment- it is designed with a butt plate cup which opens to receive the basic issue items or cleaning equipments.Rubber Recoil Pad- it is mounted on a butt of the stock wherein the rifle toe and heel is found.Stock- stabilizes the rifle.Bolt Catch- is used for locking the bolt open.Pistol Grip- to have a good grip on the rifle.Selector Lever- the weapon is designated for automatic and semi-automatic fire by usage of the selector lever.
12Disconnector- mechanism installed so the firer can fire single round in the weapon. Trigger- controls the firing of the weapon.Trigger Guard- protects the trigger from destruction.Magazine Catch Button- removes the cartridge magazine from weapon when pushed.Magazine Well- the enlarged section at the rear of the barrel when cartridge is positioned for firing.Magazine- is a container used for holding the ammunition in readiness for chambering when engaged in firing.
13Definition of Terms:Maximum Effective Range- the greates distance at which a weapon may be expected to fire accurately to inflict casualties or damage.Maximum Range- the greatest distance the projectile can travel.Cyclic Rate of fire- the maximum rate of fire at which a weapon fires automatically.Sustain Rate of Fire- this is the actual rate of fire that a weapon can continue to deliver for an indefinite length of time without serious overheating of the barrel
14Tabulated Data: A. Weight: Lbs. 6.55 Rifle w/o Magazine and sling Empty Magazine (aluminum) 20 Rounds0.200.2530 RoundsFull Magazine20 Rounds0.701.0130 Rounds0.40Sling M17.65Rifle with Sling and Loaded Magazine 20 Rounds7.96Rifle with Sling and Loaded Magazine 30 RoundsBipod M30.600.20Bipod Case0.60Bayonet Knife M70.30Scabbard, M8A1
15b. LengthRifle with Bayonet Knife44.25”Rifle with Flash Suppressor39.00”Rifle without Flash Suppressor38.00”Barrel with Flash Suppressor21.00”Barrel without Flash Suppressor20.00”
16c. Firing Characteristics: Muzzle Velocity (approximate)3,250 ft/sec1,300 ft/secMuzzle Energy (approximate)Chamber Pressure52,000 psiCyclic Rate of Firerds/min
17d. Maximum Rate of FireAutomaticrds/minSemi-Automatic45-65 rds/minSustain Rate of Fire12-15 rds/minMaximum Range2,653 mMaximum Effective Range460 mMaximum Practical Range300 m
18e. Sight Radius19.75”Front Sight- Adjustable click type post1 click= 2.8cm/100Rear Sight- Adjustable click type (windage adj.)1 click= 2.8cm/100f. Projectile55 grainsg. Caliber 5.56 mm, M193 (complete round)179 grainsh. Rifling6 groovesi. Type of Breach of MechanismRotating Bolt
19AmmunitionBallistics- a science that deals with the motion and flight characteristics of projectile.Trajectory- the flight of the bullet takes from the rifle to the target.Cartridge Case- part of the ammunition that comes out of the port after firing the rifle.Grooves- spiral channels cut in the bore of the rifle barrel.Round- unit of ammunition.
21Types of Ammunition 1. Ball , M193- used for marksmanship training 2. Tracer, M196- used for observation of fire and signaling purpose with red tip.3. Blank, M200- for stimulated fire, signaling and salute with violet tip.4. Dummy, M199- use for training.5. Armor Piercing- use against armored vehicles, protective shelter ad personnel.6. Incendiary- for use against inflammable materials.7. Armor-Piercing Incendiary- used in place either the armor piercing or incendiary.8. Rifle Grenade Cartridge- use in propelling Grenade.
23Cycle of Operation/ Functioning of the M16 Rifle 1. Feeding5. Unlocking2. Chambering6. Extracting3. Locking7. Ejecting4. Firing8. CockingImmediate Action- this involves quickly applying a possible correction to reduce stoppage base on initial observation or indicators without determining the actual cause.Stoppage- unintentional interruption of the cycle of operation.
24SPORTS- A technique for assisting the soldier in learning proper procedure when the rifle jams.- Slap upon the bottom of the magazine.- Pull the charging handle to the rear.SPORTS-Observe the chamber for an ejection of the round.-Release the Charging Handle.-Tap the forward assist assembly.-Squeeze the trigger again.
25Preparatory Marksmanship -all marksmanship training that takes place before live firing.Marksmanship- is the skillful art of shooting and hitting a target at a given or known distance.Elements of Marksmanship- essential or fundamentals of good shooting in marksmanship training.1. Correct Sighting and Aiming2. Correct Position3. Correct trigger squeeze4. Correct application of sustained fire and rapid fire5. Knowledge of proper sight adjustment
26Sight Alignment- when front and the rear sights are brought into correct adjustment with the eye. Sight Picture- The pattern seen by the rifleman when he aims the rifle.Two phases of Marksmanship training:1. Preparatory2. Range Practice
27Sling Adjustments1. Loop Adjustment- used in all position except standing.2. Hasty Sling- mostly used in standing position.Trigger Squeeze- independent action of the forefinger straight to the rear, with uniform increasing pressure has been taken up so that the rifleman does not know the instant falling of the hammer.
28Important things to Remember 1. Squeeze the trigger2. Hold, aim and align accurately3. Sequence in trigger squeezeZeroing the RifleBreathe- Characteristics by adjusting the rear sights.RelaxBRASSAimSlackSqueeze
29Command:1. All firers assume position2. Mark your Position3. Firers rise keep feet4. Lock one round, stimulate load5. Ready on right6. Ready on left7. Ready on firing line8. Commence Fire9. Cease Fire