Presentation on theme: "Energy Management Opportunities with Energy Efficient Lighting"— Presentation transcript:
1 Energy Management Opportunities with Energy Efficient Lighting
2 Your panelistsBenefits, Technologies & Services: Mike Carter and Mark Farrell, Energy Engineers
3 Lighting webinar benefits Bottom line cost savings today!Comfortable speaking with customersKnowledge of terms and pros/consAwareness of energy efficiency opportunities(4.89)30.4%Large Office Building
4 Contents Energy Basics Fundamentals of Light Lighting Technologies Lighting ControlsLighting MaintenanceBusiness Solutions ToolkitIncentives/Rebates
5 Energy basics Power versus Energy Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of power, like the speedometer of your car that records the rate at which miles are traveled.A bigger engine is required to travel at a faster rate.Kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a measure of energy consumption, like the odometer on your car (miles).Energy cost = power (kW) x time (hrs) x price = kWh x $/kWhA 113-watt four lamp light fixture costs about $66 annually when operating 16 hr/day (113 W x 5,840 hr x $0.10/kWh ÷ 1,000 W/kW).Source: stock.xchngSource: Commonwealth of Kentucky
6 Lights do not consume more energy when they are first turned on. Energy basicsLights do not consume more energy when they are first turned on.Includes high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting.Pay the price for improved energy efficiency!The operating cost over the lifetime of a light fixture can far exceed the original purchase price.
7 Fundamentals of lightLumens—A measure of the perceived power of light.Constant output regardless of distance from source.Foot-candle—One lumen of light distributed over a square foot area.Depends on the distance from the light source.Does not hold for focused fixtures like flood lamps.Can be measured using light meter.
8 Lighting has many metrics. Lighting comparisonLighting has many metrics.60-watt incandescent ~ 850 lumens (100 CRI) ~ 14 lpw efficacy32-watt T8 fluorescent ~ 2,800 lumens (83 CRI) ~ 88 lpw400-watt metal halide ~ 24,000 lumens (65 CRI) ~ 60 lpw400-watt high-pressure sodium ~ 45,000 lumens (22 CRI) ~ 112 lpw
9 Incandescent / halogen 90% heat and 10% light (10 to 17 lumens per watt)Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 establishes higher minimum efficiency standards for incandescent reflector lamps (R lamps).Parabolic Aluminized Reflector (PAR#) lampsBR# (Bulged) and ER# (Ellipsoidal)# —the diameter of the widest part of the lamp in eighths of an inch (R20 = 20/8 = 2.5" diameter)EISA applies to > 2.25 " diameter
10 Incandescent / halogen Flood lightsBeam angle encompasses that part of the beam that varies from peak | brightness down to 50% of that intensity as measured in a plane through the nominal beam centerline.New halogen bulbs offer up to 30% energy savings, instant on, no mercury, 100 CRI, and compliance with EISA 2007.Philips Halogena® Energy Saver/Energy Advantage (3,000 hrs)Sylvania Halogen SuperSaver® (1,000 hrs)GE Edison™ (2,500 hrs)Source: Philips Lighting
11 Fluorescent Historical timeline 1838—Michael Faraday’s glow tubes 1850s—Glass-blower Heinrich Geissler1880s—Alexandre E. Becquerel coated tubes1893—Nikola Tesla induction tubes1896—Thomas Edison patented x-ray lamp1890s—Daniel McFarlane Moore1901—Peter Cooper Hewitt mercury vapor lamp1927—Edmund Germer patent1936—GE’s George E. Inman patent1938—First commercial fluorescent tubes
12 Fluorescent Nomenclature (FxxT#) F—fluorescentFxx—wattage (rapid start) or length (instant start)T- tubular; U—curved/bentCircline—circleT#—diameter in eighths of an inchBallast Factor (BF)—ratio of output compared to reference ballast (not energy efficiency measure)Affects both watts and lumensRanges from 0.6 to 1.3Fluorescent light emission is a chain reaction.
13 Fluorescent T8 Types (Generations) Type Name Watts Lumens CRI Life (hrs, 000s)1G700 Series, Basic32 W2,80075-7815-202G800 Series2,850 -3,00082-8624-303GSuper, HO2, ,2004GReduced Wattage, Energy Savers23 W 25 W 28 W 30 W2,000 2,400 2,750 2,850Temp. sensitive, Instant start only
14 FluorescentSuper T8 lamps, with high-efficiency ballasts, are high-lumen (>3000 versus 2,850 standard) and extended life (>24,000 versus 20,000 hours standard) products.Only saves energy when combined with a lower ballast factor ballast.T5 series (good for indirect lighting like suspended lighting).TypeInitial LumensWattsBallast FactorFixture LumensFixture WattsLPWT82,950330.852,4962889Super T83,200340.782696TypeInitial LumensWattsLPWLifeT52,90028 W10424,000 hoursT5HO5,00054 W93
15 FluorescentT8 versus T5T5s (smaller diameter and shorter) not interchangeable with T8s.Six F32T8s equivalent to four F54T5HO.T5s have lower mercury content than T8s.T5 lumen maintenance better at higher ambient temperatures but worse in cold.Holophane IntelliBay™ & IntelliVue™Lithonia I-BEAM™ SystemSource: RPI Lighting Research Center
16 Four-lamp T12 versus T8 Fixtures FluorescentReplace existing T12 fluorescent lamps with T8 fluorescent lamps (up to 30% savings).Start modesProgrammed start (in series)Long preheat shuts down after start (up to 50,000 cycles).Can be wired in parallelRapid start (in series)Simultaneous preheat stays on all the time (15,000 to 20,000 cycles).Identified by 2-wires from ballast to each end of lamp.Instant start (in parallel)No-preheat; high-voltage start (10,000 to 15,000 cycles).Identified by 1-wire from ballast to each end of lamp.Not good with occupancy sensors (<30 minute burn).Four-lamp T12 versus T8 FixturesLamp TypeFixture WattsFixture LumensLPWF32T121489,12062F32T811310,60094
17 Fluorescent Fluorescent ballasts Magnetic (60 Hz) Core and coilElectronic (20 to 60 kHz)10% to 15% more efficientNEMA Premium® Ballasts even betterAll ballasts consume power even without lamps (2-lamp example).Electronic consumes 6 to 12 watts loaded and 3 to 7 watts open circuit.Magnetic consumes 18 to 20 watts loaded and 6 to 10 watts open circuit.Regulatory driver for electronic ballasts (T8 and T5 lamps)No magnetic ballasts manufactured for replacement after June 2010.2009 DOE Energy Regulations—Beginning July 14, 2012, these regulations effectively eliminate most 4-ft T12, 8-ft (F96) T12 lamps, and 700 series (1st generation) T8 lamps
18 Fluorescent Metal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent for High-bay Probe start (PS) MH with low lumen maintenance (<65%) is best target for replacement.EISA2007 imparts higher performance standards for PS MH.The lumen maintenance of metal halides can decrease to 45% during its lifetime, whereas fluorescents maintain 90% to 95% in optimal conditions.ComparisonOne PS MH with 20,000 EOL lumens at 320 system wattsSix F32T8 with 18,000 EOL lumens at 220 system wattsRemember—lumen output of fluorescents declines with heat/cold.
19 Fluorescent Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL) You get the same or more light output (lumens) with a 75% energy reduction and over six times the rated life!Up to 9,000 lumen output at 120 watts (PL-H high 4-pin)Energy savings far outweigh difference in lamp price.Power factor is typically 0.6, but power savings far outweighs low power factor.Issue of mercury content can be addressed.Use reflector flood CFLs (R-CFLs) in recessed can lights.Consider aluminum reflector CFL PAR lamps.GlobesCandelabraSource: NREL
20 Fluorescent Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL) Twister Single, double (T), triple (TR), quadruple (Q) twin-tube (turns)Integral ballast screw-inModular external ballast pin-basedGxx where xx is pin center-to-center dimension (G23 has 23mm dimension)G23q where “q” means quad-pin baseG23d-x where “d-x” means the number of tubes (turns)2-pin with integral starter requires magnetic preheat ballast4-pin (quad) with external starter usually electronic ballast
21 Fluorescent Induction (electrodeless) lighting High-frequency magnetron microwave power generator, magnetic field coupling device (antenna), and phosphor coated tube.Up to 100,000 hour rated lamp lifeLumen maintenance 70% at 60,000 hoursEfficacy of 70 to 75 lumens per wattBest applications have high labor cost.Parking garagesCold-storage roomsInaccessible roadway tunnels and underpassesIllumination of roadway signs and inaccessible advertisement boardsLighting over stairs or escalator wellsOpen mall atriums or ceilings in "big box" retail areasPole-mounted luminaires for dusk-to-dawn illumination on a campusIndustry, petrochemical, and offshore applicationsSource: Osram Endura/Sylvania IcetronTM Electrodeless Lamp
22 High Intensity Discharge Low Pressure SodiumMost energy efficient lighting sourceNot an arc source, so no glare0 to 20 CRIHigh Pressure SodiumArc source with (20 to 65 CRI)310 W and 360 W replacements exist for 400 WElectronic ballasts 5 to 20 W versus 50 to 70 W magnetic
23 High Intensity Discharge Metal HalideArc source with 60 to 95 CRIQuartz or ceramic transparent tubesCeramic (polycrystalline alumina—PCA) offers better lumen maintenance, color rendering (95 versus 65 CRI), and color stability.Can operate on HPS ballasts (direct lamp replacement).Smaller Size <150W HID BallastsGenerally 50% smaller in size (3" x 1.3" x 1.1") and lighter weight than standard magnetic ballastsSelf-ballasted PAR30LN and PAR38 (1,200 initial lumens) CMH lamps replace 74W and 120W halogen bulbsSource: Osram-Sylvania
24 High Intensity Discharge Sustained arc vs. fluorescent phosphor emissionStrike time (minutes)TypeWattsLumensLumen MaintenanceLPWCRILife (hrs)Mercury Vapor*1,000 W47,50065%304024,000Low Pressure Sodium135 W22,000>95%1501018,000High Pressure Sodium400 W45,00075%8524,000+Metal Halide**452 W40,00070%6520,000*Ballasts banned by EPAct **Position dependentMVLPSHPSMH ProbeMH PulseWarm up4-77-151-42-15Restrike3-610.5-15-202-8
25 High Intensity Discharge Radio Frequency LightingLuxim LiFi™ or Light Emitting Plasma™ (LEP)An ac/dc converter generates an RF signal that is transmitted by a special cable to a quartz lamp embedded in a dielectric material.Pemco Lighting Products STA luminaire273 system watts23,000 initial lumens5,500K CCT/80 CRI50,000 hour rated lifeDimmable to 20%Source: Luxim
26 Solid state lighting Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Electrical current driver circuit instead of ballast.Relatively low lumens per watt (30 to 35 lpw) historically, but now 45 to 60 lpw.Long life; years, not hours.70% lumen maintenance at 50,000 hours of operation.Frequent switching does not affect rated life for LEDs as it does for fluorescents.Directional nature of LED results in very high luminaire efficacy.Very compact and low-profile.Nothing to “break.”No abrupt failure mode.Source: NIST
27 Solid state lighting Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Instant on (no warm-up time required).Does generate harmonics, but no reported problems.Some built-in surge and noise protection.Expensive initial cost.Heat sensitive.Exit SignsAnnual operating costs of $5 compared to $30 to $40 for incandescent or fluorescent.Compatible with battery backup (traffic lights).Source: stock.xchng
28 Lighting controls Occupancy sensors Daylighting Skylights/lightpipes, clerestory windows, or roof monitors.Energy savings can range from about $0.25/ft2 to $0.50/ft2, depending on the building type, location, office area plan, and local cost of energy.Photosensor layout is important.Source: LightLouver LLCOccupancy sensorsUltrasonic has wider range than infrared but is prone to false positives.Can shorten life of fluorescents with instant start ballast.$30 to $150 cost.2-year payback is normal.
29 Lighting controls Dimming A solid-state dimmer works by using silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs).Radio frequency interference (RFI) can be a problem.Greatly increases bulb life for incandescent/halogens.Requires special dimming ballast for fluorescents.3-wire, 2-wire, or 4-wire.Energy savings fairly linear with fluorescents.Continuous or bi-level dimmingHID lighting limited to 50% to 60% dimming.Two-level for magnetic ballasts (non-linear energy savings).Continuous for electronic ballasts (energy savings linear).Lamp life degrades if dimming to less than 60% level.
30 Lighting controls Digital Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) A royalty-free, non-proprietary, two-way, open and interoperable digital protocol.The Gateway broadcasts commands to all digital ballasts across the signal cabling that connects the ballasts in parallel.A ballast only responds when the message contains its specific address.Sixteen programmable scenarios and groups stored in the ballast.
32 Lighting maintenanceNine components of a good lighting maintenance program*:Group relampingKnow your equipmentFocusing and adjustmentVerify lamp types and wattageVerify color temperatureConfirm that everything is in working orderWatch for compatibility issuesGet rid of dirtDo not forget exterior lighting*"Everything You Need to Know About Maintaining Your Lighting System," by Jean Sundin, founder of Office for Visual Interaction, Inc.
33 Lighting maintenanceGroup relamping recommended at 60% to 80% of rated life.Every 2 to 3 years for 20,000 hour fluorescents.Can be 30% to 40% cheaper to group relamp due to labor savings.Easier to schedule and outsource than spot relamping.Reduces improper mixing of different types of lamps.Normally done outside working hours.Lighting failure modesHeatVoltage transientsVibrationBad electrical connectionImproper cycling
34 The Business Solutions Toolkit Reduce energy expenditures with free, online toolsEnergy benchmark data by business segmentEfficiency recommendations by business segmentLighting, motor and other energy calculatorsFacility energy assessment… plus moreGet energy answers with live Web resources“Ask an Expert” service supplies direct answers to energy questionsSearchable Energy Library and News resourcesMonthly electronic newsletter delivered to your box
35 How to access the Toolkit Links found on the Pacific Power websiteCan access direct at pacificpower.net/toolkitRegister to use the Toolkit and you will receive our monthly newsletter
38 Pacific Power FinAnswer Express FinAnswer Express is for commercial and industrial customers– either retrofit or new constructionPre-calculated incentives for high-efficiency lighting and HVAC equipmentCustom incentives may be available for other types of equipmentIncentive process (pre-purchase agreement or post purchase application) varies by technology and project typePlease understand the process before you purchase!Check our website for on-line forms plus trade allies available to helpAlso check for state and federal tax incentives at dsireusa.org
39 Pacific Power Energy FinAnswer Applies to comprehensive commercial or industrial projects– either new construction or commercial retrofit*Lighting and non-lighting projects can be packagedStarts with an energy analysis to identify options and highest priority measuresCommissioning is required for most measuresIncentives are project-basedPayable by one-time lump sum check, per projectIncentive agreement must be signed before equipment is purchasedCheck our website for participation steps and online forms*Commercial retrofit projects must be at least 20,000 sq. ft. to be eligible