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BASICS OF LAMP TECHNOLOGY Created by the U.S. Department of Energy Rebuild America Business Partners and Philips Lighting Company.

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Presentation on theme: "BASICS OF LAMP TECHNOLOGY Created by the U.S. Department of Energy Rebuild America Business Partners and Philips Lighting Company."— Presentation transcript:

1 BASICS OF LAMP TECHNOLOGY Created by the U.S. Department of Energy Rebuild America Business Partners and Philips Lighting Company

2 Lamp Terminology Lumen (lm): Total quantity of light produced independent of direction Candlepower (cp): Quantity of light emitted in a specific direction Illumination: Quantity of light falling on a surface measured in footcandles Footcandle (fc): Amount of lumens falling on an area (lm/sf)

3 Lamp Terminology Lux (lx): Metric equivalent of the footcandle. 1 fc ~ 10 lx Color Temperature (Kelvin, K) The apparent color of a lamp expressed in Kelvin 3000K ~ Warm White 4100K ~ Cool White Color Rendering Index (CRI) Measure from of how well a lamp renders color based on incandescent being 100 (best).

4 Lamp Terminology Lumen Maintenance: How well a lamp maintains light output over life. Usually shown as a percentage.

5 Lamp Sizing Based on diameter at widest point All lamp types follow this format Sizes are described in 1/8 increments Examples: A-19 = 19/8 = 2-3/8 diameter T-8 = 8/8 = 1 diameter PAR-38 = 38/8 = 4-3/4 diameter

6 Basic Lamp Types Incandescent Fluorescent High Intensity Discharge Mercury Vapor Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Low Pressure Sodium Induction

7 Incandescent Lamps First electric light source ever used Light produced by heating a metal (filament) Utilizes various bases as determined by application Starts instantly Requires no re-strike time Available for operation at various voltages

8 Types of Incandescent Lamps Standard Halogen

9 Standard Lamps Yellow in appearance Most often found in residential applications Poor lumen maintenance due to blackening of bulb wall Applications: General lighting Task lighting Accent lighting Flood lighting Specialty lighting

10 Halogen Lamps Provides white light Up to 50% more efficient than standard incandescent Up to 2.5 times the life than standard incandescent Bulb walls remain virtually clean due to halogen process Improved lumen maintenance

11 Halogen Process Halogen process provides the longer life and higher lumen maintenance Tungsten evaporates from the filament and condenses on bulb wall Tungsten atom combines with the halogen atom to form tungsten-halogen molecule Floating molecule comes in the vicinity of the filament Very hot filament evaporates halogen Tungsten re-deposited on filament

12 Halogen Lamp Applications Display and accent lighting General lighting Task lighting Floodlighting

13 Incandescent Lamp Shapes Arbitrary Bulged Reflector Elliptical Reflector Globe Arbitrary Bulged Reflector Elliptical Reflector Globe A-19 BR-40 ER-30 G-30 PAR-38 R-30 T-10 Parabolic Aluminized Reflector Reflector Tubular Parabolic Aluminized Reflector Reflector Tubular

14 Types of Fluorescent Lamps Pre-Heat Slimline Rapid Start High Output Very High Output Compact

15 Pre-Heat Lamps Bi-pin base Utilize starter circuit Preheats electrodes in lamp before starting Starts in 2 to 3 seconds Example: Old fluorescent desk lamp -- Hold down button to start F15T8, F30T8 (these are not the energy- efficient T8s)

16 Slimline Lamps Single pin base Lamps start instantly Ballast provides high voltage Found on 8 lamp type -- F96T12

17 Rapid Start Lamps Most common lamp type Bi-pin base Cathodes continuously heated Lamps start in 1 to 2 seconds with rapid start ballast Lamps start instantly with instant start ballast F32T8 is an example

18 High Output Recessed double contact base Rapid start circuits Operate at 800 milliamperes Produce 40% more light as regular T12 Typically used in high ceiling and outdoor applications F96T12/HO is a typical 8 lamp found

19 Very High Output Recessed double contact base Rapid start circuits Operate at 1500 milliamperes Produce twice as much light as regular T12 Typically used in high ceiling and outdoor applications F96T12/VHO is a typical 8 lamp found

20 Energy-Efficient T12 Lamps Interchangeable with standard T12 lamps Operate at 15 to 20% lower wattage (i.e. 40 vs. 34) Produce approximately 12% less lumens More efficient than standard lamps Will not operate to specification in temperatures below 60°F

21 Compact Fluorescent Lamps Energy-efficient replacement for many incandescent lamps Up to 75% energy savings About 4 times the efficacy Up to 13 times the life Operates similarly to standard fluorescent lamps Ballast required - internal or external High color rendering Excellent lumen maintenance - up to 90%

22 Compact Fluorescent Lamps Screw-in lamps Installed directly into incandescent sockets Integral electronic ballast in base Various sizes, shapes and wattages K Dimmable available

23 Compact Fluorescent Lamp Shapes Universal A-Lamp Reflector Globe Universal A-Lamp Reflector Globe Table Outdoor Specialty

24 Compact Fluorescent Lamps Plug-in lamps Require new sockets Independent ballast system Various sizes, shapes and wattages Screw-in adapters available for some applications 82 CRI and various color temperatures Some are dimmable

25 Compact Fluorescent Lamp Shapes Double Tube Quad Tube Triple Tube Low Wattage Double Tube High Wattage

26 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps Consist of 3 lamp types Mercury Vapor Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium Gases in lamp are under high pressure

27 Mercury Vapor Lamps Oldest of the HID family: Introduced in 1950 Least efficient of the HID family: LPW 12, ,000 hour life Blue-green color light Applications Industrial Parking Areas Landscape Roadways Security

28 Metal Halide Lamps Introduced in 1964 Superior color rendering over mercury vapor Increased efficacy over mercury vapor: LPW 6,000 to 20,000 hours life Applications Industrial Commercial Flood Lighting Sports Street/Parking Lighting Retail

29 High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps Introduced in 1965 Most efficient of HID family: LPW Poor color rendering Excellent life: 10, ,000 hours Applications Industrial Warehouses Roadway Security Flood Lighting Parking lots

30 Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps Lamp gases are under low pressure Highest efficacy of any light source: up to 183 LPW Monochromatic yellow light All objects appear gray Application Security Areas where high efficacy required and color rendition not a concern

31 Operating Characteristics of HID & LPS

32 Induction Lighting 100,000 hour life Operates in temperature range of -30°F to 130°F High color rendering Available in various colors Operates using a magnetic field Vibration resistant

33 Induction Lighting High power factor Cooler operation than HID sources Applications: Problematic maintenance areas Security lighting Low bay Flood lighting Landscape lighting General lighting

34 Range of Light Output (Lumens)

35 Range of Rated Life (Hours)

36 Lamp Efficacy


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